Описание презентации по отдельным слайдам:
The Crown Jewels, Symbols of the British Monarchy
Objectives To study the role of monarchy as the form of government in history of the British Empire. To observe the long and fascinating tradition of coronations in England. To observe the importance of the Crown Jewels to the British Monarchy. To explore the symbolism of each regalia object, their cultural, historical and political significance and functions. To study the role of the Tower of London in history of the crown treasures. To compare the British Crown Jewels to regalia of the Russian sovereigns and the Imperial regalia of the Holy Roman Empire (later Austro-Hungarian Empire).
The British empire and Monarchy The United Kingdom is the most famous of the currently existing monarchies. The successor of the British Empire, the largest and most powerful in history, “the empire on which the sun never sets”. Current monarch since the 6th, February 1952 is Queen Elizabeth II whose coronation on the 2nd, June 1953 was the last in nearly 1000 years of British Monarchy.
The crown jewels the royal coronation regalia The main symbols of the monarchy. Belong to the sovereign and pass to the next sovereign. Symbolize the right to rule, to lead and to protect the nation, the power and continuity of the monarchy. Stand for centuries of English history and have been in use since at least 1660.
Hystory of The crown jewels The English coronation ceremony dates back to the 8th century and has taken place at Westminster Abbey since 1066. Precious ceremonial object (the Regalia) are worn during the coronation ceremony and at various other state functions. Kept at the Tower of London since 1303. The original regalia were destroyed by order of Oliver Cromwell following the execution of King Charles I in 1649 during the English Civil War (1642-1651). New Regalia ordered by King Charles II after the Restoration of monarchy in 1660 for his coronation on the 23rd, April 1661.
Regalia in detail The present display of the Crown Jewels was opened by Her Majesty The Queen at the Jewel House in the Waterloo Block of the Towel of London in 1994. Crowns of Sovereigns, Consorts and Princes of Wales, both past and present, sceptres, orbs, swords, rings, spurs, armills, vestments and the royal robe.
Regalia in detail Oldest The oldest piece of the Regalia is the 12th century gold Anointing Spoon. Three steel coronation swords survived the destructions of the pre-Civil War Regalia in 1649-1650 too.
Regalia in detail St Edward’s Crown St Edward’s Crown (1661) with which the new sovereign is crowned by the Archbishop of Canterbury during the coronation ceremony. 2.23 kg, gold, 444 semi-precious stones.
Regalia in detail Imperial State Crown
Regalia in detail Imperial State Crown The Imperial State Crown (dating back to the 17th century, remade in 1937 for King George VI, almost a replica of Queen Victoria’s State Crown of 1838). 1.06 kg, 31.5 cm in height, gold, 2,868 diamonds, 273 pearls, 17 sapphires, 11 emeralds and 5 rubies. The Second (Lesser) Star of Africa (317 carats) cut from the celebrated Cullinan Diamond (given to King Edward VII in 1907). Worn after the Coronation when the monarch leaves Westminster Abbey and at the annual State Opening of Parliament.
Regalia in detail two sceptres and the orb During the coronation the monarch bears the Sceptre with the Cross (1661) in his right hand. From 1905 with the First (Great) Star of Africa (Cullinan I), 530 carats (106 g). The Sceptre with the Dove (1661) borne in the left hand at the time the Sovereign is actually crowned. The Sovereign's Orb (1661) is borne in the Sovereign's left hand for a part of the coronation.
Regalia in detail Queens consort crown The final consort’s platinum crown for the late Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother (1900-2002), consort of King George VI (crowned in 1937). Legendary Koh-i-Noor (‘Mountain of Light’) diamond, presented to Queen Victoria in 1850, cut in 1852 to 106 carats.
Regalia of the Russian tsars and emperors The largest Russian Great Imperial Crown (1762) with a 398.72 carats red spinel. The Imperial Orb (1762) of Catherine II the Great. The Imperial Sceptre (1771) with the Orlov diamond (189.62 carats). Kept at Diamond Fund of the Kremlin Armory Museum in Moscow.
Significance of the regalia The Royal coronation regalia of various nations represent far more than gold and unique precious stones. They stand for centuries of the great national history and symbolize the Sovereign’s power and responsibility.
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