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Education in Russia
The structure of education in Russia The education system in our country includes a number of links: 1 Preschool education 2- School 3- vocational 4- technical secondary special higher education 5- 6- 7- postgraduate education system and retraining of personnel, interest education.
By 1999 it was primarily created and overall framework of modern Russian education - federal package of legislative and normative acts regulating the issues of education. It consisted of 462 documents. Fundamental was the Law "On education", which at the federal level differentiated competence and responsibility in the field of education between the central, regional and local (municipal) authorities. One of the most important decisions, which by law is made in Russia today is a return to the status of full secondary education as compulsory for citizens enrolled at the school now and in the future (as in Soviet times)
School education = general education. School education - the ability to master the elementary level of scientific knowledge necessary for the understanding of the basic phenomena of nature and society. Designed to address three fundamental to society and the individual tasks:
2- Giving young people a basic knowledge for a smooth transition to work or professional self-determination. 3- To provide vocational guidance of young people.
3 stages of school education. 1 Primary School 2 Primary school 3 - High School As the case studies and statistics, modern secondary school is not fully meeting its objectives: increasing the level of deviant behavior of underage youth, including crime, alcoholism, drug addiction, etc. The school does not fully solve the problem of professional self-determination.
High education From the history of higher education. In 1987 in the USSR was 896 higher education institutions. According to the Federal State Statistics Service in Russia in 2008/09, there were 1,134 public and private universities. But in the Soviet era, nearly 900 high schools accounted for 280 million. People, and today (do not forget about the hundreds of private higher institutions of researchers) - 145 million. People. Number of schools in recent years has dramatically increased primarily due to the non-state universities and branches of government, and this requires close attention to the evaluation and control of the quality of education.
The total enrollment of students in public higher education institutions for the enlarged group of specialties 1 Engineering - engineering - 31% 2- Economic - 26% 3 Humanities - 19% 4- Teaching - 8% 5- course - scientific - 6% 6- Medical - 3% 7- Farm - 4% 8 of culture and art - 2%
Higher education - the opportunity to receive educational services of the highest caliber and quality professional education. Depending on the number of areas of training students in modern Russia there are the following types of institutions: universities, academies and institutes. Training is carried out in them full-time, part-time, part - time (evening) form and in the form of external studies. University graduates may have the qualifications: Bachelor's degree, graduate, master's degree in the relevant areas
The dependence of the number of students by level of education
The state's role in the Russian education State in relation to the Institute of Education, in the case of present-day Russia, performs three functions. Regulatory authority for the whole of the education system as a whole. -Uchreditelya Or owner of various levels and components of the educational system. - Managing the territorial entities, responsible for the integrity of the educational systems.
The project "Education" The national project "Education" is designed to introduce systemic changes in education. Need to develop new approaches for the realization of the planned changes, identify and support the leaders who will implement these changes in practice. Experts identify four main objectives of the project: 1- systemic changes in Russian education. 2- development of civil society institutions. 3- formation of modern management in the education system. 4- support leaders
"Education" project consists of several areas Promote innovative programs and higher professional education (in particular, the selection among the existing 30 innovative universities, handing each of them a grant of up to 500 mln. Rubles .; Definition 6 th. Of innovative schools with the award of each grant of $ 1 million., Rubles) The creation of new universities and business - schools (two national universities - in the Southern and Siberian Federal Districts, two business - schools - in the Moscow region and St. Petersburg)
The ratio of youth to education. Studies have shown that Russian schoolchildren adolescence, first, perceive the school as hanging out with friends, and not as a place where one learns. Many tasks are performed only because this is required by teachers and parents monitor evaluation. Second, students do not see the connection between school and their future life.
Informatization of education (in particular internet connection 20 th., Schools, development and the introduction of distance learning programs) support the initiative, capable, talented youth (promoting a one-time award of $ 60 thousand., Rubles. 2500 man-talented children and youth) . development of vocational training in the army (in particular, the creation of 100 training centers in parts of the Russian army). additional remuneration for classroom management in high school (class teachers supplement of complete classes 1 ths., rub. per person per month, a total of about 900 thousand. man). Promotion of the best teachers in the amount of 100 thousand., Rubles., 10 thousand of the best teachers each year.
Choice of high school graduates of schools - is not only the choice of place of study, and professional self-determination, recognition of the priority of a certain lifestyle. According to the survey, the motives of receipt in high school is as follows: - To engage in intellectual work in the future - 56% Get profession in accordance with the inclination - 24% - At the insistence of parents - 9% - Not called up - 6% - Nowhere to go after school - 5%
Answer the questions 1- Describe the structure of education in our country? Justify your opinion. 2- What is the role in the formation of the Russian state? 3 Compare the main tasks and higher education? 4- What is the national project "Education"?