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Australia is situated south of Asia, between the Pacific and the Indian Oceans. Australia is a continent, a country and an island at the same time. Australia is located in the southern hemisphere.
OFFITIAL NAME : Commonwealth of Australia CAPITAL: Canberra TOTAL AREA: 7,700,000 sq.km POPULATION: 20 million people HEAD OF STATE: Queen Elizabeth II represented by Governor-General FORM OF GVERNMENT: Constitutional monarchy PORTS: Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane LONGEST RIVER: the Darling (2,740 km) HIGHEST POINT: Mount Kosciusko (2,230 m) NATURAL RESOURCES: coal, zink, nickel, gold, wool NATIONAL HOLIDAY: Australian Day , 16 January (1788) MONEY: basic unit – Australian dollar NATIONAL SYMBOLS: Kangaroo and Emu NATIONAL ANTHEM: “Waltzing Matilda”
Captain James Cook discovered Australia in 1770. He was sent to discover the huge land that many people believed was south of the equator. He landed south of present day Sydney in New South Wales. He claimed this part of the land for the King of England. In 1851 gold was discovered about 300 km west of Sydney. People rushed to the gold fields to find their fortunes. This attracted robbers called bushrangers.
The Aborigines are the Australian natives that had been living there for thousands of years before the first Europeans came to Australia in the 1600s.
Australia's coat of arms – the official emblem of the Australian Government – was granted by George V in 1912. The arms consist of a shield containing the badges of the six states. The supporters are native Australian fauna – a kangaroo and an emu. A yellow-flowered native plant, wattle, also appears in the design. The flag of Australia is the only one to fly over a whole continent. The small Union Jack represents the historical link with Britain, the large seven-pointed star represents the six States and Territories, and the small stars from the Southern Cross – a prominent feature of the southern hemisphere night sky.
Canberra is the capital of Australia. It is very young city. Population is about 310,000 people. Capitol Hill Canberra Fountain
Capital of New South Wales. Leading industrial city. Population: 3,200,000 people. St. Maria Cathedral The Harbour Bridge Sydney Sydney AMP Tower Opera House
Capital of Victoria. The world’s most livable city. Population: 3.200.000 Train Station Melbourne Bridge Old House
Capital of Queensland. It is a year-round vocation place. Population is about 1,400,000 people. Brisbane Bridge Brisbane Skyscrapers Brisbane
Capital of South Australia. A pretty and industrial city. Population: 1,100,000 people. Victoria Square Fountain Gold Beach Adelaide
Capital of Western Australia. One of the best climates in Australia. Population: 1.200.000 people. King’s Park Perth Skyscrapers
Capital of island-state Tasmania. Winters are very cold. Population of about 200,000. Bay of Fires Coles Bay Remarkable Cave Lavender Farm
Warumbungle NP Crowdy Bay NP Crowdy Bay NP Cockatoo NP
It’s the world’s largest coral reef (over 2000 km). It stretches along the east coast of Queensland. It’s made up of over 2900 individual reefs very close to each other.
Australians really love nature. They try to protect their nature and their animals.
The First people in Australia were Aborigines. They arrived there about 12,000 years before from southern Asia. They had very rich forms of art, painting, song, poetry and mythology. The lives of aborigines stayed almost the same for thousands of years until the Europeans came to live in Australia in 1778. In 1770 J. Cook landed in eastern Australia and declared that it belonged to Britain. In 1778, the British government began sending the first prisoners to Australia. Overtime many people arrived from Britain and Europe. Life was difficult. There was very little water and the climate was very hard. The Europeans suffered a lot in Australia but the Aborigines suffered a lot more. Europeans stole their land and killed thousand of Aborigines. They also brought new diseases with them. In parts of Australia, not one Aborigine survived. Today aborigines continue to live in Australia but there culture in under threat. In 1770, there were about 300,000 Aborigines. Now, there are 120,000. It is becoming harder and harder for them to continue their traditional way to live. Today Australia is a modern, industrial country, independent from Britain since 1931. The Commonwealth of Australia consists of 6 states and two provinces. It is the world’s biggest producer of wool, bauxite and important producer of wheat, meat, sugar and fruit.
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