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A flag isn’t just a piece of cloth. Very often it is an expression of human hopes and ideals. Behind it is the history of the country it represents, the past and present of whole peoples, and very often their future too. One of the oldest flags in the world is the British. The flag of the UK, known as the UNION JACK, is made up of three crosses. The upright red cross is the cross of St. George, the patron saint of England. The white diagonal cross is the cross of St. Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland. The red diagonal cross is the cross of St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland. Some historians say that the British flag got the name of Union Jack from James I under whom Scotland and England were united in the 17th century.
Флаг не просто кусочек материи, это выражение человеческих надежд и идеалов. Также это история страны, её лицо, прошлое, настоящее и нередко будущее людей. Британский флаг – один из старейших флагов в мире. Флаг Великобритании, известный также как Union Jack, составлен из трех крестов. Прямой красный крест – крест Святого Георгия, покровителя Англии. Диагональный белый крест – крест Святого Эндрю, покровителя Шотландии. Диагональный красный крест – крест Святого Патрика, покровителя Ирландии. Многие историки утверждают, что британский флаг назван в честь Джеймса I, при правлении которого произошло соединение Англии и Шотландии в XVII веке.
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and commercial center. It is one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe. London is founded in 1066. It is one of the most interesting cities in the world. It is divided into four parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End. They are very different from each other and seem to belong to different towns and epochs.
The heart of London is the City, its financial and business centre. A lot of banks, offices and firms are situated there. There are some famous ancient buildings within the City. the most important of them is St. Paul Cathedral, the greatest of English churches. It was built in the 17th century by Sir Christopher Wren. The Tower of London was founded by Julius Caesar and in 1066 rebuilt by William the Conqueror. It was used as a fortress, a royal palace and a prison. Now it is a museum.
Westminster is the historic, the governmental part of London. Nearly all English kings and queens have been crowned in Westminster Abbey. Many outstanding statesmen, scientists, writes, poets and painters are buried here: Newton, Darwin, Dickens, Kipling, etc. Near Westminster Abbey is Westminster Palace, or the House of Parliament, the seat of the British Parliament. The Clock Tower of the House of Parliament is famous for its big hour bell, known as “Big Ben”. Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the Queen.
Poor people live in the East End. Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of London. It was named in memory of Admiral Nelson’s victory in the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The tall Nelson’s Column stands in the middle of the square. On the north side of Trafalgar Square is the National Gallery and the National Portrait Gallery. Not far away is the British Museum – the biggest museum in London. It contains a priceless collection of ancient manuscripts, coins, sculptures, etc, and is famous for its library.
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