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Map England is the largest part of the UK. Nearly 84 percent of population of the UK lives in England, mainly in the major cities and metropolitan areas. England shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. It is closer to continental Europe than any other part of Britain. The Channel Tunnel directly links England to France.
The Coat of arms When King Richard I ("The Lionheart") came to the throne he first adopted his personal arms of two lions rampant on a red field, however by the end of his life he had adopted a shield with three lions passant, on a red field. The origin of the third lion is unclear.
Flower Symbol This symbol goes back to the War of the Roses, which was the war within the country. In the 15th century two Houses were struggling for the English throne — the Lancastrians and the Yorkists. Red rose was the emblem of the Lancastrians and the white rose was that of the Yorkists. Their rival ended when King Henry VII, the Lancastrian, married Princess Elizabeth, the daughter of the Yorkist. Since that time the red rose has become the national emblem of England.
Patron Saint Every nation has its own Patron Saint who in times of great trouble is called upon to help save the country from its enemies. St. George is the Patron Saint of England. St. George’s Day is celebrated on April 23rd and his flag, St. George’s cross, which is the national flag of England is flown all over England.
in recent years the popularity of St George's Day appears to be increasing gradually a traditional custom at this time was to wear a red rose in one's lapel, though with changes in fashion this is no longer common another custom is to fly or adorn the St George's Cross flag in some way A story that first appeared in the 6th century tells that St. George rescued a maid by slaying a fearsome fire-breathing dragon. The saint’s name was shouted as a battle cry by English knights who fought beneath the red-cross banner of St. George during the Hundred Years War (1338-1453)
England takes its name from the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes who settled in this territory during the 5th and 6th centuries. It used to be known as "Angla land", meaning "the land of the Angles".
In England there is the most westerly point of Great Britain — "Land’s End".
Lake District (or Cumbria) in Northern England is very famous and its lakes, hills and valleys make it an excellent place for having rest.
The ruins of Hadrian’s Wall are also here. It is a stone wall built across the north of England by the order of the Roman Emperor Hadrian to defend the northern border of Britain from the Scottish tribes. Hadrian’s Wall
The territory of England is famous for the oldest British settlements. Traces of those times can be found in the south of England in the form of ancient monuments like Stonehenge. Stonehenge is an enormous stone structure. The largest stones in this construction are 50 tones when the smallest weigh 5 tons. Ancient people began constructing Stonehenge thousands of years ago, and many generations of them took part in it. Stonehenge
London London is the capital city of England and of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Today it is one of the world's most important financial and business centres and one of the largest cities in the world.
Places of Interest in London The Tower of London The Tower of London is one of the most imposing and popular of London's historical sites. It comprises not one, but 20 towers. The oldest of which, the White Tower, dates back to the llth century and the time of William the Conqueror. Nowadays a lot of tourists visit the Tower of London, because of the Tower's evil reputation as a prison. The Tower is famous as home of the Crown Jewels. Today they can be viewed in their new jewel house. They include the Crown of Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother which contains the celebrated Indian diamond.
The Tower of London Of course, no visit to the Tower would be complete without seeing the ravens; huge black birds who are an official part of the Tower community. Legend states that if the ravens were to leave the Tower the Crown will fall, and Britain with it. Under the special care of the Raven Master, the ravens are fed a daily diet of raw meat. And there is no danger of them flying away, because their wings are clipped.
BIG BEN Why is this bell called "Big Ben"? When the great bell was cast in London foundry in 1858, the question of its name was discussed in Parliament. One member said, "Why not call it Big Ben?" There was much laughter among the members because the man in charge of public buildings was Sir Benjamin Hall, a very tall, stout man whose nickname was "Big Ben". From that time the bell has been known as Big Ben. The bell is 7 foot 6 inches high, and 9 foot 6 inches across the mouth. It weighs 13.5 tons (about the same as two double-decker buses). "Big Ben" is the name of the bell only - not the clock, and not the tower.
Houses of Parliament The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster is the seat of Britain's two parliamentary houses, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. In the middle of the 11th century, King Edward the Confessor had moved his court to the Palace of Westminster, situated on a central site near the river Thames. In 1265 a parliament was created with two houses: the Lords and the Commons.
Houses of Parliament The House of Lords met at the Palace of Westminster while the House of Commons did not have a permanent location. After King Henry VIII moved his court to Whitehall Palace in 1530, the House of Lords continued to meet in Westminster. In 1547 the House of Commons also moved here, confirming Westminster as the central seat of government, a position it still holds today.
The new Palace of Westminster In 1834 a fire destroyed the Palace of Westminster. A competition was organized to create a new building for the two houses of parliament. A design by Sir Charles Barry and his assistant Augustus Welby Pugin was chosen from 97 entries. They created a large but balanced complex in neo gothic style. The whole complex was finished in 1870, more than 30 years after construction started. It includes the Clock Tower, Victoria Tower, House of Commons, House of Lords, Westminster Hall and the Lobbies.
The Victoria Tower is the tallest tower in the Palace of Westminster. It was designed by Sir Charles Barry, and named after Queen Victoria, the reigning monarch. It is a square tower at the southwestern end of the Palace. At the top is an iron flagstaff. If the Queen is in, then the Royal Standard is flown. Otherwise the Union Flag is flown. The entrance to the Palace is at the base of Victoria Tower. The Queen uses this entrance whenever she enters the Palace for the State Opening of Parliament or other official ceremonies. Victoria Tower
London Eye A recent but already very popular tourist attraction is the London Eye, a giant observation wheel located in the Jubilee Gardens on the South Bank. The 135 meter (443ft) tall structure was built as part of London's millennium celebrations. Construction of the observation wheel took more than a year and a half to complete. In the process over 1700 tonnes of steel were used. The futuristic looking capsules accommodate up to 25 passengers. Each egg-shaped capsule is 8 meters long and weighs 500kg.
London Eye The observation wheel turns slow enough for people to embark while it is moving. A complete turn takes about 30 minutes. Thanks to the construction of the glass capsules, the passengers have a great 360° view over London. Many famous landmarks are clearly visible, including the Buckingham Palace, St. Paul’s Cathedral and the House of Parliament. On a clear day you can see as far as 40 km (25 miles).
St. Paul’s Cathedral In 962 and 1087, the Cathedral was destroyed by fires, but each time it was rebuilt. By that time, it was one of the largest cathedrals in Europe. The majestic St. Paul's Cathedral was built by Christofer Wren between 1675 and 1711. It has the largest dome in the world after the St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. The high dome contains the remarkable Whispering Gallery where whisper can be heard at a great distance.
Disliked by most when constructed in 1894, the Tower Bridge has become a symbol of London. The Tower Bridge , named after its two impressive towers, is one of London's best known landmarks. This Victorian Bridge is now more than 100 years old. The middle of the bridge can be raised to permit large vessels to pass the Tower Bridge. It used to be raised about 50 times a day, but nowadays it is only raised 4 to 5 times a week. Tower Bridge
Tower Bridge The bridge is 60 meter long and its towers rise to a height of 43 meter. From the top of the towers, you have a great view on the center of London. You can also visit the inside of the tower, where you can observe the original mechanism used to raise the bridge.
Buckingham Palace Buckingham Palace, one of several castles owned by the British Royal family, is one of the major tourist attractions in London. The original building was constructed as a country-house in 1705 by the duke of Buckingham, John Sheffield. In 1850 the large east wing was added. It includes a large 40 meter long ballroom. A part of the palace is still used by the Royal family. A flag is hoisted each time the Queen is in the castle. Other parts of the castle can be visited, including the lavishly decorated state rooms.
The ceremony Changing of the Guard takes place in front of the Buckingham Palace every day at 11.30 a.m. and lasts for 30 minutes. The Queen’s Guards wear traditional uniforms and tall black fur caps called busbies.
The Westminster Abbey , located near the Houses of Parliament, is more a historical site than a religious site. Since 1066, every royal coronation, with the exception of Edward V and Edward VIII has taken place in Westminster Abbey. The abbey also serves as the burial ground for numerous politicians, sovereigns and artists. The abbey is stuffed with graves, statues and monuments. In total approximately 3300 people are buried in the Church and cloisters. Some of the most famous are Charles Darwin, Sir Isaac Newton and David Livingstone. Westminster Abbey
Traffic in London London is so large that visitors must learn to use buses and the underground to get about. London taxis are too expensive for any but the rich. You can get a map of the underground and the bus routes at any ticket office. The word "Underground" across a large circle shows you where the stations are. The London underground is called the "tube".
Bus stops are marked clearly. In the suburbs buses do not stop unless there are passengers who wish to get on or off. These stops are marked "Request Steps".Inside some buses you will see the notice: "Please, state your destination clearly and have the exact fare ready." It is easy enough to tell the conductor where you want to go to, but not always possible to have the exact fare. The conductor will always give you the change.The London buses are very large. They have seats both upstairs and downstairs. English children like to sit on the front seats of a big London bus. They can see everything that is happening in the streets.
Heathrow London Heathrow is one of four major airports serving London. It is consider to be the best of them, and one of the best world airports. BAA (British Airports Authority) is the private company which owns Heathrow. It also owns Gatwick and Stansted.
There are other large industrial cities, such as Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester and other famous and interesting cities such as York, Chaste, Oxford and Cambridge Birmingham A city of central England northwest of London. It is a major industrial center and transportation hub. Population: 970,000.
Liverpool, as the maritime capital of Britain, has a reputation as an unglamorous working-class town, and it is tragedy deserted dockside area reflects the hardships wrought by the economic change of the 1980s. Yet Liverpool can boast of world-class theatres, a symphony orchestra, a variety of restaurants and thriving nightly. Liverpool is a world city of international renown, with its instantly recognizable waterfront, unique accent and famous sons and daughters. Based in the heart of Northwest England, Liverpool is also Britain's favourite day trip destination according to the national tourist board. Liverpool
Manchester City and metropolitan borough, in the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester, northwestern England. Lying northwest of London and east of Liverpool, it was the site of a Roman fort (78 – 86 CE) but was abandoned after the 4th century. By 919 the town of Manchester had sprung up nearby. In the 16th century it was important in the wool trade, and with the onset of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century it became an important manufacturing city known for its textile production. The world's first modern railroad, the Liverpool and Manchester, opened in 1830. The city was beset by urban and industrial problems in the second half of the 20th century. Thereafter it was redeveloped, ushering in a cultural renaissance. Its many educational institutions include the University of Manchester.
Oxford Oxford is the home of the oldest university of England. The most famous college is Christ Church. It has a great hall which was built during the reign of Henry VIII and its chapel has become the Cathedral of Oxford.
Cambridge is the home of Britain's second oldest university
York York was the capital of Northern England. It is one of the best preserved medieval cities of Europe. It was built by Romans, conquered by Anglo-Saxons and ruled by the Vikings.
When somebody says England, what famous things first come to your mind? Of course, these might be London, Big Ben, Stonehenge, William Shakespeare, red double-decker buses, black taxi cabs, red postboxes and telephone boxes, tea, fish and chips, the Beatles, legend of Robin Hood, Wimbledon and, probably, David Beckham.
The oldest village in England Bibury One of the village's main tourist spots and overlooking a water meadow and the river is Arlington Row, a group of ancient cottages with steeply pitched roofs dating back to the 16th Century
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