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The Rule We use relative clauses to describe or give extra information about something we have already mentioned. We often use relative pronouns (e.g. who, where, that, which, whose) to introduce relative clauses.
Function A clause is a group of words containing a verb. Relative clauses are a way of giving more information about a person, thing, place, event, etc. We often use them to avoid repeating information. The Uros people make fires. Their fires are used for cooking. = The Uros people make fires, which they use for cooking
Relative pronouns Which is used for things (never for people). Who (for people) That (for a thing or a person) Where (for a place) Whose (for possession) When (for a time).
Defining relative clauses They are clauses that you need in the sentence for it to make sense. The people who live here have had the same kind of lifestyle for hundreds of years. (The people have had the same kind of lifestyle for hundreds of years). *There are no commas before and after the clause.
Non-defining relative clauses We use those to give extra information, which isn’t absolutely necessary. We use commas to separate them from the rest of the sentence, unless they come at the end of the sentence, when we use a comma and a full stop.
Examples That grey thing, which you can see on the roof there, isn’t very traditional. This is Sophie, whose blog you’ve been reading.
We can use that instead of who or which in defining clauses, not non-defining clauses.
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