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Robert Burns (1759-1796)
Robert Burns was the greatest poet of Scotland. He was the most democratic poet of the 18th century. His birthday is celebrated in Scotland as a national holiday. Burns is very popular in the Russia. His first poems were translated into Russian at the close of the 18th century. Russian people admire Robert Burns's poems and songs in the original and in the wonderful translations of Samuel Marshak. Robert Burns, Scotland's national poet, was born on January 25, 1759, in a small clay cottage at Alloway, in Ayrshire, Scotland.
His father, William Burns, was a poor farmer. He built this small clay cottage with his own hands. There were seven children in the family, and Robert was the eldest. His father knew the value of a good education, and he tried to give his children the best education he could afford. Robert was sent to school at the age of six, but as his father could not pay for the two sons, Robert and his brother Gilbert attended school in turn. When not at school, the boys helped their father with his work in the fields. But soon the teacher left, and so Burns's father along with his four neighbours invited a young school-teacher, John Murdoch, to teach their boys. When Murdoch left, the poet's father taught the children himself. Reading and writing, arithmetic, English grammar, history, literature, French and Latin — that was Robert Burns education. William Burns died in February 1784. Later Robert Burns wrote about his father in his verses "My Father Was a Farmer": My father was a farmer upon the Carrick border, O, And carefully he bred me in decency and order, O. He bade me act a manly part, though I had ne'er a farthing, O, For without an honest, manly heart no man was worth regarding, O.
Robert's mother knew many Scottish songs and ballads and often sang them to her son in his childhood. His mother's friend Betty told Robert many fantastic tales about devils, fairies and witches. Burns's mother died in 1820. She lived long and enjoyed the fame of her poet son. Agnes Brown, Burns's mother
To get some money for his passage, he published some of his poems. Six hundred copies of "Poems Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect" were printed in Kilmarnock in July 1786. Their success was complete. The edition was quickly sold out and Robert Burns became well known and popular.
Then Burns went to Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. He had received a letter from several Edinburgh scholars, who praised his verses and invited him to come to the capital. In Edinburgh Burns was welcomed as one of the "wonders of the world". A new and enlarged edition of his poems was the result. But soon Edinburgh society grew tired of him and forgot about the poet.
Though Burns's poems were very popular, he always remained poor. He worked hard on his farm. But in 1791 Burns went bankrupt and had to sell the farm. He became a customs officer in the town of Dumfries. The work was hard, and it destroyed the poet's health. He died in poverty at the age of thirty-seven. Burns was buried in Dumfries. His funeral was attended by a crowd of ten thousand. They were the com- mon Scottish people whom he had loved and for whom he had written his poems and songs. Burns's funeral procession Burns's house in Dumfries.
The poetry and songs of Robert Burns are famous all over the world. Burns is very dear to russian people. He was a democratic poet. His sympathy was with the poor, he hated the rich and hoped for a better future for the people for equality and justice for all. Now you will read his most popular poems. ‘ Tree of Liberty’.
THE TREE OF LIBERTY Heard ye o' the tree o' France? I watna what's the name o't; Around It a' the patriots dance, Wccl Europe kens the fame o't. It stands where ance the Bastile slood, A prison, built by klnjrs, man, When Superstition's hellish brood Kept France in leading-strings, man. Let Britain boast her hardy oafc, Her poplar and her pine, man, Ли Id Britain ance could crack her joke, And o'er her neighbours shine, man. But seek the forest round and round. And soon 'twill be agreed, man, That sic a tree cannot be found Twixt London and theTweed, man, Without this tree, alakel this life is but a vale o" woe, man; A scene o' sorrow mixed wi' strife, Nae real jays we know, man. Wi' plenty o' sic trees, I trow, The warld would live in peace, man; The sward would help lo так а plough. The din a' war wad cease, man. Like brethren In a common cause, We'd on each other smile, man; And equal rights and equal laws Wad gladden every isle, man. ДЕРЕВО СВОБОДЫ Есть дерево в Париже, брат. Под сень его густую Друзья отечества спешат, Победу торжествуя. Где нынче у его ствола Свободный люд толпится, Вчера Бастилия Пыла, Всей Франции темница, Британский край! Хорош твой дуб. Твой стройней тополь — тоже. И ты на шутки был не скуп, Когда ты был моложе. Богатым лесом ты одет — И дубом и сосной, край. Но дерева свободы нет В твоей семье лесной, брат! А без него нам свет не мил И горек хлеб голодный. Мы выбиваемся из сил На борозде бесплодной. Но верю я: настанет день,— И он не за горами, — Когда листвы волшебной: сень Раскинется над нами. Забудут рабство и нужду Народы и края, брат, И будут люди жить в ладу, Как дружная семья, брат!
Burns had a deep love for Scotland, its history and folklore. His favourite national hero was William Wallace, the leader of the uprising against the English oppressors. In many of his poems Burns signs the glorious past of his native land. MY HEART’S IN THE HIGHLANDS. My heart’s in the Highlands, me heart is not here, My heart’s in the Highlands a-chasing the deer, A-chasing the wild deer and following the roe- My heart’s in the Highlands, wherever I go! В ГОРАХ МОЁ СЕРДЦЕ. В горах моё сердце…Доныне я там, По следу оленя лечу по скалам. Гоню я оленя, пугаю козу, В горах моё сердце, а сам я внизу.
ЗАПАДНЫЙ ВЕТЕР Из всех ветров, какие есть, Мне Западный милее. Он о тебе приносит весть, О девушке моей. Леса шумят, ручьи журчат, В тиши твоих долин. И, как ручьи мечты мои К тебе стремятся, Джин. Тебя напоминает мне В полях цветок любой. И лес в вечерней тишине, Заворожён тобой. Бубенчик ландыша в росе, Да и не он один, А все цветы и птицы все, Поют о милой Джин. OF A' THE AIRTS THE WIND CAN BLAW Of a' the airts the wind can blaw, I dearly like the West, For there the bonnie lassie lives, The lassie I lo'e best; There wild woods grow, and rivers row, And толу a hill between; But day and night, my fancy's flight Is ever' wi' my Jean. I see her in the dewy flowers, I see hier sweet and fair; I hear her in Ihe tunefu' birds, I hear her charm tiie air; There's not a bonnie flower that springs By fountain, shaw, or green, There's not a bonnie bird that sings But minds me o' my Jean. Burns was a remarkable lyric poet. In his lyrical poems and songs Burns glorifies true love and friendship.
Some of Robert Burns's lyrical Poems are popular as songs all over the world. Now a group of girls will sing a song "A Red, Red Rose”. Robert Burns's poems and verses inspired Beethoven, Schumann, Mendelssohn and other composers who wrote music to them. The best-known cycle of songs to Robert Burns's verses was composed in Russia by Georgi Sviridov. The tunes to Robert Burns's songs were written by Dmitri Shostakovich, Nikolai Myaskovsky, Yuri Levitin, and a number of other Russian composers. And now let's seen the most popular song by Robert Burns "Auld Lang Syne". It has now become a parting song at any party or meeting of friends.
AULD LANG SYNE For auld lang syne, my dear For auld lang syne, We'll take a cup o' kindness yet For auld lang syne! Should auld acquaintance be forgot, And never brought to mind ? Should auld acquaintance be forgot, And auld lang syne! And surely ye 'll be your pint' stowp, And surely I 'll be mine, A nd we 'll take a cup o' kindness yet For auld lang syne! We twa hae run about the braes, And pou'd the gowans fine, But we 've wander'd monie a weary fit Sin' auld lang syne. We twa hae paidl'd in the burn Frae morning sun till dine, But seas between us braid hae roar'd Sin' auld lang syne. V And there's a hand, my trusty fiere, And gie 's a hand o' thine, And we 'll tak a right guid-willie waught For auld lang syne! Chorus For auld lang syne, my dear, For auld lang syne, We'll tak a cup o' kindess yet For auld lang syne!
Burns Quiz (Test your knowledge of the great Scottish Bard). When was Burns born? Did he write plays, sonets-songs, poems? Whom was he ever in love? What is his most popular song? Was Burns born in: 1) England 2) Scotland 3) Northern Ireland Who was his favourite national hero? In what Russian film can we hear a lot of his poems put on music? Whom did his poems and verses inspire to write classic to them? What was his 1 –st love song?