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VOLCANOES ВЫПОЛНИЛА УЧИТЕЛЬ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА МБОУ ГИМНАЗИИ №136 ЕМЕЛОВА ГАЛИНА ИННОКЕТЬЕВНА
VOLCANOES The word “volcano” was derived from the Italian word “vulcano” from the Latin “vulcanus” meaning “burning mountain”.
How Are Volcanoes Classified? the frequency that a volcano erupts the shape of the volcano the method that the magma and ash erupts
What are the Features of Volcanoes? The classic view of volcano is of the classic mountain shape that starts to erupt from the top of the land mass and has a large crater towards the summit. A number of the planet’s volcanoes have a rugged peak that is created by a lava dome vice a summit crater. Other types of volcanoes include extremely large plateaus that also have vents which are capable of allowing volcanic steam, gas, or even magma to escape to the Earth’s surface. Other types of volcanic structures that have been discovered include ones comprised of mud and ice.
Composite Volcanoes (Stratovolcanoes) A composite volcano is a tall mountain that is conical in shape.
Supervolcanoes A supervolcano consists of a large caldera and significantly can damage the surround area They are considered one of the most dangerous types of volcano. Ex. Krakatoa near Sumatra, the Yellowstone Caldera in Yellowstone National Park
What Are Submarine Volcanoes? A submarine volcano is normally found on the ocean floor at varying depths of water. A submarine volcano may become an island
Sub Glacial Volcanoes A sub glacial volcano develops underneath icecaps on the earth. They consist of flat lava which is located towards the upper portion of pillow lava flows. Iceland has a lot of such volcanoes.
What is a Mud Volcano? A mud volcano can reach heights of more than 700 meters and can be up to 10 km or more in diameter. The largest known mud volcano is located in Indonesia which is 2,300 ft in height and six miles in diameter. Found in Azerbaidzhan
The Nevado del Ruiz Volcano November 13, 1985. . After 69 years of being dormant, the Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Tolima, Colombia erupted causing a pyroclastic flow (a current of superheated gas and rock that moves a speed of around 450 mph (700km/h) away from the volcano) to melt the mountain’s snow cap and glaciers. This in turn sent mudslides down the mountain and into river beds that swept into the sleeping town of Armero, burying it in thick mud that had the density of concrete. Over 20,000 of the town’s 29,000 people were killed that day and another 3,000 people from the neighboring towns died as well.
Mount Punatubo The 1991 eruption of Mount Punatubo in the Philippines was one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century. The aftermath of this eruption were so significant, it was said to have affected global temperatures by about 0.9 degrees Fahrenheit in the following year. The ash cloud also caused by the eruption rose over 22 miles in the air and was one of the primary contributors to the number of deaths associated with that eruption. A large number of homes also had their roofs collapse in because of the weight of the accumulated wet ash.
Kilauea. The most active volcano in the world (not including underwater volcanoes) is another of Hawaii’s volcanoes, Kilauea. Beginning in 1983, the Kilauea volcano has been in a state of near constant eruption, relative to most volcanoes, ever since (for 30 years). It was recorded to have erupted 45 times in the 20th century. The most recent eruption of Kilauea was in March 2011. More than 90 percent of Kilauea’s surface is made up of lava that is less than 1,100 years old.
Volcanoes in the USA The most destructive volcano in the United States was the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington. Over 250 homes, 47 bridges, and 185 miles of highway were destroyed, taking the lives of over 57 people directly. The eruption produced over 540 million tons of ash covering an area of more than 22,000 square miles.
Volcanoes in the USA The biggest eruption in the United States (and the 20th century), however, was the Novarupta (Katmai) Volcano in Alaska that erupted in 1912 with almost 3 times the volume of the Mount St. Helen’s eruption. The eruption lasted over 60 hours and spewed out an estimated 15 cubic kilometers of magma. There wasn’t as much commercial damage, though, due to the fact that the region was sparsely populated.
QUESTIONS AND SUMMARY 1. What does the word “volcano” mean? 2. How are volcanoes classified? 3. What is composite volcano? 4. Where do submarine volcanoes happen? What can a submarine volcano become? 5. Where does sub glacial volcanoes develop? Where can sub glacial volcanoes be seen? 6. What is a mud volcano? Where can we see them? Let’s make a summary. 1.What new information about volcanoes have you leaned? 2. Can you name the dormant and active volcanoes? 3. How many active volcanoes are there on Earth? 4. In what countries are there more volcanoes? 5. How many people were killed when in 1669 Etna in Sicilia erupted? 6. Why was Krakatau dangerous?
VOLCANOES Источники: encyclopedia.com›topic/Volcanoes.aspx bbc.co.uk›BBC Science›…_disasters/volcano crystalinks.com›volcanoes.html images.yandex.ru›volcanoes images.yandex.ru›volcanoes
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