Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Презентации / Презентация по английскому языку на тему"GERMANIC LANGUAGES"
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Презентация по английскому языку на тему"GERMANIC LANGUAGES"

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GERMANIC LANGUAGES Абдулаева Севиля
Modern Germanic Languages Languages can be classified according to different...
Genetically, English belongs to the Germanic or Teutonic group of languages,...
The Germanic Branch of the Indo-European languages
The Germanic languages in the modern world are as follows:
English - in Great Britain, Ireland, the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zeland,...
German - Germany, Austria, Luxemburg, Liechtenstein, part of Switzerland;
Netherlandish - in the Netherlands and Flanders (Belgium) (known also as Dutc...
Afrikaans - in the South African Respublic; Danish - in Denmark; Swedish - in...
Norwegian - in Norway; Icelandic - in Iceland; Frisian - in some regions of t...
All the Germanic languages are related through their common origin and joint...
The Earliest Period of Germanic History. Proto-Germanic The history of the Ge...
PG is an entirely pre-historical language: it was never recorded in written f...
It is believed that at the earliest stages of history PG was fundamentally on...
The earliest migration of the Germanic tribes from the lower valley of the El...
At the beginning of our era some of the tribes returned to the mainland and s...
LINGUISTIC and Grammatical FEATURES OF GERMANIC LANGUAGES The Proto-Germanic...
The common I-E notional word consisted of 3 elements: root (expressing the le...
The Germanic nouns had a well-developed case system with 4 cases: nominative...
Germanic adjectives had two types of declination: weak strong. They also had...
Germanic verbs are divided into 2 principal groups: strong and weak. Dependin...
The grammatical forms of the word were built by means of suppletion (the usag...
Though in the Germanic languages inflections were simpler and shorter than in...
Ablaut or vowel gradation. An independent vowel interchange unconnected with...
24 1

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Описание презентации по отдельным слайдам:

№ слайда 1 GERMANIC LANGUAGES Абдулаева Севиля
Описание слайда:

GERMANIC LANGUAGES Абдулаева Севиля

№ слайда 2 Modern Germanic Languages Languages can be classified according to different
Описание слайда:

Modern Germanic Languages Languages can be classified according to different principles. The historical, or genealogical classification, groups languages in accordance with their origin form a common linguistic ancestor.

№ слайда 3 Genetically, English belongs to the Germanic or Teutonic group of languages,
Описание слайда:

Genetically, English belongs to the Germanic or Teutonic group of languages, which is one of the twelve groups of the IE linguistic family. Most of the area of Europe and large parts of other continents are occupied today by the IE languages, Germanic being one of their major groups.

№ слайда 4 The Germanic Branch of the Indo-European languages
Описание слайда:

The Germanic Branch of the Indo-European languages

№ слайда 5 The Germanic languages in the modern world are as follows:
Описание слайда:

The Germanic languages in the modern world are as follows:

№ слайда 6 English - in Great Britain, Ireland, the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zeland,
Описание слайда:

English - in Great Britain, Ireland, the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zeland, the South African Respublic, and many other former British colonies and dominions;

№ слайда 7 German - Germany, Austria, Luxemburg, Liechtenstein, part of Switzerland;
Описание слайда:

German - Germany, Austria, Luxemburg, Liechtenstein, part of Switzerland;

№ слайда 8 Netherlandish - in the Netherlands and Flanders (Belgium) (known also as Dutc
Описание слайда:

Netherlandish - in the Netherlands and Flanders (Belgium) (known also as Dutch and Flemish respectively);

№ слайда 9 Afrikaans - in the South African Respublic; Danish - in Denmark; Swedish - in
Описание слайда:

Afrikaans - in the South African Respublic; Danish - in Denmark; Swedish - in Sweden and Finland;

№ слайда 10 Norwegian - in Norway; Icelandic - in Iceland; Frisian - in some regions of t
Описание слайда:

Norwegian - in Norway; Icelandic - in Iceland; Frisian - in some regions of the Netherlands and Germany; Faroese - in the Faroe Islands; Yiddish - in different countries.

№ слайда 11 All the Germanic languages are related through their common origin and joint
Описание слайда:

All the Germanic languages are related through their common origin and joint development at the early stages of history. The survey of their external history will show where and when the Germanic languages arose and acquired their common features and also how they have developed into modern tongues.

№ слайда 12 The Earliest Period of Germanic History. Proto-Germanic The history of the Ge
Описание слайда:

The Earliest Period of Germanic History. Proto-Germanic The history of the Germanic group begins with the appearance of what is known as the Proto-Germanic (PG) language (also termed Common or Primitive Germanic, Primitive Teutonic and simply Gemanic). PG is the linguistic ancestor or the parent-language of the Germanic group. It is supposed to have split from related IE languages sometime between the 15th and 10th c. B.C. The would-be Germanic tribes belonged to the western division of the IE speech community.

№ слайда 13 PG is an entirely pre-historical language: it was never recorded in written f
Описание слайда:

PG is an entirely pre-historical language: it was never recorded in written form. In the 19th c. it was reconstructed by methods of comparative linguistics from written evidence in descendant languages.

№ слайда 14 It is believed that at the earliest stages of history PG was fundamentally on
Описание слайда:

It is believed that at the earliest stages of history PG was fundamentally one language, though dialectally coloured. In its later stages dialectal differences grew, so that towards the beginning of our era Germanic appears divided into dialectical groups and tribal dialects. Dialectal differentation increases with the migrations and geographical expansion of the Teutons caused by overpopulation, poor agricultural technigue and scanty natural resources in the areas of their original settlement.

№ слайда 15 The earliest migration of the Germanic tribes from the lower valley of the El
Описание слайда:

The earliest migration of the Germanic tribes from the lower valley of the Elbe consisted in their movement north, to the Scandinavian peninsula, a few hundred years before our era. This geographical segregation must have led to linguistic differentiation and to the division of PG into the northern and southern branches.

№ слайда 16 At the beginning of our era some of the tribes returned to the mainland and s
Описание слайда:

At the beginning of our era some of the tribes returned to the mainland and settled closer to the Vistula basin, east of the other continental Germanic tribes. It is only from this stage of their history that the Germanic languages can be described under three headings: East Germanic, North Germanic and West Germanic.

№ слайда 17 LINGUISTIC and Grammatical FEATURES OF GERMANIC LANGUAGES The Proto-Germanic
Описание слайда:

LINGUISTIC and Grammatical FEATURES OF GERMANIC LANGUAGES The Proto-Germanic and the old Germanic languages were synthetic languages (the relationships between the parts of the sentence were shown by the forms of the words rather than position in the sentence or by auxiliary words).  One the main processes in the development of the Germanic morphological system was the change in the word structure.

№ слайда 18 The common I-E notional word consisted of 3 elements: root (expressing the le
Описание слайда:

The common I-E notional word consisted of 3 elements: root (expressing the lexical meaning), inflexion (ending) (showing the grammatical form), stem-forming suffix. However in Germanic languages the stem forming suffix fuses with the ending and is often no longer visible.

№ слайда 19 The Germanic nouns had a well-developed case system with 4 cases: nominative
Описание слайда:

The Germanic nouns had a well-developed case system with 4 cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative. And two number forms: singular and plural. They also had the category of gender: feminine, masculine, neuter.

№ слайда 20 Germanic adjectives had two types of declination: weak strong. They also had
Описание слайда:

Germanic adjectives had two types of declination: weak strong. They also had degrees of comparison.

№ слайда 21 Germanic verbs are divided into 2 principal groups: strong and weak. Dependin
Описание слайда:

Germanic verbs are divided into 2 principal groups: strong and weak. Depending on the way they formed their past tense forms. The past tense of strong verbs was formed with the help of ablaut(чередование гласных). Weak verbs expressed past tense with the help of the dental suffix “d/t”. The Germanic verb had a well-developed system of categories including the category of person 1st, 2nd, 3rd; category of number singular/plural. Also Germanic verb had tense: past and present. They also had mood: indicative, imperative, optative.

№ слайда 22 The grammatical forms of the word were built by means of suppletion (the usag
Описание слайда:

The grammatical forms of the word were built by means of suppletion (the usage of two or more different roots as forms of one and the same word) (I, my, mine, me) (ich, mich, mir).

№ слайда 23 Though in the Germanic languages inflections were simpler and shorter than in
Описание слайда:

Though in the Germanic languages inflections were simpler and shorter than in other in other I-E languages. The usage of interchange of vowels and consonants for the purpose of word and form building. (tooth-teeth, build-built).

№ слайда 24 Ablaut or vowel gradation. An independent vowel interchange unconnected with
Описание слайда:

Ablaut or vowel gradation. An independent vowel interchange unconnected with any phonetic conditions used to differentiate between grammatical forms of one and the same word. The Germanic ablaut was consistently used in building the principal forms of strong verbs.

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