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Passive Voice Пассивный залог (passive voice) показывает, что лицо или предмет, выраженное подлежащим, испытывает действие на себе: The big cake was baked by Sam. Пассивный залог употребляется когда исполнитель действия очевиден или несуществен когда действие или его результат более интересны, чем исполнитель.
В страдательном залоге не употребляются: 1) Непереходные глаголы, т.к. при них нет прямых дополнений, которые могли бы стать подлежащими при глаголе в форме Passive. Переходными в англ. языке называются глаголы, после которых в действительном залоге следует прямое дополнение; в русском языке это дополнение, отвечающее на вопросы винительного падежа – кого? что?: to build строить, to see видеть, to take брать, to open открывать и т.п. Непереходными глаголами называются такие глаголы, которые не требуют после себя прямого дополнения: to live жить, to come приходить, to fly летать, cry плакать и др. 2) Глаголы-связки: be – быть, become – становиться/стать. 3) Модальные глаголы. 4) Некоторые переходные глаголы не могут использоваться в страдательном залоге. В большинстве случаев это глаголы состояния, такие как: to fit годиться, быть впору to have иметь to lack не хватать, недоставать to like нравиться to resemble напоминать, быть похожим to suit годиться, подходить
Пассивный залог в английском языке употребляется, как правило, с переходными глаголами, т.е. с глаголами, которые имеют после себя дополнение: 1) Ряд английских глаголов может иметь два дополнения – прямое и косвенное. Наиболее употребительны to tell, to give, to offer, to show, to pay, to promise, to send, to teach, to allow, to ask, to answer, to forgive, to invite, to advise. Такие глаголы образуют двойные конструкции в пассивном залоге. A very good job was offered to me. I was offered a very good job. 2) Многие глаголы в английском языке употребляются с дополнением, имеющим предлог. В таких случаях предлог занимает место после глагола в пассивном залоге. The doctor was sent for. This film is much spoken about.
Глаголы to read, to sell, to wash, to clean, to peel, to crease, to break, to deform, to wear, to burn употребляются в форме активного залога, хотя и имеют пассивное значение. This dress washes and wears well and doesn’t crease. Love stories sell well. Dry leaves burn well. Такие глаголы, как: to have, to chance, to happen, to seem, to appear, to lack, to become, to fit, to suit, to resemble не употребляются в пассивном залоге, так как они обозначают не действие (или процесс), а состояние лица или предмета. John resembles his father. He has become a real professional. С пассивными конструкциями часто употребляются предлоги of, from, with, by. I was interrupted by a loud knock on the door. My country house is made of wood. This pie is made from eggs, milk and flour. He was shot with a gun.
to be + V3 - ed Passive Voice
* PASSIVE VOICE Simple Progressive Perfect P.P Future will + be + V3, V (ed) Will be + being+ V3, V (ed) will have been +V3, V(ed) Present Am/is/are V3, V(ed) Am/is/are + +being+V3, V (ed) Have / has been + V3, V (ed) Past Was/were V3, V(ed) was / were + being+ V3, V(ed) Had been + V3, V(ed)
Active Passive When rewriting active sentences in passive, the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive A: Somebody cleans this room every day. OBJECT P: This room is cleaned every day. SUBJECT
the verb BE has to be in the same tense as in active sentence A: Someone stole my sister’s bike yesterday. P: My sister’s bike was stolen yesterday. stole – past simple => BE = was/were to show who did the action, we use BY This house was built by my grandfather.
to show who did the action, we use BY This house was built by my grandfather. I => me she => her you => you he => him we => us they => them I opened the door. => The door was opened by me. She cleans the room.=> The room is cleaned by her.
Ann takes the medicine by Ann. The medicine taken is
Translate the verbs in Passive 1. A lot of houses (построено) in Moscow. 2. When (было написано) this letter? 3. Many places of interest (посещаются) by tourists. 4. When (была переведена) this article? 5. English (говорят) in many countries of the world. 6. The student (задают) many questions by the teacher now. 7. The film (показывали) when we entered the hall. 8. The device (был протестирован) by last month.
Complete the sentences (Active or Passive Voice). Use Simple Present or Simple Past. The Statue of Liberty (give) to the United States by France. It (be) a present on the 100th anniversary of the United States. The Statue of Liberty (design) by Frederic Auguste Bartholdi. It (complete) in France in July 1884. In 350 pieces, the statue then (ship) to New York, where it (arrive) on 17 June 1885. The pieces (put) together and the opening ceremony (take) place on 28 October 1886. The Statue of Liberty (be) 46 m high (93 m including the base). The statue (represent) the goddess of liberty. She (hold) a torch in her right hand and a tablet in her left hand. On the tablet you (see / can) the date of the Declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776). Every year, the Statue of Liberty (visit) by many people from all over the world.
ACTIVE or PASSIVE ? The window (break) _________________. Someone (cook) _________ a meal in the kitchen right now. We (ask)___________________ several questions by the police tonight. My cat (run over) _____________ by the milk van. This homework (must do) ___________ tonight. Poems ( write) ________________________________ in every culture . People all over the world (know) ___________ her name. The truck (loot)_____________________________________ when the police arrived. The guests (serve) ___________ some tea after they had a seat. The students (do) ____________ these exercises before. is broken/ was broken is cooking were asked / will be asked was run over must be done are written / were written/ have been written Know/ knew was being looted/ had already been looted were served have done
Change the following into Passive 1. They sell milk in this shop. 2. I have translated the whole text. 3. They broke the window last week. 4. When I came home, they had eaten the sweets. 5. We shall do the work in the evening. 6. He wrote this book in the 19th century. 7. They were playing tennis from four till five. 8. They have made a number of important experiments in this laboratory. 9. Livingstone explored Central Africa in the 19th century. 10. By the middle of autumn we had planted all the trees. 11. They will stage this play at the beginning of next season. 12. They have forgotten the story.
Change the following into Passive. 1. Did they tell her the story? 2. What must we do about this? 3. What questions did they ask? 4. Has anyone changed the curtains yet? 5. Where did they park the car? 6. Will anyone tell him about the accident? 7. Has anyone dusted that blackboard yet? 8. Who is cleaning my room?
Choose the correct answer 1. Hazel won the lottery. A. The lottery had been won by Hazel. B. The lottery was won by Hazel. C. The lottery is won by Hazel.
2. The police interrogated Bryan. A. Bryan is interrogated by the police. B. Bryan was interrogated by the police. C. Bryan had been interrogated by the police.
3. Peter has paid for the pizza. A. The pizza was paid for by Peter. B. The pizza has been paid for by Peter. C. The pizza is paid for by Peter.
4. Joy will meet you at the airport. A. You will have met Joy at the airport. B. You would be met by Joy at the airport. C. You will be met by Joy at the airport.
5. People highly respect his opinion. A. His opinion will be highly respected. B. His opinion was highly respected. C. His opinion is highly respected.
6. Amanda upset me by what she said. A. I am upset by what he said. B. I was upset by what Amanda said. C. I would be upset by what Amanda said.
7. He is going to inform us later. A. We would be informed by him later. B. We are going to be informed by him later. C. We were going to be informed by him later.
8. The police arrested 10 rioters last night. A. Ten rioters were going to be arrested last night. B. Ten rioters were arrested last night. C. Ten rioters should have been arrested last night.
9. The Doctor may visit us next week. A. We may be visited by the Doctor next week. B. We maybe visited by the Doctor next week. C. We must be visited by the Doctor next week.
10. Studying hard could have helped you. A. You could have helped by studying hard. B. You could have been helped by studying hard. C. You could be helped by studying hard.
Write sentences using Passive – present 1. (the office/clean/ now) 2. (these rooms/clean/every day) 3. (glass/make/from sand) 4. (tickets/sell/already) 5. (this room/not/use/very often) 6. (we/allow/to park/already here) 7. (they/ repaire/ the clock/ now) 8. (she/buy / new skates/ this week)
Write sentences using the Passive – past 1. (the house/paint/by last month) 2. (three people/injure/in the accident) 3. (my bicycle/steal/a few days ago) 4. (when/this bridge/build?) 5. (you/invite/to the party/last week?) 6. (how/these windows/break?) 7. (I/not/wake up/by the noise) 8. (the workers/ load/ the trucks/ at twelve o'clock yesterday)
Two people _____ in a car crash. 1. injured 2. have injured 3. have been injured New York police _____ the thief. 1. was arrested 2. have arrested 3. have been arrested
1. do 2. be done 3. have done Something must _____ by him before it's too late. The dinner ____ later. 1.will cook 2.will be cooked 3.has been cooked
1. finish 2. have finished I think we must ____ everything on Monday. 3. have been finished This is a large dining room. Many dinners ____ here. 1. are eaten 2. are being eaten 3. has been eaten
1. stole 2. has stolen 3. has been stolen While I was hiking, my phone ____ from my hotel room. Chess ____ for hundreds of years. 1. have played 2. have been played 3. was played
1. was built 2. built 3. has built A well-known architect _____ the skyscraper. This supermarket ____ in 2014. 1. built 2. was built 3. has built
1. caught 2. has caught 3. has been caught A mouse ____ by the cat. A lot of different species of sharks ____ in the ocean. 1. can find 2. can be found 3. can found
1. will be built 2. will built 3. is building A new school ____ next year. A lot of people ____ by the McDonalds Corporation this week. 1. are employed 2. were employed 3. have been employed
1. introduced 2. was introduced 3. is introduced The footballer ____ to his new coach yesterday.
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Предлагаю вашему вниманию разработку урока по английскому языку на тему " Пассивный залог". Презентация составлена для повторения и отработки данного грамматического материала в 9-11 классах. Презентация содержит основные правила употребления страдательного залога, а также упражнения и тест для его отработки.Может использоваться с любыми учебно-методическим комплексом по английскому языку.К данной презентации мною было составлено два теста и подборка упражнений на отработку образования и употребления пассивного залога.Буду рада,если эта презентация поможет вашим ученикам лучше понять и усвоить пассивный залог!