Описание презентации по отдельным слайдам:
POLITICAL SYSTEM OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND
Union Jack British national flag is called "Union Jack". It symbolises the Union of England, Scotland and Ireland and dates back from 1801. The flag is made up of the crosses of the patron saints of: England (St George's red cross on a white field) Ireland (St Patrick's red diagonals on a white field) Scotland (St Andrew's white diagonals on a blue field) Wales is not represented because when the flag first appeared it was already united with England.
ENGLAND Is the largest and most populous constituent country of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 85% of the total population of the United Kingdom live there. Population: 2006 - est.: 50,690,000 (2001 – census: 49,138,831) Area: 130,395 km² Constituent – základní, volební; Census – sčítání lidu;
The national floral emblem of England Tudor Rose was adopted as a national emblem of England around the time of the Wars of the Roses. The rose is used in a variety of contexts in its use for England's representation. Tudor Rose the British Twenty Pence coin the Royal Coat of Arms
The Constitution unwritten, based on traditions and common law it´s easy to change it (by an Act of Parliament or by general agreement) divides power between 3 independent branches: 1. legislative 2. executive 3. judicial
1. The LEGISLATIVE power: THE PARLIAMENT makes laws, votes taxes and public expenses checks the work of the Government (the Sovereign, the House of Commons, the House of Lords)
The Houses of Parliament
The Government THE SOVEREIGN at present Queen Elizabeth II. mainly symbolical function (she takes part at ceremonials, traditional celebrations,..) she appoints ministers, judges and governors she is the head of the Armed Forces and of the Church of England THE HOUSE OF LORDS has over 1000 members the head is the Lord Chancellor made up of the Lords of Temporal (about 900), the Lords Spiritual (2 Archbishops of Canterbury and York + 24 bishops of the Church of England) they sign the bills to consider it as a law, they can refuse bills got from The House of Commons THE HOUSE OF COMMONS consists of 651 Members of Parliament (MPs) – each represents a particular part of the country they pass the bills the Speaker (elected by MPs) = the chief officer - he presides over the house elections – every 5 years minimum voting age – 18 years candidates must be over 21
Benches in the House of Commons Chamber are coloured green. In contrast, the House of Lords is decorated in red.
2. The EXECUTIVE power: THE GOVERNMENT the head is Prime Minister (the leader of the party, which has the majority in The House of Commons) Present PM is Tony Blair – the representative of the Labour Party (lives at 11 Downing Street) he chooses his government ministers (about 20) = the Cabinet (formally appointed by the Queen) the second strongest party forms an Opposition (Shadow-Cabinet) the Prime Minister with the Cabinet have real political power
3. The JUDICIAL power: THE SUPREME COURT consists of the Court of Appeal and the High Court of Justice Appeal – odvolávat se;
Political parties in the UK today: The Labour Party - left wing, their program includes many social reforms and active social politics The Conservative Party – right wing, they put more emphasis in private enterprise The Liberals Social and Liberal Democrats - left of centre Scottish National Party (SNP) Sinn Féin - the oldest political movement in Ireland Emphasis – důraz; Enterprise – podnikání;
Краткое описание документа:
Political System of Great Britain (2)
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a constitutional monarchy. It means that the sovereign reigns but does not rule.
Britain does not have a written constitution, but a set of laws.
Parliament is the most important authority in Britain. Technically Parliament is made up of three parts: the Monarch, the House of Lords; and the House of Commons. In reality the House of Commons is the only one of the three which has true power.
The monarch serves formally as head of state. But the monarch is expected to be politically neutral and should not make political decisions.
The present sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II. She was crowned in Westminster Abbey in 1953.
The House of Commons consists of Members of Parliament. There are 650 of them in the House of Commons. They are elected by secret ballot. General elections are held every five years. The country is divided into 650 constituencies. All citizens, aged 18 and registered in a constituency, have the right to vote. But voting is not compulsory in Britain. Only persons convicted of corrupt and certain mentally ill patients don't take part in voting.
There are few political parties in Britain thanks to the British electoral system. The main ones are: the Conservative Party, the Labour Party and the Liberal / Social Democratic Alliance.
Each political party puts up one candidate for each constituency. The one who wins the most votes is elected MP for that area.
The party which wins the most seats in Parliament forms the Government. Its leader becomes the Prime Minister. His first job is to choose his Cabinet. The Prime Minister usually takes policy decisions with the agreement of the Cabinet.
The functions of the House of Commons are legislation and scrutiny of government activities. The House of Commons is presided over by the Speaker. The Speaker is appointed by the Government.
The House of Lords comprises about 1,200 peers. It is presided by the Lord Chancellor. The House of Lords has no real power. It acts rather as an advisory council.
It's in the House of Commons that new bills are introduced and debated. If the majority of the members are in favour of a bill, it goes to the House of Lords to be debated. The House of Lords has the right to reject a new bill twice.
But after two rejections they are obliged to accept it. And finally a bill goes to the monarch to be signed. Only then it becomes law.
Parliament is responsible for British national policy. Local governments are responsible for organizing of education, police and many others.