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RESTORATION (1660 -1668) Charles II ascended the throne in 1660. but try as he would, he was unable to restore the old state of things. Neither could James II with the support of reactionary groups establish a despotic regime. James II fled to France. The years between 1660 -1668 are called the RESTORATION.
“WHIGS” and “TORIES” By that time two main parties had been formed in Parliament, one representing the interests of business men, the other, of the land-owners and clergy. The two parties hated each other so much that the insulting nicknames of “Whigs” for the business men and “Tories” for land-owners55 were invented. Later, these names came to be used officially.
GLORIOUS REVOLUTION 1669 In 1668 Parliament worked out the Bill of Rights, according to which the royal power, the armed forces, and the taxation were brought under the control of Parliament. In 1689 the crown was offered to Mary and her husband William of Holland. These events were called the “Glorious Revolutioin”. It was not a people’s revolution, it was an agreement between the bougeoisie and the landed aristocracy. Thus CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY was established.
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