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Biographies of famous Kalmyk scientists: Nomto Ochirovich Ochirov Made by Zhubanishcheva Gulmira Bizhanovna “Multiprofile gymnasium” Lagan, Republic of Kalmykia
Nomto Ochirov Ochirovich His real name is Noha. Nomto is derived from the Kalmyk word nomt (scientist) ( 10.10.1886 , Honch Nur , of Maloderbetovskoj ulus, Russian Empire,11.07.1960, Soviet (now it is called Ketcheneri ), the Kalmyk ASSR, USSR) . Kalmyk scholar, anthropologist, educator, founder of studies of the epic “Jangar”, one of the initiators of the construction of the Buddhist temple in St. Petersburg, a public figure of Kalmykia of the beginning of XX century, member of the white movement in the Kalmyk part of the military government.
The noble son of Kalmykia
Nomto Ochirov wrote and published the first monumental edition of the Kalmyk epic "Jangar“. He published the first newspaper in the history of the Kalmyk people. It was called " Oirats’ Izvestia ". In 20-ies of XX century Nomto Ochirov participated in the reform of the Kalmyk language.
Nomto Ochirov was born in 1886 in a family of Kalmyk peasant Dovukin Ochir in the town Honch Nur. He spent his childhood in the village Chervlyonoye, near winter house of Derbet’s Noyon David Tundutov. In 1898 he graduated from the school of Maloderbetovsky ulus. From 1898 to 1905 he studied at school in Astrakhan. In 1905 Nomto Ochirov entered the Oriental faculty of the St. Petersburg Imperial University.
In 1905 Nomto Ochirov entered the Oriental faculty of the St. Petersburg Imperial University. During his studies he made two trips to the Kalmyk steppe, where he recorded songs of the Kalmyk epic "Jangar". From 1910 to 1916 he served in the Ethnographic Museum of St. Petersburg. In 1916 he graduated from the law faculty of St. Petersburg University. After the February revolution of 1917 he was a member of the Central Committee for the management of the Kalmyk people, later the Kalmyk military government. From 1920 he held various administrative positions.
As a student of the Oriental faculty of St. Petersburg Imperial University Nomto Ochirov in the summer of 1908 participated in student field expedition, during which he recorded from jangarchi ten songs of Kalmyk epic "Jangar". Later at the insistence of Professor Vladislav Lyudvigovich Kotvich Nomto Ochirov made another trip to ICA-Bohusovice aimag, where he recorded another dozen songs of Kalmyk epic. In 1909, Vladislav Kotvich gave a presentation about the trip of his student Nomto Ochirov at a meeting of the Eastern section of the Russian Committee for studying Central and Eastern Asia. In 1910 Nomto Ochirov issued privately songs in a separate book, which became the first edition of "Jangar". With the support of Professor Kotvich Nomto Ochirov organized at the Oriental faculty of the St. Petersburg courses for teachers of the Kalmyk language.
In 1910 the Russian Committee for studying Central and Eastern Asia sent Nomto Ochirov to Kalmyk steppe to Maloderbetovsky ulus for collecting Kalmyk folk creativity and the acquisition of manuscripts. During this trip Nomto Ochirov wrote 17 Kalmyk long and short songs, 16 stories of a historical nature. In 1910 in Astrakhan were published two volumes of "Materials of the statistical-economic and natural history survey of the Kalmyk steppe". In the summer of 1911 Nomto Ochirov worked among the torgouts Barackosama and Choreutoscope ulus. During this expedition he acquired about 70 Kalmyk and Tibetan manuscripts. The result of this work became his work, in which he identified phonetic features Derbet’s and Tangutsk’s dialects of Kalmyk language. He has also compiled a collection of fairy tales, proverbs, sayings, among which were songs and tales about the participation of Kalmyk in the war of 1812. In 1915 in St. Petersburg Nomto Ochirov published the essay "the Astrakhan Kalmyks and their current economic status". In the same year was released "Kalmyk primer", which Nomto Ochirov wrote in collaboration with L. Normaali and with the participation of Vladislav Kotvich. After graduating in 1916 St. Petersburg Imperial University Nomto Ochirov got a freelancer in the Museum of Ethnography, simultaneously working as an assistant solicitor. As an employee of the Ethnographic Museum, Nomto Ochirov continued to collect the monuments of the Kalmyk oral tradition.
In the autumn of 1914 together with Kalmyk Prince D. Tundutov he made a campaign trip to Kalmyk steppes, calling the Kalmyks to go into the Cossack estate. In March 1917 Nomto Ochirov moved to Astrakhan. On March 26, 1917 in Astrakhan he hosted the First Congress of representatives of the Kalmyk people, where Nomto Ochirov was elected Deputy Chairman of the Central Committee for the management of the Kalmyk people . On 16 May 1917 Nomto Ochirov on behalf of the Central Committee of UCN together with D. Tundutov went to Petrograd to declare the Provisional government protest against the planned separation of the Astrakhan province into two parts, which might occur in the administrative division of the Kalmyk people
During the meeting with representatives of the Provisional government Nomto Ochirov declared the rights of the Kalmyk people in the lands of the Kalmyk steppe. During food shortages in the Kalmyk steppe, which happened in the spring of 1917, Nomto Ochirov, was appointed on 22 May the Central Committee of MCI, Chairman of the food Council. On December 23, 1917 the Central Committee of the MCI was reorganized into the Kalmyk army government, where Nomto Ochirov continued to charge food business and was in charge of education. After the establishment of Soviet power in Kalmykia in 1918 the organs of the Cheka tried to arrest him . To avoid arrest he was helped by the leader of the labour Councils of deputies of the Kalmyk people Arashi Chapchaev. Until the autumn of 1918 Nomto Ochirov lived in Chervlyonoye, where he helped his father in agricultural work. After the coming Kalmykia troops of General S. V. Denisov Nomto Ochirov moved to Novocherkassk, where he continued to work in the Kalmyk military government. In 1919 Nomto Ochirov, was removed from the Kalmyk military government of General Denikin, who forbade him to return to the Kalmyk steppe. Nomto Ochirov settled in Yekaterinodar, where he was working as a clerk in the Kuban-black sea forestry. In March 1920 Nomto Ochirov was arrested by the Cheka and sent to Astrakhan.
The President of the Kalmyk CEC Arashi Chapchaev stood for Nomto Ochirov and appealed to Lenin with a request to grant Amnesty to him. On September 23, 1920 Nomto Ochirov was released and pardoned, after that he was appointed Deputy to the writer A. M. Amur-Sanan, who served as the representative of the Autonomous region of Kalmyk people in the people's Commissariat for nationalities. Having worked in Moscow 2 years, Nomto Ochirov moved in 1922 to Kalmykia, where he began working in 1924 in the regional planning Commission. In 1925, he worked as Deputy Chairman of the Oblplan.
Nomto Ochirov was arrested four times in mid-1929, fall 1930, 1941 and December 1950. In all these cases, he was charged for his activities in the Kalmyk military government and he was accused of "counter-revolutionary Kalmyk nationalist rebel organization "Narna gerl"" . In 1950 he was in the special settlement in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakhstan. In 1956 Nomto Ochirov, was released from prison and began to live in the village Soviet (now Priozerny district of the Kalmyk ASSR), where he died in 11 July 1960.
The monument to Nomto Ochirov was made by the sculptor N. Evseeva in 2002. The monument is located at the intersection of Suceeva and Ochirova Streets, Elista, Kalmykia
Kalmyk Charity Fund of Culture “Heritage”, ethnic gymnasium and street in Elista are named after Nomto Ochirovich Ochirov. "Nomto Ochirov, was a great Kalmyk not only of our century but in the history of the Kalmyk people. In many ways he was the first, the first Kalmyk scientist, the first linguist, the first researcher of the epic "Jangar", the first Kalmyk folklore gatherer..". Professor A. Armanino
“Nowadays when ancient tales and legends are forgotten, when the former outstanding jangarchi died, and the newest of rhapsodos are becoming less and less, for the sake of preserving to future time entries from jangarchi Alan Ovla were made. Ten published songs about the glorious deeds of the great Jangar for people of the present generation, their children and their distant descendants to read, so these songs were the object of spiritual delight and enthusiasm". Nomto Ochirov
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