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Every country is proud of its talented scientists. Russia is a native land for many world famous men of science: Mikhail Lomonosov, Dmitry Mendeleev, Alexander Popov and many others. And, of course, the 20-th century is marked by outer space exploration. These words were said by Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky, the pioneer of space travel. “Mankind will not remain on Earth forever” /k.e. tsiolkovsky/
Books were his teachers Tsiolkovsky was born on September, 17, 1857. His family was not rich, but it was very large: Konstantin had 17 brothers and sisters. At the age of 10, he lost his hearing as the result of scarlet fever. After that he couldn’t go to school and educated himself at home. His books were his teachers, and he read every book in his father’s library.
Dreams about spaceflights For some years Konstantin lived in Moscow. His visits to the main Moscow libraries helped his education too. At the age of 17, while living in Moscow, he first dreamed about spaceflights. The novels of Jules Verne inspired him. He thought not only about going into outer space but also about living there.
Theories of interplanetary travel In Kaluga Tsiolkovsky became a well-known scientist and wrote and published his theories of spaceflights and interplanetary travel. His first article on rocketry appeared in 1903. He wrote over 500 scientific papers. He never created any rocket himself, but he influenced many young Russian engineers and designers. He suggested the idea of a multi-stage rocket and a man-made satellite, which could serve as a laboratory for studying the Universe.
The founder of space –rocketry engineering S.P. Korolyov studied the ideas of Tsiolkovsky and became the founder of modern space-rocketry engineering and practical cosmonautics. He was the chief constructor of the first Earth sputniks and spaceships. In 1957 the first Earth artificial satellite in the world was put into orbit with the help of the systems Korolyov has designed. The spaceships, in which man first flew into space, were made under his guidance.
Childhood and schooldays Korolyov was born in 1906 in the small Ukranian town of Zhitomir into the family of teachers. He spent his childhood with his grandparents in the town of Nezhin where he studied at home with a teacher. In 1922, at the age of 15, Sergei began to study at a vocational building school in Odessa, where he received his secondary education and became a builder. He was interested in mathematics, literature and read a lot. In 1923 Korolyov joined a Glider Pilots’ Club, where he learned to construct gliders and fly them.
The road to the stars In 1925 Korolyov entered the Kiev Polytechnical Institute where he studied aviation and mathematics. After 2 years he came to Moscow. In the day-time he worked at an aeroplane factory and in the evening studied at the Moscow Higher Technical School. There he learned about K.E.Tsiolkovsky ideas on space travel and his rocket. In 1930 Sergei graduated from Moscow High Technical School and became an aviation engineer. At the same time he finished the Moscow Pilot School.
The Chief Constructor During the Great Patriotic War S.P. Korolyov constructed a jet engine for aeroplanes and rockets. On October 4, 1957 the first man-made sputnik of the Earth was launched into space. It was the result of 30 years hard work and the Chief Constructor was S.P. Korolyov.
The stages of the space era Then the dogs were sent into space and only after a lot of experiments the first cosmonaut in the world, Yuri Gagarin went into space in the spaceship “Vostok” on April, 12, 1961. After this there were many other longer and more difficult flights. Then followed rockets to the Moon, Mars and Venus.
A person who opened space era For his brilliant work in the name of science and progress S.P. Korolyov was awarded 2 Gold Stars of the Hero of Socialist Labour. S.P. Korolyov died in 1966. People will always remember the names of those who opened a new era of space exploration, and the name of S.P. Korolyov is one of them.
108 minutes which changed the history of mankind April, 12, 1961 will never be forgotten. On that day Yuri Alexeyevich Gagarin first circled the globe in the spaceship “Vostok” for 108 minutes. Those 108 minutes were a turning point in history. The dreams of many generations, the ideas of science-fiction writers and thinkers came true. Yuri Gagarin’s name has become a legend, a symbol of heroism in the name of science and progress.
A great desire to fly His life was simple like thousands of others: a schoolboy, a vocational school student, a pilot, a husband, a father of 2 children. Gagarin’s “space” biography began at a lecture about the work of Tsiolkovsky. And then he fell ill with the disease that has no name in medicine: a great desire to go up into the sky, a desire to fly.
The way to the stars The Saratov Air Club, the Orenburg Air Pilots’ School, service in Air Force units in the North, and the Cosmonaut Training Centre in 1960. This is the way of Y. Gagarin to the stars. The first group of pilots - future cosmonauts - was made up of young professional airmen, strong, clever and prepared to take risks and work hard. Why did the choice fall on him?
A patriot, a pilot and a modest man An instructor of the first group of cosmonauts E.A. Karpov said, ”Yuri Gagarin possessed all important qualities: devoted patriotism, complete faith in the success of the flight, excellent health, optimism, a quick mind, courage and resolution, self –control, orderliness, industriousness, simplicity, modesty, great human warmth and attentiveness to others”.
His name will be immortal Yuri Gagarin took an active part in public and political life. He gave all his knowledge and enthusiasm to the preparation for each new space flight. He taught others and studied himself. He dreamed of the time when spaceships would fly to other planets, and he would be on board of them. But on March 27, 1968, Yuri Gagarin was killed in an air crash. He was only 34. His name will remain immortal in the history of mankind, in the history of the Earth, which he called “the Blue Planet”.
Valentina Tereshkova – the first woman in space Valentina Tereshkova was the first woman in space, orbiting the Earth 48 times in the spaceship “Vostok – 6” in 1963. She orbited the Earth for almost three days, showing that women have the same ability in space as men. Later she toured the world promoting Soviet science and feminism. She also served on the Soviet Women's Committee and the Supreme Soviet Presidium.
Svetlana Savitskaya – the second russian woman - cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya, the world’s 111-th astronaut, was born in 1948 in Moscow. Her father was a very famous pilot and twice a Hero of the Soviet Union. Svetlana decided to become a pilot at the age of 16. By her 17th birthday she had made 450 parachute jumps. At the age of 18 she began pilot training and entered the Moscow Aviation Institute. The British newspapers called her “Miss Sensation” when in 1970 she became the aerobatics world champion. She set 18 world records and made 600 parachute jumps. Svetlana worked as a flying instructor and a test pilot. In 1980 she was chosen as a cosmonaut. In 1982 she became the second woman in space and the first woman to walk in space in 1984.
elena Kondakova graduated from Moscow Bauman High Technical School. After that she worked as an engineer in the rocket – space Corporation “Energy”. She was included into the team of Cosmonauts in 1989. Elena became the third russian woman – cosmonaut, and the first, who lived on the orbital space station “Mir” for a long time – more than 5 months. Her first space flight began on October, 4, 1994, and the crew returned home on March, 22, 1995. Elena’s second flight on the Space shuttle “Atlantis” took place in May, 1997.
Тема "Исследования космоса" есть во многих УМК по английскому языку, поэтому данная презентация может стать хорошим подспорьем для работы на уроках английского языка по этой теме. В ней есть наглядный и текстовый материал о К.Э. Циолковском, С.П.Королёве, Ю.А.Гагарине, В. Терешковой , С.Савицкой, Е.Кондаковой. Презентация знакомит с историей полетов в космос, начиная с запуска первых спутников Земли и полетов собак до долгосрочной работы космонавтов разных стран на МКС. На слайдах учащиеся увидят космические аппараты, которые были сконструированы для работы на Луне и исследований разных планет солнечной системы.
Номер материала: 449730
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