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Direct Speech Reported Speech Bill said (to me), ‘I’m happy.’ Bill said (that) he was happy. ‘She likes me.’ He told me (that) she liked him.
tell me/ us/ him/ her/ them/ Ann I said nothing to him. say smth (to smb) tell smb smth
Present Simple - Past Simple are - were am / is - was live - lived go - went
Past Simple - Past Perfect was /were - had been went - had gone
Present Perfect - Past Perfect have been - had been has gone - had gone
Present Past Continuous - Continuous am /is going - was going are going - were going
Past Past Continuous - Continuous / Past Perfect Continuous was/were going - had been going
Future Simple - Future in the Past will go - would go
Modal verbs can - could may - might must – had to must (приказ или совет) - must should, would, could, had to, mustn’t, might, had better, used to – не меняются!
Past Perfect – (had gone) Past Perfect Continuous – (had been going) Остаются без изменения!
Если глагол в главном предложении стоит в Present Simple, Present Perfect, Future Simple (say, tell, etc), то глагол в придаточном предложении остается в том же времени, что он был и в прямой речи.
Reported Orders/ Commands She said to him, ‘Come at 5’. She told him to come at 5. He said to me, ‘Don’t go there.’ He told me not to go there. tell smb + (not) to V
Reported Questions ‘Why did you buy these shoes?’ asked Jo. Jo asked me why I had bought those shoes. ‘Are you going out?’ asked Ann. Ann asked if/whether I was going out.
Reported Speech: time and place changes Direct speech Reported speech here there now/ then/ at the moment at that moment tomorrow the next/ the following day next week/month the following week yesterday the day before/ the previous day last week the week before
Reported speech: pronoun and determiner changes Direct speech Reported speech my his/her this/that +noun the/that (this dog-the/that dog) this/that +verb it (This is a…/He said it was a…) these/those +n the/those these/those +v they (These are …/He said they were...) V + these/those them (…to buy these./He said he was going to buy them.)