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Официальное название. Великобритания. Географическое положение. Страна расположена на северо-западе Европы. Занимает остров Великобритания (на нем находятся Англия, Шотландия, Уэльс) и часть острова Ирландия. Омывается водами Атлантического океана и Северным морем. Отделена от материка проливом Ла-Манш. Площадь страны – 243 тыс. кв. км. Высшая точка. Бен-Невис в Шотландии (1343 м). Климат. Умеренный океанический. Столица. Лондон (9 млн.чел.). Время. Время отстает от московского на 3 часа. Политическая система. Великобритания – это конституционная монархия. Законодательная власть в стране принадлежит парламенту. Он состоит из двух палат – палаты Общин и Палаты лордов. Во главе государства – королева Елизавета II (представительные функции). Население. 60 млн.человек. Англичане – 70%, шотландцы – 9%, Ирландцы – 4%, уэльсцы -1%. Официальный язык. Английский. Религия. Протестанты (90%)
1. The UK consists of a) England b) England, Scotland and Wales c) England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland 2. What is the symbol of England? a) a thistle b) a red rose c) a daffodil 3. The Queen’s official London home is a) Windsor Castle b) Buckingham Palace c) The Tower of London 4. When did the Vikings invade England? a) in 793 b) in 1242 c) in 1699 5. Where do men wear kilts? a) in England b) in Scotland c) in Wales
The UK lies on the British Isles. Great Britain is separated from the continue the English channel. The country is washed by the waters of the Atlantic ocean. Great Britain is separated from Belgium and Holland by the North Sea and from Ireland by the Irish Sea.
THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND This is the flag of Great Britain. The British people call it “the Union Jack”. It is red, white and blue. The flag approved in 1801.
This is the coat of arms of Great Britain.
Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603) Henry VIII (1491-1547) Queen Victoria (1819-1901)
The Queen Elizabeth II
At present the British royal family is headed by Queen Elizabeth II. She was born on the 21st of April 1926, As a child she studied constitutional history and law as well as art and music. The marriage of the young Princess Elizabeth to Philip Duke of Edinburgh took place in November 1947. She come to the throne after her father’s death in 1952 and was crowned in Westminster Abbey in June 1953. Among Queen Elizabeth’s many duties are the regular visits she makes to Foreign countries, and especially those of the commonwealth. The Queen is widely known for her interest in horses and horse-racing. She is now president of the Save the Children Fond, Chancellor of the University of London and carries out many public engagements. The Queen Elizabeth II
Как ты знаешь, В Великобритании главой государства является монарх. Сейчас на британском престоле находится королева Елизавета II. Она царствует с 1952 года. Муж королевы, принц Филипп, граф Эдинбургский, королем не является, его титул – принц-консорт. Дело в том, что престол в этой стране в первую очередь наследуется старшим сыном, а если его нет, то старшей дочерью. Таким образом, после Елизаветы II престол должен унаследовать ее старший сын, Чарльз, принц Уэльский, а после него старший сын, принц Уильям. The British national anthem begins with the words about the Queen: “God save the Queen” because the Queen is at the heard of the state and she is the most important person in the country. * * * * * * God save our gracious Queen, Господь, храни нашу Long live our noble Queen, всемилостивую Королеву, God save the Queen – Да здравствует, Send her victorious, наша благородная Королева, Happy and glorious, Господь, храни Королеву - Long to reign over us, Пошли ей, победоносной, God save the Queen. Долгого правления над нами. Господь, храни Королеву.
The Royal Family
THE MONARCH THE GOVERNMENT P A R L I A M E N T The official head of state and an integral part of Parliament in her constitutional role; has mostly representative functions. The Prime Minister Is the head of government; is the leader of the party with the majority seats in the House of Commons The Cabinet (about 20 ministers) The House of Commons The House of Lords (about 650 elected MRs) (over 1 100 permanent, non-elected Makes laws; discusses political members; peers and life peers) Problems Examines and revises bills from the House of Commons; can delay bills for one year THE PEOPLE (all men and women over 18)
The Houses of Parliament with Big Ben
The British Prime Minister lives at 10 Downing Street Gordon Brown The Prime Minister
Лондон - столица Британии. Это очень старый город. Он расположен на берегах р. Темза. Лондон состоит из трех частей:the City of London, the West End, the East End. The City of London – это самая старая часть города. Здесь много банков, фирм, офисов, магазинов. Это деловая часть Лондона. The West End – центр Лондона. Здесь много достопримечательностей. Например: Дом Парламента (The House of Parliament), знаменитые часы Big Ben, которые были построены в 1859 году. Это самые большие часы страны, их вес 13,5 т. Сейчас Лондон- важный политический центр, рай для театралов и туристов.
As well as being the capital of England, London is the capital of the United Kingdom.
History of London
London is the oldest city.
The old city
Municipal service Transport for London answers for a municipal transportation of London. In particular, it maintains the underground, buses and trams of London and licences city taxi and water public transport.
Routemaster The well-known buses of model Routemaster which has become by one of symbols not only London, but also all Great Britain, have been removed from linear operation in 2005 and now go only on excursion routes. Buses serve for local movings. There are 700 routes on which buses transport at week-days to 6 million passengers.
"Black cabs" Black London taxi is the same characteristic detail of a city, as well as red buses though today they already happen the most different colours. The improved version of a black taxi has been developed also new. The included yellow sign over a windscreen means, that the taxi is free; to lift a hand enough to stop it. It is possible for the taxi order to call in Radio Taxis: Tel: +44 (020) 7272 0272; the fare will be included in payment of such taxi to a place of your finding also.
Underground of London — the oldest in the world. It continuously works since 1863 and daily transports 3 million passengers, that in a year makes number, about equal to 1 billion person. The London underground consists of 12 lines, the majority from which connect city centre with its suburbs. Londoners often name underground “TUBE" Underground of London
The flag of England – St.George’s flag which has a red cross with extended horizontals on a white field.
Англия – самая большая и самая богатая страна Великобритании. Столица Англии – Лондон; но существуют и другие важные города, например, Бирмингем, Ливерпуль, Манчестер, Йорк, Честер, Оксфорд и Кембридж. Оксфорд – это родина самого старого университета. Самый известный колледж – Крайст Черч. Кембридж – родина второго самого старого британского университета. Йорк был столица Северной Англии. Сейчас это один из наиболее сохранившихся средневековых городов Европы (он был построен римлянами, завоеван англосаксами и управлялся викингами). Аэропорт Хитроу расположен в 33 км к западу от Лондона. Честер – очень важный город на северо-западе Англии. В прошлом это был римский форт. В Честере находится знаменитый музей, в котором собрано более 5 000 древних и современных игрушек. Бирмингем часто называют «городом 1500 ремесел» из-за большого количества отраслей промышленности.
The Lake District an area of lakes and mountains in the north-west of England
Manchester is the cotton centre of Great Britain
Greenwich Park is a former hunting park in Greenwich and one of the largest single green spaces in south east London. One of the Royal Parks of London, and the first to be enclosed (in 1433), it covers 183 acres (0.7 km²) and is part of the Greenwich World Heritage Site. It commands fine views over the River Thames, Isle of Dogs and the City of London. The park is open from 6.00am for pedestrians (and 7.00am for traffic) all year round and closes at dusk. Greenwich Park
The flag of Scotland – St.Andrew’s flag which has a white cross on a blue field.
Шотландия – страна на севере Великобритании. Она разделена на три области: Южные возвышенности, Центральные низменности и высокогорья, острова. Столица Шотландии – Эдинбург. Глазго – промышленная столица Шотландии. Гольф – шотландская национальная игра. Это страна мифов и загадок. Все знают о лох-несском чудовище. Говорят, «Несси» имеет длину 6 метров.
Edinburgh – is the capital of Scotland. Old Edinburgh was a long, narrow town. Edinburgh is a city where the historic past lives side by side with the present, for centuries the home of Scottish Kings and Queens.
Glasgow is the industrial, commercial, artistic and sporting centre of Scotland.
Loch Ness is a lake in Scotland
The flag of Wales is green, red and white.
Уэльс – это страна на востоке Великобритании. Это, главным образом, гористая местность с преобладающей сельскохозяйственной экономикой и промышленностью. Кардифф – столица Уэльса с 1955 года. С 1536 года Уэльс управляется Англией, и наследник английского престола носит титул принца Уэльского. Уэльский язык происходит от древнекельтского языка. В 60-х годах ему присвоен статус официального языка.
Cardiff is the capital of Wales and a large port. It has many industries. Some of the main buildings are Cardiff Castle, built in the 11th century, the National Museum of Wales, the Public Library, University College and City Hall (городская ратуша). The National Museum of Wales and City are shown in this picture.
Cardiff. City Hall.
The flag of Northern Ireland – St.Patrick’s flag which has a red cross on a white field. The arms of the crosses do not meet at the centre.
Северная Ирландия, известная как Ольстер, также является частью Великобритании. Она состоит из шести частей: Антрим, Даун, Ферманаг, Лондондерри и Тирон. Ирландское население делится на две группы: протестантов и католиков. Протестанты британского происхождения (они являются потомками британских поселенцев XVI-XVIIвв.). Католики – уроженцы Ирландии. Борьба между двумя группами населения продолжается и по сей день.
Place of Interest in Great Britain
Symbols of London
The House of Parliament with Big Ben
Little Ben. Little Ben is a cast iron miniature clock tower, situated at the intersection of Vauxhall Bridge Road and Victoria Street, in Westminster, central London, close to the approach to Victoria station. In design it mimics the clock tower commonly (though incorrectly) known as Big Ben of the Palace of Westminster found at the other end of Victoria Street. Little Ben was manufactured, according to Pevsner, by Gillett & Johnston of Corydon, and was erected in 1892; removed from the site in 1964, and restored and re-erected in 1981 by Westminster City Council with sponsorship from Elf Aquitaine Ltd "offered as a gesture of Franco-British friendship". There is a rhyming couplet Apology for Summer Time signed J.W.R. affixed to the body of the clock: My hands you may retard or may advance my heart beats true for England as for France.А replica of Little Ben was constructed in 1903 in Victoria, a capital city of Seychelles.
Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey is a church in Westminster, near the House of Parliament. The present building was started in 1245. Most British kings and queens were crowned there. The Many great Englishmen were buried in the Abbey: Newton, Darwin
The Battle of Britain. The Battle of Britain Monument in London is a sculpture on the Victoria Embankment overlooking the River Thames in central London, England which pays tribute to those who took part in the Battle of Britain during World War II. It was unveiled on 18 September 2005, the 65th anniversary of the Battle, by His Royal Highnesses the Prince of Wales and Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Cornwall in the presence of many of the surviving airmen known collectively as "The Few", following the Royal Air Force Service of Thanksgiving and Rededication on Battle of Britain Sunday. This service is an annual event, taking place annually since 1943; the first service took place in St Paul's Cathedral and since has taken place in Westminster Abbey. The monument was brilliantly conceived by Bill Bond.
Admiralty Arch. Admiralty Arch is a large office building in London which incorporates an archway providing road and pedestrian access between The Mall, which extends to the southwest, and Trafalgar Square to the northeast. It was designed by Sir Aston Webb, constructed by John Mowlem & Co and completed in 1912. It adjoins the Old Admiralty Building, hence the name. The building was commissioned by King Edward VII in memory of his mother Queen Victoria, although he did not live to see its completion. A famous feature of Admiralty Arch is its "nose". On the inside wall of the northernmost arch there is a small protrusion the size and shape of a human nose. The nose is at a height of about seven feet, and would sit at waist high for anyone riding through the arch on a horse. Tradition holds that it is Napoleon's nose.
The Buxton Memorial Fountain. The Buxton Memorial Fountain is a memorial in London, the United Kingdom, that commemorates the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834. It was designed by Gothic architect Samuel Sanders Teulon (1812-1873) in 1865.It was originally constructed in Parliament Square, removed in 1940 and moved to its present position in Victoria Tower Gardens in 1957.There were eight decorative figures of British rulers on it, but four were stolen in 1960 and four in 1971. They were replaced by fiberglass figures in 1980. As of 2005 these are missing, and the fountain is no longer working. In autumn 2006 restoration works were started, and finished in February 2007. The restored fountain was unveiled on 27 March 2007 as part of the commemoration of the 200th anniversary of the act to abolish the slave trade . A memorial plaque commemorating the 150th anniversary of the Anti-Slavery Society was added in 1989.
The Albert Memorial. The Albert Memorial is situated in Kensington Gardens, London, England, directly to the north of the Royal Albert Hall. It was commissioned by Queen Victoria in memory of her beloved husband, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha who died of typhoid in 1861, and designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott in the Gothic revival style. Opened in 1872, with the statue of Albert ceremonially "seated" in 1875, the memorial consists of an ornate canopy or pavilion containing a statue of Prince Albert facing south. This is surrounded by the elaborate sculptural Frieze of Parnassus, which depicts 169 individual composers, architects, poets, painters, and sculptors. There are two allegorical sculpture programs: four groups depicting Victorian industrial arts and sciences (agriculture, commerce, engineering and manufacturing), and four more groups representing Europe, Asia, Africa and The Americas at the four corners, each continent-group including several ethnographic figures and a large animal. (A camel for Africa, a buffalo for the Americas, an elephant for Asia and a bull for Europe.)
St. Paul’s Cathedral
St. Paul’s Cathedral
St. Paul’s Cathedral is the greatest work of England’s greatest architect, Christopher Wren. The Cathedral was begun in 1675. It was opened in 1697 but was finished only in 1710, when Wren was almost eighty years old. There are memorials to many famous men of England in the Cathedral.
The Buxton Memorial Fountain is a memorial in London,the United Kingdom, that commemorates the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834. It was designed by Gothic architect Samuel Sanders Teulon (1812-1873) in 1865.It was originally constructed in Parliament Square, removed in 1940 and moved to its present position in Victoria Tower Gardens in 1957.There were eight decorative figures of British rulers on it, but four were stolen in 1960 and four in 1971. They were replaced by fiberglass figures in 1980. As of 2005 these are missing, and the fountain is no longer working. In autumn 2006 restoration works were started, and finished in February 2007. The restored fountain was unveiled on 27 March 2007 as part of the commemoration of the 200th anniversary of the act to abolish the slave trade . A memorial plaque commemorating the 150th anniversary of the Anti-Slavery Society was added in 1989. The Buxton Memorial Fountain
Hyde Park is 350 acres (140 hectare/1.4 km²) and Kensington Gardens is 275 acres (110 ha/1.1 km²) giving an overall area of 625 acres (250 ha/2.5 km²), making this park larger than the Principality of Monaco (1.96 square kilometres or 485 acres).The park was the site of The Great Exhibition of 1851, for which the Crystal Palace was designed by Joseph Paxton.The park has become a traditional location for mass demonstrations. Hyde Park
Hyde Park is one of the largest parks in central London, England and one of the Royal Parks of London, famous for its Speakers' Corner. The park is divided in two by the Serpentine Lake. The park is contiguous with Kensington Gardens, which is widely assumed to be part of Hyde Park, but is technically separate.
The Tower of London
The Tower of London is the most famous of all the historical buildings in London. It stands today almost unchanged since it was built in the 11th century. In the past the Tower of London served both as a palace and as a state prison, but it is a museum today.
The Tower of London
The Tower Bridge
Nelson's Column. In the middle of Trafalgar Square stands Nelson’s monument – a tall column with the figure of Nelson at its top. The column is guarded by four bronze lions. The column was built between 1840 and 1843 to commemorate Admiral Horatio Nelson's death at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The 5.5 m (18 ft) statue of Nelson stands on top of a 46 m (151 ft) granite column. The statue faces south, towards the Palace of Westminster and along Pall Mall, where his ships are represented on the top of each flagpole. The top of the Corinthian column (based on one from the Temple of Mars Ultor in Rome) is decorated with bronze acanthus leaves cast from British cannons. The square pedestal is decorated with four bronze panels, cast from captured French guns, depicting Nelson's four great victories. The monument was designed by architect William Railton in 1838, and built by the firm Peto & Grissell.
Trafalgar Square is in the centre of the West End of London. On the north side there is the National Gallery; in the north-east corner there is National Portrait Gallery, and in the centre there is Nelson’s Column with the figure of the great seaman. Trafalgar Square is the place where mass meetings and demonstrations take place.
The British Museum is the largest and richest museum in the world. It consists of the National Library and Museum of History, Archaeology, Art and Ethnography. It was founded in 1753 and contains one of the world’s richest collections of antiquities. The Egyptian Galleries contain human and animal mummies. Some parts of Athens’ Parthenon are in the Greek section The British Museum
The British Museum
The British Museum
Piccadilly Circus is a square in the central part of London.
Piccadilly Circus is a square in the central part of London.
The Monument to the Great Fire of London. The Monument to the Great Fire of London, more commonly known as The Monument, is a 61 meter (202 feet) tall stone Roman doric column in the City of London, near to the northern end of London Bridge. . It is located at the junction of Monument Street and Fish Street Hill, 61 meters (202 feet) from where the Great Fire of London started in 1666 The Monument consists of a large fluted Doric column built of Portland stone topped with a gilded urn of fire, and was designed by Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke. Its 61-metre height marks the monument's distance to the site of Thomas Farynor, the king's baker's shop in Pudding Lane, where the fire began. At the time of construction (between 1671 and 1677) it was the tallest freestanding stone column in the world. It is possible to reach the top of the monument by climbing up the narrow winding staircase of 311 steps. A cage (see picture) was added in the mid-19th century at the top of the Monument to prevent people jumping off, after six people had committed suicide between 1788 and 1842. Three sides of the base of the monument carry inscriptions in Latin.
Stonehenge is one of the most famous in the world. This ancient circle of stones stands in Southwest England. Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument, presumably built by Druids, members of an order of priests in ancient Britain. Tintagel Castle is King Arthur’s reputed birthplace. Canterbury Cathedral is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, head of the Church of England. Why it was built a misery…
Regent's Park (officially The Regent's Park) is one of the Royal Parks of London. It is in the northern part of central London partly in the City of Westminster and partly in the London Borough of Camden. The park has an outer ring road called the Outer Circle (4.3 km) and an inner ring road called the Inner Circle, which contains the most carefully tended section of the park, Queen Mary's Gardens. The north-east end of the park contains London Zoo. There are several public gardens with flowers and specimen plants, including Queen Mary's Gardens in the Inner Circle, in which the Open Air Theatre is located Regent's Park
The British Education System Live and Learn…
ENGLISH SCHOOLS STATE SCHOOLS PRIMARY SCHOOLS INFANT SCHOOLS JUNIOR SCHOOLS SECONDARY SCHOOLS Grammar schools/ Comprehensive schools PRIVATE SCHOOLS Independent schools / Preparatory schools
Oxford University is situated in the town of Oxford in England. As a centre of learning it was established in the 12th century. Most of the colleges in Oxford are built of grey stone: they have stood there for many centuries.
Cambridge University Cambridge is one of the most beautiful towns of England. Cambridge is famous for its world-known University, which consists of twenty nine colleges. The oldest of them was founded in 1288.
William Shakespeare 1564-1616 William Shakespeare was born on April 23, 1564 in Stratford - on – Avon. One of the best known English playwrights was Shakespeare. He draw ideas for his tragedies and comedies from the history of England and ancient Rome. Many experts consider Shakespeare the greatest writer and the greatest playwright in English language. William Shakespeare wrote 47 plays which may be divided into: comedies - “A Midsummer Night’s Dream”; tragedies – “Hamlet”, “Othello”, “King Lear”, “Macbeth”; and historical plays - “Richard III”, “Romeo and Juliet”, “ Julius Caesar”, “Antony and Cleopatra”.
Robert Burns 1759-1796 Robert Burns is Scotland greatest poet. Robert began to write poems when he was 15 years old. In his poems he described with love and understanding every things and people. Robert Burns wrote a lot of poems. They are full of the heroes of his mother’s stories and the farmers and workmen of the countryside. They are full of life.
George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) Lord George Gordon Byron was born in 1788 in England. His free-spirited life style combined with his rare poetic gift makes him one of the most famous figures of the Romantic Era. His famous works such as: “Stanzas to Augusta”, “The Prisoner of Chillon”, “Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage”, “Manfred” draw readers into the passion, humors and conviction of a poet whose life and work truly embodied the Romantic spirit.
Charles Dickens 1812- 1870 Charles Dickens was born in London in 1812. Charles Dickens is one of the greatest novelists in the English literature. In his books he showed a real world and people of Victorian England. In 1837 he published his first novel “The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club”. Than he published novel after novel – “Oliver Twist”, “Dombey and Son”, “David Copperfield” and many other good books.
Charlotte Bronte 1816-1855 Сharlotte Bronte was born in a small town in England in 1816. Charlotte received her education at an orphanage (which she described in her novel “Jane Eyre”). After that she worked as a governess and a teacher. The works of Charlotte Bronte, together with Charles Dickens, William Thackery and Elisabeth Gaskell are considered belong to the fine school of English realism of the first half of the 19th century. Her first novel “The Professor” was published only after Charlotte’s death. The best novel “Jane Eyre” was published in 1847, in 1849 the novel “Shirley” was published. The last novel “Vilette” came out in 1853. Charlotte Bronte died from tuberculosis in 1855.
Oscar Wilde 1854-1900 Oscar Wilde was born in Dublin on October 16, 1854. At school, and later at Oxford, Oscar displayed gift for art and humanities. After graduating from the university, Wilde turned his attention to writing, travelling and lecturing. His most famous works appeared over the next ten years. The most popular are “The Happy Prince and Other Tales”, “Windermere’s Fan”, “An Ideal Husband”, “The Importance of Being Earnest”. Wilde also wrote poems, essays, reviews, letters. He died in Paris in 1900.
Jerome K. Jerome 1859-1927 Jerome Klapka Jerome was born in Edinburgh on May2, 1859 into the family of ruined businessman. His first literary success was a one-act comedy which was performed in the Globe theatre in London in 1886. In 1889 a collection of his articles was published. They were published as a book under the title “The Idle Thoughts of an Idle Fellow”. This book became very popular in England, and it was published 105 times in 4 years. In 1889 Jerome’s best book “Three Men in a Boat” also came out. Jerome’s last book was his autobiography “My Life and Time”. He died in 1927.
Conan Doyle 1859-1930 Arthur Conan Doyle was a great writer. He was born in Scotland into a family of Irish origin. He was a doctor. Conan Doyle was one of the first to start the fashion of the detective story. Conan Doyle created his famous character, Sherlock Holmes, in 1885. Six years later, when Conan Doyle wrote several stories about this detective, the name of Sherlock Holmes became a name that everybody knew. Conan Doyle was a famous writer. He became popular because of his live for people. He died in 1930.
The Beatles is one of Britain’s most influential pop groups, fest performing in 1959 in Liverpool. The group included: Paul McCartney, John Lennon, George Harrison and Ringo Starr. At first, the group performed music that was influenced by American rock’n’roll.
The Beatles John, Paul, George and Ringo were amazing and talented boys who made a unique contribution to music and it made a revolution in pop history. The boys composed songs for the youth. The songs seemed more musical and more exciting than others’. Their songs and unusial aense of humour drew the people’s attention. Many more people began listening to pop music.
QUEEN Freddie Mercury Brian May Roger Taylor John Diacon
Q U E E N
Britain’s Ecological Activity
Nature is under threat! One country’s pollution can be every country’s problem.
Environmental protection is of a universal concern!
Sport in Britain
Football is the most popular game in the United Kingdom. England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland have their own Football Leagues and national teams. Garners are played on Saturday afternoons from August to April. In addition to the FL games there is a competition called the Football Association Cup. The Cup Final is played at Wembley Stadium (London) in May.
Golf is the Scottish national game. It originated in the XV century and the most famous golf course in the world, known as the Royal and Ancient Club, is at St. Andrew’s.
Rugby is popular British sport which is played in other countries. It is also called rugby football. The story is told that in 1823 boys at Rugby school in England were playing football in the normal way, when suddenly one boy picked the ball up and ran with it. That was how a new game was born.