The history of the first car began in 1768 with the creation of steam-powered machines capable of carrying a person. In 1806 came the first car driven by internal combustion engines, which led to the appearance in 1885 widely used today, gasoline or gasoline-combustion engine. Cars running on electricity appeared briefly at the beginning of the XX century, but almost completely disappeared from sight until the beginning of the XXI century, when once again there was an interest in low-toxic and environmentally friendly transport. In essence, the early history of the vehicle can be divided into stages differing dominant mode of movement of self-propelled. The later stages of defining trends in the size and style of appearance, and the preferences of the target use. And also in 1840 invented bicycles.
Chronology of events and inventions
The first prototype of the car was built as a toy for the Chinese Emperor member of the Jesuit community in China Ferdinand Verbiest in 1672.
In Russia, the prototype of the first car created a serf Vyatka province Yaransk County Leonty Shamshurenkov. He presented his invention in St. Petersburg on Nov. 1, 1752. It was a 4-wheeled stroller samobeglaya, speeds up to 15 km / h. He also developed the first verstometr. Later, in 1780, the Russian designer, inventor and engineer Ivan Kulibin began work on a carriage with pedals. In 1791 he created a 3-wheeled self-propelled carriage speeds of up to 16.2 km / h. In this "samokatke" he rode through the streets of St. Petersburg. His 3-wheel mechanism is contained almost all the main components of the future vehicle: gearbox, flywheel bearings. Unfortunately, as with many other of his inventions, the government did not see the potential of these developments and they have not received further development. Shortly before his death, the inventor began work to reconcile the steam engine with its "samokatkoy", but never finished the job. At what stage is the process - is unknown.
German engineer Karl Benz, the inventor of the plurality of automotive technology, and is considered the inventor of the modern car. Four-stroke gasoline internal combustion engine, which is the most widespread form of modern self-propelled movement - the development of the German inventor Nikolaus Otto. This four-stroke diesel engine was also invented by German Rudolf Diesel. Hydrogen fuel cell, one of the technologies, proclaimed as a replacement for gasoline as a power source of automobiles, in principle, was discovered another German Shёnbeyn Christian Friedrich in 1838. The car on the electric battery owes its origin to one of the inventors of the electric motor and the Hungarians Anosh Yedliku izobrёtshemu in 1858 lead-acid battery Gaston.
Ferdinand Verbiest, a member of the Jesuit community in China, built the first steam car on the move about in 1672 as a toy for the Chinese Emperor. The car was small and could not take the driver or passenger, but perhaps it was the first working steam vehicles ("car").
It is believed that self-powered machine designed in the late XVIII century. In 1770 and 1771, Nicolas Joseph Cugnot, demonstrated his experimental artillery tractor with a steam-driven fardier à vapeur (steam wagon). Cugnot design proved impractical and not developed in his native France, the center of innovation goes into the UK. By 1784 in Redruth William Murdoch built a working model of a steam carriage, but in 1801 Richard Trevithick drove a full-size car on the roads of Camborne. Such machines for some time been in vogue over the next decades have been developed such innovations as hand brakes, multi-mission and improved steering. Some were commercially successful in providing public transport is public resistance against these machines is not too fast entailed the adoption in 1865, the law requires that the public roads of Great Britain before the self-propelled machines went a man waving a red flag blowing in the signal pipe. It is strongly suppressed the development of road transport in almost all of the remainder of the XIX century. As a result of efforts of engineers and inventors have been thrown on railway locomotives. The law is not repealed until 1896, although the need for a red flag was eliminated in 1878.
The first patent for a car in the United States was granted to Oliver Evans in 1789. Evans demonstrated his first successful self-propelled machine, which was not only the first car in the US, but also the first amphibious vehicle, as was able to travel on wheels on the ground and through the blades in the water.
Among the other works of the steam engine on liquid fuel collected in 1815 by Professor Josef Prague Polytechnic Bozhekom and four-bed steam chaise, made in 1813 by Walter Hancock, a developer and operator of London steam buses
In 1828, the Hungarian Yedlik Anosh who invented an early type of electric motor, created a miniature model of the car, driven by means of its new engine. In 1834, the inventor of the first electric motor DC, Vermont blacksmith Thomas Davenport set his engine in a small car model, which he operated on the ring electrified track. In 1835, the Dutch city of Groningen professor Sibrandus Stretin and his assistant Christopher Becker created a small electric machine driven by the non-rechargeable primary cells. In 1838, Scotsman Robert Davidson developed the electric locomotive, which reached a speed of 6 km / h (4 mi / h). In England in 1840, he was granted a patent for the use of the tracks as a conductor of electric current, and similar American patents were issued in 1847 by Lilly and Colten. Approximately between 1832 and 1839 citizen of the year in Scotland English. Robert Anderson invented the first crude electric carriage, driven by the non-rechargeable primary cells.
Internal combustion engines
Early attempts to manufacture and use of internal combustion engines have been hampered due to lack of suitable fuels, especially liquid and early engines used gas mixture.
Early experiments with gas were carried out by the Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivas (1806), who built an internal combustion engine running on hydrogen-oxygen mixture, and the Englishman Semyuelem Brown (1826), experimented with its own engine on hydrogen fuel as a vehicle to Shooters Hill, south-east London. Gippomobil Belgian Etienne Lenora with a single-cylinder internal combustion engine on hydrogen fuel makes a test run from Paris to Joinville-le-Pont in 1860 covering about nine kilometers in about three hours. Late version worked in the coal gas. Delamare-Debutevilsky the car was tested and patented in 1884.
Around 1870 in Vienna, Austria inventor Siegfried Marcus put a liquid internal combustion engine on a simple trolley that made him the first person to use the vehicle on gasoline. Today, this car is known as "the first car of Marcus." In 1883, Marcus was a German patent for a low-voltage magneto ignition system type. It was only his first automobile patent. This technique was used in all further engines including Quadruple "second Marcus car" in 1888/89. Ignition in conjunction with the "carburetor with rotating brushes" made the construction of the second car is very innovative.
It is well known that the first real use of the car with a gasoline engine was designed at the same time by several independent German inventor Karl Benz built his first car in 1885 in Mannheim. Benz received a patent for his car Jan. 29, 1886, and began the first production of cars in 1888, after his wife, Bertha Benz demonstrated by the first long-distance trip from Mannheim to Pforsgeyma and back in August 1888 that the horseless carriages are quite suitable for everyday use. Since 2008, this event marked Bertha Benz Memorial Route.
Soon after, in 1889 in Stuttgart, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach designed a completely new vehicle, which is intended as a car, not a horse wagon, equipped with an engine. They also are usually credited with the invention in 1886 of the first motorcycle, however, in 1882, Enrico Bernardi of the University of Padua's patented single cylinder gasoline engine capacity of 122 cc and a power of 0,024 hp (17.9 W) and set it on his son's tricycle, that allows to consider it as a candidate at least for the invention of the first car and motorcycle. In 1882 Bernardi increased tricycle so that he was able to carry two adults.
One of the first four-wheel-car in Britain, runs on gasoline was built in Birmingham in 1895 by Frederick William Lanchester, who also was patented disc brake, and the first electric starter was mounted on Arnold adaptation Benz Velo, produced from 1885 to 1898 .
In this turmoil were almost forgotten by many pioneers. John William Lambert of Ohio in 1891, built a three-wheeled car that was burned in the same year. And Henry Nading of Allentown, Pennsylvania, four-wheel-constructed. It is very likely that there were more of these inventors.