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The means of transport in Russia Instead of a student presentation Group no. 3 ТОРАТ Andrew Gray Борисовка 2015 г.
Rail Road Air Pipeline Sea and river. Transport:
In the context of Russian railway transport is most effective for the carriage of bulk cargo types in the medium and long distances with a high concentration of cargo flows, as well as for transportation of passengers over medium distances in suburban traffic. Rail transport
Road transport can not compete with a massive inter-rail freight traffic primarily because of its high specific energy and transportation costs, long-range transport and the lack of a modern road network of high technical level. Scope of road transport in Russia - urban, suburban and intra-cargo and passenger transportation, in transportation and in the medium and long-haul low-tonnage valuable and perishable goods. Road transport
Sea transport has a mostly external, export and import (including all freight transportation in the intercontinental communication). Great is his role in the coasting (internal) transport to the northern and eastern coastal regions of the country. Inland waterways (river) transport for bulk shipments of certain types of cargo over medium and long distances, as well as for passenger traffic (particularly suburban). However, in recent decades, it can not compete with other modes of transport and almost turned into a specific type of utility vehicles, for the transport of mineral building materials Sea and river transport
Air transport In function air transport also refers to highly specialized: it performs mainly passenger on long and medium distance, although they are very important in the transport of a number of valuable, perishable their emergency supplies.
Pipeline transport pipeline transportation, as opposed to the above universal modes of transport remains highly specialized, designed for long-distance pumping of liquid and gaseous products of limited range.
The leading place among universal cargo turnover of transport belongs to the railway - 32.4%, while the share of road, sea and river accounts for less than 16% of the total turnover. The share of rail and river transport in the total cargo turnover falls recent decades. At the same time, the share of highly specialized pipeline transport is constantly increasing and now stands at 52.5%. The share of air transport turnover is extremely low.
By the volume of goods transported by road leading transport - 79%, in second place - the railway - 10.6% - the third pipeline - 8%. On the other types of transport accounts for less than three percent of the total volume of transported cargo. The role of individual modes of transport in passenger traffic looks different. In intercity passenger traffic in the stand rail, air and bus transport. They account for over 99% of passenger traffic. In the carriage of passengers undisputed leader is road transport. The proportion of water and air transport is extremely low.
In suburban passenger traffic and 99% of passenger traffic accounts for only two types of transport: train and bus. Report on urban leading position and passenger turnover (52.2%) and passenger transportation (48.0%) took the bus. In second place - the urban electric transport (tram, trolley, subway).
In Russia, all kinds of public transport make up a single transport system (ETS). It consists of: railway, river, sea, road, air and pipeline transport. Integrated transport system in Russia has a very complex structure. The economic basis of the system - production and economic ties. Its material basis - good transportation, facilities and transport service operations. Network of Railways form: interregional highways, supporting inter-district division of labor and cementing all parts of the country into a single economic organism; regional transport networks to ensure the development of intra-industrial relations, relations between different parts of the district complex; internal roads designed to carry out the functions of transport in the production process of certain industrial and agricultural enterprises.
Transport - a complex system of inter-industry occupying a key position in the territorial organization of the productive forces. Economic and geographical study of transport for the opening of the functioning of regional transport system. Particular importance is the evaluation of transport and geographical location of individual elements of ETS and various economic projects, interacting with each other by means of transport.
As part of the ETS each mode of transport has its rational application. When you take into account their establishment primarily operating costs, capital investments required size, fuel consumption and power output of freight and passenger traffic, distance transportation, race goods. For example, rail transports bulk cargo flows, sea - intercontinental transport over long distances, as well as large and small cabotage. The value of a particular mode of transport in the ETS RF is determined, first of all, share in the total turnover (see. Table 1.2.1) and passengers.