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SOME PECULIARITIES OF ENGLISH PHRASEOLOGY
English has got its history. During that time the language accumulated a large number of expressions, which people had considered to be neat and nice. In such a way a special layer of language – phraseology has been originated. Country knowing values of phraseology expressions are in incontestable authentic of their contents.
They absorb the history best of all because genetic – free word combinations have described the definite customs, the peculiarities of way of life and culture, historical events, the people’s traditions. So, phraseology differs from free word combinations, its constant composition and common meaning.
It is one part of a sentence, reproduced in “ready form” and don’t create in a speech. National character is a totality of the most stable psychological qualities, formed in nation’s representatives in definite natural, historical, economical and socio- cultural conditions its development. Every Englishman, where he will be living, has a stamp of his/her nationality. Where he is, he brings his customs, his manner and nowhere and for nobody changes his habits. He is at home everywhere.
The origin of phraseology units (PU) in English: 1. In English language the majority of phraseology are English expressions. Bite off more than one can chew – “откусить больше, чем можешь проглотить”, т.е. взяться за непосильное дело или орешек не по зубам. 2. PU, showing traditions and customs: Cup of tea – особа An old cup of tea – старушка To be one’s cup of tea – нравиться A storm in a teacup – буря в стакане воды
3. PU connecting with popular believes: Black sheep – паршивая овца, позор в семье 4. PU connecting with astrology: Be born under lucky star – родиться под счастливой звездой 5. PU from tales and fables: Borrowed plumes – ворона в павлиньих перьях
6. PU connecting with historical facts: As well be hanged for a sheep as lamb – Если уж суждено быть повешенным, то почему не украсть заодно и ягненка. No bees, no honey; no work, no money. – Без труда не вытащишь и рыбку из пруда. In Dutch – быть в беде
7. PU connecting with climatic conditions: It never rains but pours. – Беда не приходит одна Keep something for a rainy day. – Откладывать на черный день.
The names of animals – one of the most ancient layers of vocabulary in all world’s languages. To describe behavior, senses, states, appearance, a man compared himself with something that was closer to him – the animal world.
Let sleeping dog lie. – Не буди лихо, пока оно тихо Beware of a silent dog and still water. – В тихом омуте черти водятся. Agree like cats and dogs. – Жить как кошка с собакой.
Die like a dog – Подохнуть как собака. As melancholy as a cat – Впасть в уныние. No room to swing a cat - Повернуться негде.
William Shakespeare is the author of numerous numbers of English proverbs and sayings and, of course, phraseologies. They are called “shakespearizm”. Only from “Hamlet” a great number of quotations came into conversational English speech. Shakespeare enriched English language with a great number of idioms (about 130), which are considered to be English now.
“To wear one’s heart on one’s sleeve” – «Носить сердце на рукаве» – Ходить с душой нараспашку. Buy golden opinions – заслуживать благоприятное лестное мнение о себе From whose bourns no traveler returns – там, откуда никто не возвращался.
Phraseology takes a huge layer in English language. All events, that take place in Great Britain, have an effect on phraseology: political life, sport, cultural events, and everyday life. Many of phraseologies become out of date, but new, bright and witty appear instead of them.