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Alban Berg 1885-1935
Alban Maria Johannes Berg was an Austrian composer. He produced compositions that combined Mahlerian Romanticism with a personal adaptation of Schoenberg's twelve-tone technique.
Berg had little formal music education before he became a student of Arnold Schoenberg in October 1904. With Schoenberg he studied counterpoint, music theory, and harmony
Among Schoenberg's teaching was the idea that the unity of a musical composition depends upon all its aspects being derived from a single basic idea; this idea was later known as developing variation. Berg passed this on to his students, one of whom, Theodor W. Adorno, stated: "The main principle he conveyed was that of variation: everything was supposed to develop out of something else and yet be intrinsically different". The Piano Sonata is an example—the whole composition is derived from the work's opening quartal gesture and its opening phrase.
In 1913, two of Berg's Five Songs on Picture Postcard Texts by Peter Altenberg (1912) were premièred in Vienna, conducted by Schoenberg in the infamous Skandalkonzert.
From 1915 to 1918, Berg served in the Austro-Hungarian Army and during a period of leave in 1917 he accelerated work on his first opera, Wozzeck.
Opera was composed between 1914 and 1922 and first performed in 1925. The opera is based on the drama Woyzeck, which was left incomplete by the German playwright Georg Büchner at his death. Berg attended the first production in Vienna of Buchner's play on 5 May 1914, and knew at once that he wanted to base an opera on it.
Today Wozzeck is seen as one of the century's most important works.
Berg is remembered as one of the most important composers of the 20th century and to date is the most widely performed opera composer among the Second Viennese School.
His works seen as more emotional than Schoenberg's. He have preserved the Viennese tradition in his music.
His popularity has been more easily secured than many other Modernists since he plausibly combined both Romantic and Expressionist idioms. Though Berg's Romanticism at one time seemed a drawback for some more modernist composers.
Complete list of the compositions of Alban Berg. Schummerlose Nächte (Martin Greif) Jugendlieder (2), composed 1904–8, voice and piano, published 1985 Seven Early Songs, voice and piano, composed 1905–8, revised and orchestrated 1928 Schliesse mir die Augen beide (Theodor Storm), voice and piano, composed 1907, published in 1930 & 1955 An Leukon (Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim), voice and piano, composed 1908; published in 1937 & 1963 (Reich) & 1985 (UE) (2 versions exist: in G minor ; in E minor  Frühe Klaviermusik, published 1989 Zwölf Variationen über ein eigenes Thema in C, piano, composed Nov. 8, 1908; published in 1957 & 1985
An Leukon (Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim), voice and piano, composed 1908; published in 1937 & 1963 (Reich) & 1985 (UE) (2 versions exist: in G minor ; in E minor  Frühe Klaviermusik, published 1989 Zwölf Variationen über ein eigenes Thema in C, piano, composed Nov. 8, 1908; published in 1957 & 1985 Symphony and Passacaglia, fragment, composed 1913 Piano Sonata, Op. 1, composed 1907–8, published April 24, 1911 Vier Lieder, Op. 2, voice and piano, composed 1909–10, published 1910
String Quartet, Op. 3, composed 1910, published 1920 Fünf Orchesterlieder nach Ansichtkartentexten von Peter Altenberg, Op. 4, soprano and orchestra, 1912 (Altenberg Lieder) Vier Stücke, Op. 5, clarinet and piano, composed 1913, published 1920 Drei Stücke, Op. 6, orchestra, composed 1914–15 Wozzeck, Op. 7, composed 1914–22 Drei Bruchstücke aus ‘Wozzeck’, soprano and orchestra Kammerkonzert, piano, violin, winds, composed 1923–5 Adagio, violin, clarinet and piano, arranged 1926 (arrangement of Kammerkonzert mvmt. 2) Schliesse mir die Augen beide (Theodor Storm), voice and piano, composed 1925
Lyric Suite, string quartet, composed 1925–6 Drei Sätze aus der Lyrischen Suite, arranged for string orchestra, 1928 Der Wein (Charles Baudelaire), concert aria, soprano and orchestra, composed 1929 Four-part Canon Alban Berg an das Frankfurter Opernhaus, composed 1930 Lulu, composed 1929–35, orchestra part of Act 3 completed by Friedrich Cerha Symphonische Stücke aus der Oper ‘Lulu’ (Lulu-Suite), soprano and orchestra, premièred under Kleiber in 1934 Violin Concerto, composed 1935 Vocal scores Arrangement for string quartet, piano, and harmonium