The history of the theater
Types of theater
The ancient theater
Opera and ballet
Theater in Western Europe in the middle Ages
Theater in France
Theater in the UK
Theater in the United States
The comparison of the theaters in Russia and abroad
The theatre is an interesting art, its specificity lies in the depiction of events that would occur directly before the viewer; the viewer becomes the witness and accomplice, which determines the special power of the ideological and emotional impact of theater. Years pass, centuries, and theatre is the most favorite and popular art form.
Theatre — a spectacular art form, which is a synthesis of various arts — literature, music, dance, vocals, visual arts and others, and has its own specifics: the reflection of reality, conflicts, characters, and their interpretation and evaluation, approval of those or other ideas here is through dramatic action, the main bearer of which is the actor.
Types of theatre.
Drama theatre in contrast to other types of performing arts, the performance at the drama theatre is based on a literary work or drama on scenarios and improvisation.
Opera is a synthetic kind of theater, in which dramatic action is closely fused with vocals and orchestral music; Opera is often present and dance.
Ballet — a form of dramatic art; a play, the content of which is embodied in the musical and choreographic images.
Puppet theatre— one of the varieties of puppet art, which includes cartoon and not cartoon animated film, puppet pop art and the art of puppet television program.
Pantomime is the art of creating an artistic image through facial expressions and the plasticity of the human body, without using words.
The history of theatre.
The theatre was born of the oldest hunting, agricultural and other ritual celebrations, in allegorical form reproduced the phenomena of nature and labor processes. However, the ritual action itself had not yet been the theater: how to find art, theater starts where there is viewer - it involves not only the collective efforts in the process of creation of the work, but also the collective perception and its aesthetic purpose theater reaches only in the case if the stage action resonates with spectators. On early stages of development of the theatre - in folk festivals singing, dancing, music and dramatic action existed in the unity; in the further development of the theater lost its original sintetizm, formed three main types: drama theatre, opera and ballet, as well as some intermediate forms.
The ancient theatre
Ancient Greek theater was born from the mysteries, dedicated to the gods — patrons of husbandry, first and foremost Dionysus: in the course of festivities dedicated to him the chorus of "satyrs", dressed in goat skins singing songs (praises), the content of which was the myth of the Dionysian circle. From the chorus of satyrs happened and the word "tragedy". Birth year is considered the world theatre 534 BC, when the Athenian poet Vespid during the Great Dionysius, along with the choir used one of the actor-reciter. The reciter, who in the VI century BC. called "hipocrita" (the"defendant" or "commentator"), could engage in dialogue with the choir, to portray throughout the series, various characters in the myths, and thus the dialogue was mixed with elements of acting. Later Aeschylus added to the chorus the second actor-reciter, and Sophocles the third, in the Vth century BC "hypocrite" was able to communicate not only with the choir, but also among themselves, which has made possible dramatic action, independent of the choir, and as a result — transformation of the chorus in Satyr drama.
In those days there were only pieces of two genres — tragedy and Comedy. They were written most often on mythological or historical subjects. All the roles were played by men. The actors were in huge masks and buskins. The scenery was not. Women (not courtesans) are not always and not everywhere was open to view, especially in Comedy, and was sitting, as a rule, separately from men. In Greece the profession of an actor was considered prestigious, and in Rome — the infamous (why the performances of Nero so shocked his entourage).
Famous playwrights of the time: Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, who are called the fathers of Greek tragedy, Aristophanes father of Comedy. In Rome it can be noted comedians Plautus and Seneca, who have worked the works of Euripides.
Theatre of the Renaissance was born in Italy, where longer than in other countries, there were liturgical drama and relatively late, only in the middle of the XV century, came the Italian equivalent of the mystery rapresentazioni sacre. Florence texts for these representations major wrote poets and humanists — Feo Belcari, Luigi Pulci and Lorenzo Medici himself. Passionate about antique literature and philosophy of the humanists at first planted as possible, ancient spirit of the sacred representations, until use in the pagan mystery stories, in particular the myth of Orpheus.
Opera and ballet
During the Renaissance in Italy was born the Opera and ballet.
First, in the mysteries appeared occasionally introduced music later, the music began to accompany all the action. In the middle of the XVI century were popular Pastorals, which were accompanied by choral singing. At the end of the XVI century appeared the works with monophonic singing.
In 1637 in Venice opened the first Opera house.
The first Opera composers was Jacopo Peri, Claudio Monteverdi and others.
The first ballets were staged at court for the entertainment of the courtiers. The choreography was created on the basis of court dances.
Theatre in Western Europe in the middle ages
In the Middle ages the Church became the cradle of a new theatrical art from the Church's liturgical hymns gradually developed spiritual drama, or mystery. At first the mysteries were celebrated only by spiritual persons, Church choirs boys, monks and novices; then they began to participate and the laity. Later the performance of mysteries moved to certain associations and societies. Continued to exist and folk performances, which were performed by superb actors, and their successors, minstrels and instrumentiste: first game was essentially a comic character, the last game was, apparently, mostly allegorical properties. First formed over time farces, carnival games (fastnachtspiele) and swanky and the Commedia Dell'arte, and the last — morality and pastoral. Morality and pastoral, which had partly a scientist, partly a court character, was especially loved by the court and in the houses of noble people; a farce, etc. had spread among the common people was played and artisans. Each of the various forms of theatrical representations of the perceived component parts of the other.
Theatre Of France. "Comédie-Française
Exemplary contemporary French scene — "Comedy Frances" — was founded by Louis XIVth in 1680; it was formed from the connection of three ensembles: the troupe Burgundy hotel, which from 1607 has rented hall of the Brotherhood of the Passion; Moliere's troupe, which after his death (1673) was forced to retire from the Palais Royal theatre, and finally, the troupe Mare; the aim of the Association was to give the actors the possibility of more improvement. The new theatre was given the privilege to put the tragedy and Comedy and was given an annual grant of 12,000 francs; the number of actors was precisely defined; regulate the management of the theater. From the repertoire of Corneille and Racine, with Moliere repertoire created, thus, the French classic stage. Actors called ordinary actors of the king (FR. comédiens ordinaires du roi). In 1689, the troupe built a special room on the street Fossés Saint-Germain (later the Rue de l'ancienne Comédie) and since then became known as the theater "Comedie-française"; in this building the theatre remained until 1770. At first the theater was able to deal with competition, street performances (puppets, acrobats, singers areal) only through police action. Time since 1740 till 1780 was the most brilliant period in the history of the "comédie-française": in this time, the scene was dominated by the dramas of Voltaire and played a number of superb artists like Grandval (FR.)Russian., Lecain, place Bellecour (FR.)Russian., Previl, Mole, Manvel, Brizard, Dugazon, the actress Dumesnil, Kleron, Dangeville, konta, etc. In 1770, the theatre moved to the Tuileries, and in 1782 — in a newly built hall, where now is placed the "Odeon"; in this last building occurred in 1784 the first performance of "the marriage of Figaro." During the revolution the state of the theatre was sad due to the anti-Republican staging plays Laya, both the author and artists were imprisoned and only gradually released.
Theatre in the UK
In England the old national drama disappeared during the revolution; instead, during the Restoration, there appeared the classical drama on the French model with Italian scenery, orchestra and female Actresses at that time in the theater was one of the new lures. Only by David Garrick, and subsequently Kemble appears again on the stage of Shakespeare, albeit in a distorted form. Both Keane and more recently, Irving and Booth — the latter mostly in America — also were primarily interpreters of Shakespeare's plays.In General, modern English theatre not only lost its independence, but often suffers from the lack of any sense, not to mention artistry. His repertoire consists mainly of translations or alterations of French and German plays and novels, absurd melodramas to historical or sentimental spirit and mixed performances with singing, dancing, and firing Bengal lights. The best London theatres, such as the do not hesitate to turn into a pile of Goethe's "Faust" played out to the accompaniment of the orchestra. Even Shakespeare his countrymen rework and "improve" inserts music, ballets and processions.
Theater in the United States
The history of the theatre in the United States begins from the time of the settlement of the North American continent, however, the development of dramatic art has on the colonial period and is based on the Western European theatrical traditions. Contemporary American theater presents the new York Broadway and many regional theater troupes of different styles and genres, professionally engaged in these arts.
Theater in Russia
Russian theater was born and later — only in the second half of the XVII century. However, in the Orthodox Church was taken in the production of individual services in a fiery furnace event and the procession on an ass. These rites occurred not later than the beginning of the XVI century. Clowning, which originated in the eleventh century, was strictly condemned by the Church and was officially banned in 1648 a decree of Alexei Mikhailovich, the city lacked sufficient independence to make their own to arrange performances, similar to the Western European mysteries — the theater in Russia was imported from Western Europe. In 1672 was established the first court theatre, however, lasted only a few years. This time is the emergence of so-called "school of theater" — theater at spiritual educational institutions; the first reference dates back to 1672, when in the Kiev-Mohyla Academy was given the mystery "about Alexis man of God". In 1687 in Moscow was founded the Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy, which was also founded theatre.
The pluses of Russian theater
Theatre of Russia has always been and remains one of the main symbols of the state and its culture. This is the main Russian national theater traditions of the Russian media and the center of world music culture, contributing to the development of theatrical art of the country.
Cons of Russian theater
The lack of acting schools, technology, inability to get into character, to break character, to overcome their complexes, fears , etc., spending their own money on the production and presentation of performances in the absence of income from the theatre, the lack of financial incentive to attract new actors into the troupe, and it follows that the theatre is for potential and current colleagues can not be a priority (everyone needs to earn money and not only playing on stage!) and , therefore, time to theatre is last, after all. Yet we do not have a professional Director, which is also a minus. But we can focus on himself and his own desires and creative imagination that a plus.
The pros and cons of the theatre abroad
Pros: a distraction from the everyday crazy life, contact with the classical repertoire, the ascent of the soul from meeting wonderful, interesting people in the theatre, self-expression and fulfillment on stage, a flight of fancy and implement their creative plans, giving pleasant moments to the audience.
Cons: I think the cons are the same as in Russia.
In theaters people can see many models of human behavior various situations. During the theatrical actions of the main characters have to make decisions that have consequences. The audience at this time unable to evaluate the decisions and actions of the characters, to see where all this might lead. And then, all this can be implemented in real life. For example, do not make the same mistakes that were the heroes. The operation theatres are important for society. It is an example of situations in which it may be everyone. And I think that the importance of theatre in the life of Russian companies and foreign companies plays a huge role. So you can not say that somewhere in the theatre worse. In Russia and abroad, the theater is good.
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