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In the English – speaking World. “ … a language that came from nowhere to conquer the world…”
Презентация разработана и создана Свечкаревой Л. В., учителем английского языка МОУ Туриловская СОШ Ростовская область.
Language Families. A language family is a group of languages that have a common origin. Among the most important language families are the Indo – European, Finno – Ugric, Indo – Chinese, Malayo – Polynesian and Semitic. Various branches exist within language families.
The Indo – European family. In the Indo – European family Germanic and Italic are subfamilies, and the Romance languages are a subgroup of the Italic. Proto – Germanic gave rise to Dutch, English, German and the Scandinavian tongues. Proto – Romance gave rise to French, Italian, Spanish and other tongues. Celtic Latin Germanic Gaelic Old British Irish ScotsGaelic Breton Welsh Old Norse French Italian Spanish Norwegian Swedish German English
The Indo – European Family. French, German, Italian, Russian and English are Indo – European languages But French and Italian are more closely related than Italian and German or English and Russian.
Indo – European language Family Baltic Armenian Celtic ( Welsh, Gaelic…) Italic ( Latin, French, Italian, Portuguese) Germanic ( Bavarian, English, German, Swedish, Yiddish, Danish) Albanian Slavonic ( Slavic) (Bulgarian, Czech, Polish, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Byelorussian, Macedonian, Ukrainian) Hellenic Greek Indic Iranian Percian, Tadzhik, Kurdish)
The Making of English. Old English . From the 5th century AD onwards, waves of invaders from northern Europe came across the North Sea to England. They were Angles, Saxons and Jutes and came from present – day Germany and Scandinavian. They drove the Celtic – speaking inhabitants of England westwards. They established themselves and their languages in the territory. The resulting mixture of Germanic and Scandinavian languages became the earliest form of English.
“The English language arrived in Britain on the point of a sword.” In 1066, William the Conqueror led the Norman French invasion of England. For a period of nearly 300 years French became the official language although English continued to be spoken by the majority of common people. Modern English has its main origins in the mixture of these two languages, Anglo – Saxon and French.
“The English languages is the sea which receives tributaries from every region under heaven” French loans: appetite, bacon, cream, beef, dinner, fruit, salad, sugar, supper, taste… Art, beauty, melody, story, title, poet, painting, literature, colour, music… Button, collar, fur, jewel, pearl, dress… Chair, lamp, towel, curtain, chimney, ceiling... Flower, comfort, large, cry, poor, travel, trip, forest, usual, honest, foreign… Latin Loans: Discuss, formal, history, library, desk, intellect, item,… Combine, imaginary, interest, necessary, popular, interrupt, depression…
The spread of British English. During the 17th and 18th centuries, British navigators sailed across the seas with the aim of extending Britain’s power and prosperity. They colonized new territories around the world, taking their language with them. From the 19th century the British Navy slowly became the dominant force on the World’s sea. By Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee in 1897, the British Empire had possessions in all five continents totalling about a quarter of the world’s land mass and about the same proportion of the world’s population. English was imposed as the official language of the new colonies.
Independence and change. As the former colonies gained independence, most of them joined the new association of the Commonwealth. Members recognize the Queen as a symbolic leader and share English as a common language, but have their own, independent governments. The present – day Commonwealth is estimated to have a population of over 100 million. In many of the countries of the old British Empire English continues to be accepted for official or semi – official purposes. Local languages and varieties of English are used in everyday conversation.
“ Language is the dress of thought. “ Samuel Johnson The movement of English around the world began with the pioneering voyages to the Americas and Asia, Continued with the 19th – century colonial developments in Africa and the South Pacific, And took a significant further step when it was adopted in the 20th century as an official or semi – official language in over 60 countries And is represented in every continent and in the three major oceans – Atlantic, Indian and Pacific.
“Words are, of course, the most powerful drug used by mankind.” Rudyard Kipling The present – day world status of English is the result of two factors: The expansion of British colonial power, which peaked towards the end of the 19th century and the emergence of the US as the leading economic power .
English as a foreign language 100 – 1000 million English as a second language 150 – 300 million Native language 320 – 380 million
“England and America are two countries separated by the same language” George Bernard Show Of all 2700 worlds languages English is one of the richest. English has a vocabulary of about 500 000 words. German – 185 000, French – fewer than 100 000.
A World Language. English is the language of international air traffic control, and is currently developing its role in international maritime, policing, and emergency services. English is the chief language of international business and academic conferences, and the leading language of international tourism. It is the language of sports: the official language of the Olympics.
A World Language. Three quarters of the world’s mail and its telexes and telegrammes are in English. More than half of the world’s scientific periodicals and 94 per cent of Internet communications are in English.
A World Language. English is the main language of popular music, advertising, satellite broadcasting, home computers and video games. In many countries of the world today, most people’s familiarity with English comes from films, TV and other types of American entertainment.
Standard English and Regional Accents. Received Pronunciation ( RP ) or BBC English ( so called because it is used be BBC announcers) is typical for many people in the south of England. It is also used in teaching English in many parts of the world. It has been associated with power and high social class since the 14th century.
The King’s or Queen’s English: Good correct English as it should be spoken. The best advice to all those who wish to become proficient in English was given in 1906 by the Fowler brothers in their famous book “ The King’s English”. It is still sound advice for any student of English. “ Prefer the familiar word to the far – fetched. Prefer the concrete word to the abstract. Prefer the single word to the circumlocution. Prefer the short word to the long. Prefer the Saxon word to the Romance.”
Accents. Accent is the sound of a person’s pronunciation of the English language. It shows where a person comes from and what class he/she belongs to. Britain has many different accents. Each of the 4 countries in the UK has its own accent. Within England most of the counties have a different accent. Large towns have accents, too. Liverpool has the “ Scouse” accent. Birmingham has its own “ Brummie” accent. The accent of Newcastle – on – Tyne is called “ Geordie”. An RP accent is important and will help people to get jobs and a position in society.
Cockney. Is a way of speaking English that is typical of people who live in the eastern area of London. It is known as the London dialect. Cockney means East End working class. “Th” pronounced like “f”, or “ v “, they neglect the “ t “ ( bottle – er bo ), silent “ h “ – edgeog ( hedgehog, “old” becomes “ol”. Cockney will drop letters in many different ways.
Rhyming Slang. Is a way of speaking , originally popular among cockneys, in which a rhyming phrase or part of it is substituted for a standard word. “ loaf of bread” means “ head” “ apples and pears” – “ stairs” “ bees and honey” – “ money” “ rabbit and pork” – “ talk” “ plates of meat” – “ feet” “ use your loaf” – “ use your intelligent”
Slang is a language that rolls up its sleeves, spits on its hands, and goes to work. Carl Sandburg
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Данная презентация вводит учащихся в мир английского языка. Она расширяет их знания об истории зарождения и развитии языка. Объясняются понятия языковая семья и Индо - Европейская языковая семья, сведения об языках, входящих в состав Индо - Европейской языковой семьи.
Формируются знания о создании английского языка, источниках лексического заимствования. Представлена информация о королевском английском и сленгах (кокни), различии между британским английским и американским.
Учащиеся расширят свои знания о том, как и где говорят на английском языке и, как он помогает миру общаться.