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The History of Great Britain
Periods Celtic Roman Anglo-Saxons and Vikings Norman Medieval Tudors Stuarts Georgian Victorian
The Celts 750 BC – 43 AD The word Celt comes from the Greek word “Keltoi”, which means “barbarians”.
The Celts were: warriors farmers
Celts lived in:
Celtic priests were called:
Stonehenge Nobody knows what it was built for, perhaps Druid temple or perhaps an astronomical calculator.
The Romans 43 AD- 410 AD 55 BC- Emperor Julius Caesar landed in Britain , won several battles and left. 54 BC – Caesar came to Britain again.
Roman invasion: In 43 AD Emperor Claudius organized the final and successful Roman invasion of Britain.
The biggest battle was fought on the banks of the River Medway, close to Rochester.
The Romans founded the city Londinium, which is now known as London.
The Anglo-Saxons 410-1066 The Anglo-Saxons were the people that came from Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands
The Anglo Saxons divided England into kingdoms : Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex, Kent and Anglia
The Vikings 9th c.-1066 Vikings were also known as the Norsemen or Danes.
Vikings were raiders from Norway and Northern Denmark
The Saxon King Alfred fought Vikings in the battle of Maldon in 891, but he lost and had to let them have part of the country, called Danelaw.
The Norman Invasion Edward the Confessor’s heir ?
The battle of Stamford Bridge 25th September 1066
The Battle of Hastings. 14th October 1066
Domesday Book – the first national census
Medieval England Civil wars International war Occasional insurrection Political intrigue
King Richard "the Lion Heart“ (or “the absent king”) -was preoccupied with foreign wars -took part in the Third Crusade -defended his French territories against Philip II of France.
John Magna Carta – a document which stated that king was not above the law, that he only ruled by the will of the people. -had a conflict with nobles -was defeated by the barons -kept the throne by signing the Magna Carta (1215)
The Hundred Years War 1337-1453 England vs. France England lost its French territories.
The Black Death Epidemic of bubonic plague came to England in 1348 and killed as much as 1/3 of the population.
The War of the Roses 1455-1485 The House of Lancaster vs The House of York
The Tudors (1485- 1603) Henry VII Henry VIII Edward VI Mary I Elizabeth I
Henry VII The first Tudor king Became king after the battle of Bosworth (War of the Roses) Established absolute monarchy
Henry VIII Had 6 wives: Catherine of Aragon (divorced) Anne Boleyn (beheaded) Jane Seymour (died) Anne of Cleves (divorced) Catherine Howard (beheaded) Catherine Parr (died)
Henry VIII Break from Rome Nationalization of the English Church Beginning of English Reformation
Mary I- “Bloody Mary” She was a Catholic -> efforts to restore Catholicism -> executions of Protestants -> unpopularity
Elizabeth I Explorations Colonisation Victory in war Flourishing in arts Growing world importance
War with Spain (1588)
The Stuarts James I Charles I Conflicts with Parliament -> Civil War
Civil War (1642- 1649) Parliament Vs. Monarch Oliver Cromwell won the battle Naseby -> Charles I beheaded -> Republic proclaimed
Restoration (1660-1688) Charles II could not restore the old state of things 1688- the Bill of Rights ->Constitutional monarchy
the Georgian Age George I George II George III George IV William IV They were Germans, couldn’t speak English - > let Prime Ministers rule the country.
Seven Years War with France (1756-1763) The first war on a global scale War for colonies Britain won !
The US War for Independence (1775-1776) American colonies declared themselves independent from Britain
The war with France (1803-1815) Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) Battle of Waterloo (18 June 1815)
Victorian Age 1873-1901 Queen Victoria ruled for 64 years.
Industrial Revolution New machines invented- >less time to spend work- > no need in workers- > unemployment Rural society - > urban society ( 20%-> 50% in towns)
Housing conditions Shortage of houses No running water and toilets in houses (outdoor water pump and outside toilet instead) Polluted water Rubbish thrown out into the streets Dirty streets and cramped living – perfect for diseases (typhus, smallpox and dysentery)
Public Health Act of 1875 banned open sewers houses were made further apart rubbish collection was introduced public health inspectors had to check that sanitation and health of the people was alright
Working conditions Long working hours Small salary Women and children labour No holidays
Factory Acts of 1840’s reduced working hours for children and women improved working conditions.
However by the late 19th century housing for most people was better than in the 18th century. people were also better fed. inventions like trains and steamships made it possible to travel faster and to import cheap food from abroad a host of inventions made life more comfortable and convenient ( waterproof clothing, anaesthetics).
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