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Principles of Green Chemistry Velieva G.A.
Green chemistry Green chemistry (Green Chemistry) - scientific direction in chemistry, which can be attributed any improvement of chemical processes, which positively affects the environment. As a scientific direction emerged in the 90s of XX century.
Key differences While exploring the chemistry of the environment sources, distribution, impact resistance and chemical contaminants; Chemistry for the Environment provides chemical solutions to get rid of the dirt. At the same time there are the following possible ways of making chemicals: • 1. Dispose of pollutants released into the environment • 2. To limit their spread if they are local • 3. Stop their production - by replacing the existing methods for producing chemical products with new ones. The first two are included in the area of research Ecological Chemistry; last direction is an area, which is engaged in Green Chemistry.
The twelve principles of green chemistry are: In 1998, PT Anastas and John. C. Warner, in his book "Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice" formulated the twelve principles of "green chemistry" to guide researchers working in this field:
Principles 1.It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it is formed. 2.Synthetic methods should be designed to maximize the incorporation of all materials used in the process into the final product. 3.Wherever practicable, synthetic methodologies should be designed to use and generate substances that possess little or no toxicity to human health and the environment.
Principles 4.Chemical products should be designed to preserve efficacy of function while reducing toxicity 5.The use of auxiliary substances (e.g. solvents, separation agents, etc.) should be made unnecessary wherever possible and innocuous when used. 6.Energy requirements should be recognized for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized. Synthetic methods should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure.
Principles 7.A raw material or feedstock should be renewable rather than depleting wherever technically and economically practicable. 8.Reduce derivatives – Unnecessary derivatization (blocking group, protection/deprotection, temporary modification) should be avoided whenever possible. 9.Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to stoichiometric reagents.
Principles 10.Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they do not persist in the environment and break down into innocuous degradation products. 11.Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time, in-process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substances. 12.Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to minimize potential for chemical accidents, including releases, explosions, and fires.
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