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The Tower of London made by O.V.Gritsyuk Tosno,Russia 2015
Welcome to the Tower of London!
What is the Tower? The Tower of London is the fortress in the historic centre of London, on the north bank of the river Thames.
The Tower has been a fortress, a royal palace, a royal treasury, a prison, a zoo, a mint, a place of execution. Today it is best known as a historical museum.
History of the Tower Of London The Tower of London is one of the most famous and well- preserved historical buildings in the world . The construction of the Tower was initiated in 1070 by William the Conqueror, shortly after his victory at Hastings in 1066. The Tower was built to enforce the power of the Norman king over the newly conquered land. It became the most awe- inspiring, and frightening structure to the Anglo-Saxon people who were trying to get used to the rule of their new Norman king . William the Conqueror
The fortress was originally a temporary wooden building which was replaced later by the White Tower. Over time the complex was expanded into a stronghold with about twenty-one towers surrounded by two concentric rings of defensive walls and a moat.
One of the Yeoman Warders is also the Ravenmaster ,whose responsibility is to maintain the welfare of the ravens of the Tower of London. It is believed that ravens bring good luck to Britain and a legend says that if the ravens ever leave the Tower, the Tower and the monarchy will crumble. That`s why the ravens are carefully looked after. The warders comment that the "real beefeaters" at the Tower are the ravens, which receive a daily ration of beef. The head entrance of the 'Tower of London' is located in the 'Byward Tower' where you will see the famous 'Beefeaters' or 'Yeoman Warders'. The nickname Beefeaters is more likely to have originated from the time when the Yeomen Warders at the Tower were paid part of their salary with chunks of beef. In principle they are responsible for looking after any prisoners at the Tower and safeguarding the British crown jewels, but in practice they act as tour guides .
There is also a water -gate entrance to the Tower. It is the notorious Traitor’s Gate. Here, prisoners were brought into the fortress by boat.
The oldest part of the fortress is the so-called White Tower, which was completed in 1097. It was the tallest building in London at 27.4 meters .The tower was whitewashed during the reign of Henry III, which gave the tower's facade its white appearance. Ever since the tower has been known as White Tower.
The White Tower Dungeon - the 'Little Ease' In the basement of the White Tower there is the notorious dungeon known as the "Little Ease". This terrifying chamber was built in the thickness of the wall and measured just 1.2m square . The helpless prisoner of the 'Little Ease' could neither sit, stand, nor lie, but was compelled to serve his sentence in a cramped and crouching position.
Bloody Tower The tower became known as the Bloody Tower in the mid-16th century because it was believed to be the place where the Princes in the Tower were murdered by their uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester. The legend says they were two sons of Edward the 5th . After his death one of the princes should have become the King, but he was just 12 years old. There were still a few persons, who wanted to get the throne, so the boys’ uncle Richard hid them in the Tower. And… the boys disappeared. None could find them. And their uncle became the King Richard the 3d . In 1674 during the repairing works the bones were found inside the stairs. In a few years it was announced that they belonged to the boys-princes . But it’s not the end of the story. Nowadays beefeaters tell about two boys-ghosts, worn white clothes, which appear from the wall and then disappear inside. It is just one of the blood-chilling Tower’s stories.
This meadow was the Execution place. Lady Jane Grey was beheaded here. She was only 17 and she became the victim of the political games. It happened nine days after she was crowned Queen ,that`s why she was called the Queen for nine days. It is said that the ghost of Lady Jane Grey wanders through the rooms and corridors of the Tower of London. This touching circular memorial with the horrible list of names of those, who were also beheaded here. Tower Green
Anne Boleyn, the most celebrated of the wives of Henry VIII was beheaded on Tower Green in 1536. Her ghost has frequently been seen both on the Green and more spectacularly in the Chapel Royal situated in the White Tower. People say she is wandering there at midnight holding her head in the hands.
This the Queen’s House. The Tower’s keys have been kept at the Queen’s House for 700 years. The Key Ceremony is an old Tower’s tradition, observed every day. The exact origin of the Ceremony is obscure: In 1826 the Duke of Wellington (then Constable of the Tower) ordered that the time of the Ceremony be fixed at ten o'clock each night, so as to ensure that his soldiers were all inside the Tower before the gates were locked. At 8 a.m. the Master of Ceremonies opens the Tower Gates and the doors of the towers. At 9.50 p.m. the Guards’ escort gets together at the Traitor’s Gate. A traditional dialogue sounds: “-Who’s coming?” - The Queen’s keys are. - Come in, the Queen’s Keys. The Master of Ceremonies, with a candle in one hand and the keys in another, locks the Gates and then all the doors. The keys are brought to the Queen’s House and then the lights-out signal sounds. This ceremony was never interrupted even during the Great Patriotic War.
The Ceremony of Lillies and Roses King Henry VI was the founder of Eton College and King's College, Cambridge. The King's birthday has long been celebrated by both his Colleges as Founders Day and since 1905 two Kin's Scholars of Eton have laid a sheaf of its white lilies on his tomb on that day. In 1947, the Provost and Scholars at King's College, Cambridge, secured the permission of the King and the Constable to associate King Henry's sister foundation with the ceremony. The white roses of Kings, in their purple ribbon, have since been laid alongside the Eton lilies, in their pale blue, on the Founder's stone.
After 1660 the Tower became the permanent home of the Crown Jewels and put on public display. The Crown Jewels are shown in the Jewel House. They are well looked after. Once they were stolen by a man called Colonel Blood. But he was caught just as he was leaving the Tower. Thomas Blood didn't have to go to prison. The king gave him a pension instead. It was in 1671. Crown Jewels
Unfortunately, our excursion is going to finish. There are so many interesting things left to tell about. Ladies and gentlemen! Look at the Tower once more. It’s an alive evidence of the centuries’ history. Come to the Tower and you will get into the ancient times. And maybe it will make you believe in ghosts. Thank you for your attention. Goodluck!
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