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Quebec is the capital of the Canadian province of Quebec .As of 2011 the city has a population of 516,622, and the metropolitan area has a population of 765,706 making it the second most populous city in Quebec after Montreal, which is about 233 km (145 mi) to the southwest.
The flag and coat of arms of Quebec The Quebec flag. The city flag has been officially adopted on January, 12th 1987. On a blue background of a flag of the city there is a sailing vessel – a yellow frigate symbolizing a name of the city, which was founded by Shamplejnom. Also it symbolizes an importance of shipping routes and a port represented in the city, bordered by the gear of white drawing representing unique fortifications. A sail wind symbolize firmness and boldness of the population.
Coat of arms The coat of arms of Quebec was adopted by order-in-council of the Quebec government on December 9, 1939 by Queen Victoria. The municipal arm from the top to bottom represents a crown (Quebec fortifications are reminders that Shamplejn was founded from another fort at the French Atlantic coast-Brouage in Saintonge), lower on a red background there are 2 gold keys symbolize Quebec as capital of New France and a capital of a province Quebec. Keys are covered with a maple leaf, a symbol of Canada. Then we can see a ship (Quebec as an important seaport) with full sails (a force and bravery symbol), wavy tapes on the other side symbolize the river of St. Lawrence, on tapes there is a motto "Don de Dieu feray valoir“- “a gift of god will bring prosperity”. Don de Dieu - the ship’s name onboard of which S.Shamplejn came. Colors of the arms: Gold - force, firmness, belief, justice, riches, fidelity Red - force, power, resoluteness; Blue - the sovereignty, greatness, clearness, good reputation, knowledge, fidelity; Silver - modesty, cleanliness, mercy, true, a victory
Quebec’s population of 8,028,400 makes up approximately 23.6% of the Canadian national population. Quebec is the second most populated province in Canada. Ontario is the most populated province with 13.5 million people and British Columbia with 4.6 million inhabitants is the next most populated province after Quebec. Quebec is unique in that it’s inhabitants predominantly speak the French language and Fresh is the province’s sole official language.
Quebec City is one of the oldest European settlements in North America. Quebec was founded by Samuel de Champlain, a French explorer and diplomat on July 3, 1608 and at the site of a long abandoned St. Lawrence Iroquoian settlement called Stadacona. Champlain, also called "The Father of New France", served as its administrator for the rest of his life.
Geography Quebec City is located in the Saint Lawrence River valley, on the north bank of the Saint Lawrence River near its meeting with the St. Charles River. The region is low-lying and flat. The river valley has rich, arable soil, which makes this region the most fertile in the province. The Laurentian Mountains lie to the north of the city.
Climate The climate of Quebec City is classified as humid continental. Quebec City experiences four distinct seasons. Summers are warm and occasionally hot, with periods of hotter temperatures which compounded with the high humidity, create a high heat index that belie the average high of 22–25 °C (72–77 °F) and lows of 11–13 °C (52–55 °F). Winters are often cold, windy and snowy with average high temperatures −5 to −8 °C (23 to 18 °F) and lows −13 to −18 °C (9 to 0 °F). Spring and Fall, although short, bring chilly to warm temperatures. Late heat waves as well as "Indian summers" are a common occurrence.
Economy Most jobs in Quebec City are concentrated in public administration, defense, services, commerce, transport and tourism. As the provincial capital, the city benefits from being a regional administrative and services center: apropos, the provincial government is the largest employer in the city, employing 27,900 people as of 2007. CHUQ (the local hospital network) is the city's largest institutional employer, with more than 10,000 employees in 2007. In 2008, the unemployment rate in Quebec City was 4.5%, well below provincial and national averages (7.3% and 6.6%, respectively).
Forests, parks and mountains of Quebec In Quebec, the flora and fauna constitute a valuable part of national heritage and are protected in numerous parks and wildlife reserves. Most of the parks offer multiple services such as pedestrian trails, chalets, small crafts, picnic areas, swimming facilities, bicycle paths. Tourists can see Virginia deer, hare, bear, moose, beaver, grouse. Hunting and fishing are permitted but very well controlled.
GOVERNMENT The current mayor of Quebec City is Regis Labeaum. He was first elected in a special election on December 2, 2007, following the death in office of Andree Boucher, and was subsequently re-elected in the municipal elections of 2009 and 2013. Jacques Joli-Coeur of the Renouveau municipal de Quebec party served as interim mayor between Boucher's death and the by-election. Quebec City is the seat of the judicial district of Québec, one of the province's 36 judicial districts. Parliament building, Quebec City
Education Université Laval (Laval University) is located in the western end of the city, in the borough of Sainte-Foy. However, the school of architecture of Université Laval is located in Old Quebec. Numerous CEGEPs are located in Quebec city, including Collège François-Xavier-Garneau, Cégep O'Sullivan, Cégep Limoilou, Cégep de Sainte-Foy and Champlain College St. Lawrence, as well as private institutions such as Collège Notre-Dame-de-Foy, Collège Mérici, Collège Bart, Collège CDI and Collège Multihexa. Quebec City has the oldest educational institution for women in North America, the Ursulines of Quebec monastery, located at 12 Rue Donnacona.
Healthcare In Quebec, health and social services are provided by the same government department. One of the advantages of this unique feature of life in Quebec is that all of Quebecers’ health and welfare needs can be taken care of free of charge. Medical care is available across the province of Quebec. It is covered by the plan administered by Quebec’s health insurance board (Régie de l’assurance maladie du Québec/RAMQ). All residents of Quebec are eligible for the plan. The provincial medical plan covers all essential medical care, not including certain specific treatments (e.g. plastic surgery) and parallel treatments (“soft” or alternative medicine).
Infrastructure Roads Two bridges (the Quebec Bridge and Pierre Laporte Bridge) and a ferry service connect the city with Lévis and its suburbs along the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River. The Orleans Island Bridge links Quebec City with pastoral Orleans Island. Quebec City is an important hub in the province's AutoRoute system. AutoRoute 40 connects the region with Montreal and Ottawa to the west and Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré and the Charlevoix region to the east. AutoRoute 20 parallels the south shore of the St. Lawrence River, linking Quebec City with Montreal and Toronto to the west and Rivière-du-Loup, Rimouski, and the Maritime Provinces to the east. AutoRoute 73 provides a north-south link through the metropolitan area, linking it with Saint-Georges, the Beauce region, and Maine to the south and Saguenay and the Lac-Saint-Jean region to the north.
Public transport The Réseau de transport de la Capitale is responsible for public transport in the region. The RTC operates a fleet of buses. The RTC is studying the return of a tram and light rail system to help ease overcrowding on its busiest lines as well as attract new users to public transit. Rail transport is operated by VIA Rail at the Gare du Palais ('Palace Station'). The station is the eastern terminus of the railway's main Quebec City-Windsor Corridor. Air and sea. Quebec City is served by Jean Lesage International Airport (YQB), located at the city's western edge. The city also has a major port on the St-Lawrence in the first, fifth and sixth boroughs. Public safety. Quebec City is protected by Service de police de la Ville de Québec and Service de protection contre les incendies de Québec. Quebec City has one of the lowest crime rates in Canada. The city reported no murders in 2007, a streak that stretched back to October 31, 2006.
CULTURE The Culture of Quebec emerged over the last few hundred years, resulting predominantly from the shared history of the French-speaking majority in Quebec. Folklore. In terms of folklore, Quebec's French-speaking populace has the second largest body of folktales in Canada (the first being Native people); most prominent within Quebec folklore are old parables and tales. Other forms of folklore include superstitions associated with objects, events, and dreams. Dance Classical dance in Quebec took root after World War II. Les Ballets Quebec (1948-1951) was a short-lived ballet corps founded by Gérald Crevier. Les Grands Ballets Canadiens was founded in 1959, and gained an international reputation. Le Groupe de la Place Royale (1966) was the first modern eventually moving to Ottawa in 1977. (La chasse-galerie (1906) by Henri Julien, showing a scene from a popular Quebec folk legend.)
Cinema The first public movie projection in North America occurred in Montreal on June 27, 1896. Frenchman Louis Minier presented a film on a Cinematograph in a Café-Theatre on Saint Lawrence Boulevard. However, it was not be until the 1960s when the National Film Board of Canada was established that a genuine Quebec cinema industry would emerge. The 1970s were a "watershed" moment for Quebec films, when sophisticated themes and techniques were used by filmmakers such as Claude Jutra. Important contributions to world cinema include Cinéma Vérité and artistic animation. Circus arts Quebec has carved a niche for itself in the field of Circus arts, where it emphasizes the European tradition of circus. The Cirque Du Soleil circus troupe is known for its artistic productions with rich musical scores. Its productions include Varekai, Dralion, Alegría, Corteo, KOOZA, Quidam, KÀ, Zumanity, Love, Mystère and O, which is performed on a water platform. It is one of the world's few circuses without animal performers.
Sports Sporting activities are increasingly popular in Quebec. Ice hockey is by far the sport of choice in Quebec. It lives in the hearts and minds of Quebecers thanks to the rich legacy of the Montreal Canadians. Association football, known in North America as soccer, Canadian football, baseball, basketball, rugby union and volleyball are the most practiced and watched sports during the summer season in Quebec. Cross-country skiing is very easily accessible due to the abundance of snow and an unending supply of open fields. With the Laurentian Mountains close at hand, some of the best downhill skiing in Canada east of the Rockies is to be found in Quebec as well. The snowmobile (or "skidoo") , invented in Quebec by Joseph-Armand Bombardier, is a popular hobby, though its reputation has been marred by several deaths each year. Another popular pastime is ice fishing. Rivers freeze over quickly come wintertime and as soon as the ice is solid enough to walk upon, one can find dozens of tiny homemade shacks (ice houses) dotting the frozen surface.
Architecture Much of the city's most notable architecture is located east of the fortification walls in Vieux-Québec (Old Quebec) and Place Royale. This area has a distinct European feel with its stone buildings and winding streets lined with shops and restaurants. The Upper Town is linked by the Escalier « casse-cou » (literally "neck-breaking" steps) and the Old Quebec Funicular to the Lower Town, which includes such sites as the ancient Notre-Dame-des-Victoires church, the historic Petit Champlain district, the port, and the Musée de la Civilisation (Museum of Civilization). Quebec City's downtown is on the lower part of the town. Its epicentre is adjacent to the old town, spanning from the Saint-Roch district, throughout the Saint Sauveur, Saint-Sacrement and Limoilou quarters. The Terrasse Dufferin leads toward the nearby Plains of Abraham, site of the battle in which the British took Quebec from France, and the Citadelle of Quebec, a Canadian Forces installation and the federal vice-regal secondary residence. The Parliament Building, the meeting place of the Parliament of Quebec, is also near the Citadelle. There are 37 National Historic Sites of Canada in Quebec City and its enclaves
SIGHTS The Citadel (La Citadelle) is the main symbol of Quebec and the sight of the international importance. The complex was built in the 17th century. Quebec is the only city in North America, where visitors can see walls of the ancient fortress. The length of the fortification is 5 miles. Observatoire de la Capitale is one of the tallest buildings in the city. Here, at a height of 725 feet, tourists will find an observation deck. The Parliament building is another important architectural monument. Its construction was completed in 1886. The Museum of History and the Museum of Civilizations are also among popular cultural institutions of the city. The latter is a great place to learn about history and culture of different nations. Its spacious halls exhibit a large collection of archaeological, historical and ethnographic items, as well as handicrafts and art objects. Guests of the city are certainly recommended to visit the Naval Museum of Quebec. This is the place where visitors can see a unique collection of artifacts and learn many interesting facts about life of sailors during the times of peace and war. Place-Royale Square is a landmark spot on the map of the city. This is the place where the first French settlement in North America was founded in the beginning of the 17th century by order of Samuel de Champlain.
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