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We can report people’s words by using direct speech or reported speech. “I’m tired!”, Helen said. Helen said (that) she was tired.
Changes in reported speech
Reporting the direct speech into the indirect one we should know the Sequence of tenses. Sequence of tenses – if the verb in the main clause /главное предложение/ is in the past tense - the other verbs are in one of the past tenses too.
Present Simple I'm a teacher. Past Simple He said (that) he was a teacher Present Progressive I'm having lunch with my parents. Past Progressive He said (that) he was having lunch with his parents. Past Simple I bought a new car. Past Perfect He said (that) he had bought a new car. Future Simple I will go to the cinema. Future-in-the-Past He said (that) he would go to the cinema. Present Perfect I've been to France three times. Past Perfect He said (that) he had been to France three times.
NOTE: modal verbs could, would, might and should do not change.
now then/at that moment today/tonight that day/that night here there this/these that/those tomorrow the following day/the next day, the day after yesterday the previous day/the day before (a year) ago (a year) before/earlier
Differences between TELL and SAY TELL is always followed by a direct object /прямое дополнение В.п./ or someone’s name. Harry told me (that) he was hungry. Harry told Sarah (that) he was cold. SAY is followed by a subordinate clause /придаточное предложение/. She said (that) she was hungry. He said (that) he was feeling tired.
Reporting special questions (questions beginning with interrogative pronouns/ вопросительные местоимения/)
Direct Speech Indirect Speech "What did you do yesterday?” Tell me what you had done yesterday. "When will you come home?” Tell me when you would come home. "Who won the game?" Tell me who had won the game.
Reporting general questions /общие вопросы/
Direct Speech Indirect Speech "Will the weather be fine tomorrow?” Tell me if the weather would be fine the following day. "Did you have tea or coffee for breakfast?” Tell me if you had had tea or coffee for breakfast.
Now, please, dear boys and girls, do the following exercises on Reported Questions. Do them on your computers in MS Word program. After you have finished, we will check your answers.
Read the sentences and write them in the indirect form. 1. Nancy asked her mother, "What is the weather going to be, rainy or sunny?" 2. The teacher asked her class, "Who will take part in the competition?". 3. Mary asked her friend, "What did you do during your winter holidays?". 4. Lucy asked her new friend, "When were you born?" 5. The tourist asked a policeman, "How can I get to the centre of the city?" 6. Wife asked her husband, "When will you come home from work?" 7. The mother asked her children, "Who will help me to lay the table?"
Read the sentences and write them in the indirect form. 1. Kate asked her little brother, "Have you washed your face and hands, Jimmy?" 2. The mother asked her daughter, "Do you want to have tea, Dolly?" 3. The man asked a policeman, "Shall I turn to the right or to the left to get to the museum, officer?" 4. Robert asked his friend, "Is the wind strong?" 5. Ann asked her grandmother, "Will you take me to my Aunt, Granny?"
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