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доц. Пробейголова Н.
United Nations (UN) In 2007, the UN included 192 independent States The United Nations (UN) is indisputably the biggest, the most important, global and universal organization today. It was created after the Second World War, in 1945, with the aim of preventing of the next world war and local conflicts, strengthening of international safety and development of international cooperation.
The main objectives of the UN to maintain international peace and security; to develop friendly relations among Nations; to achieve international cooperation in solving international problems; promote respect for human rights and to be a Centre for harmonizing the actions of Nations in the attainment of these common ends. Upon joining the UNITED NATIONS, the State accepts the obligations contained in the Charter, which reflected the principles of international relations and the main objectives of the United Nations:
The Headquarters of the UN is situated in New York (USA). Membership: 192 Member States Headquarters: New York, United States offices: Geneva, Switzerland Vienna, Austria Nairobi, Kenya Type of organization: International Organization Official languages: Arabic, Chinese, Russian, French UN Member States
the General Assembly; the Security Council; Secretariat,; the International Court of Justice; the Trusteeship Council; the Economic Council; Social Council. The principal organs of the UN
the General Assembly is considering the principles of cooperation in the field of ensuring international peace and security; elect non-permanent members of the UN Security Council, members of the economic and Social Council; on the recommendation of the Security Council, appoints the Secretary-General of the United Nations; in conjunction with the Security Council elects the members of the International Court of Justice; coordinates international cooperation in the economic, social, cultural and humanitarian spheres; exercise other powers provided for in the Charter of the United Nations. General Assembly the chief deliberative, policymaking and representative organ
General Assembly It includes all members of the United Nations, every State shall have one vote. Decisions on important issues such as the maintenance of international peace and security, admission of new members or approve the United Nations budget, including the budgets of peacekeeping operations, shall be made by ⅔ majority. Decisions on other matters shall be taken by a simple majority. The recommendations of the Assembly reflect world opinion.
Security Council The Security Council is responsible for the maintenance of the international peace and security. All members of the UN must carry out its decisions. The Council consists of 15 members. Five of them — China, France, Russian Federation, United Kingdom, United States and France are permanent members. The remaining 10 members of the Council are elected by the General Assembly for two years on regional quotas — five seats for Africa and Asia, one is from Eastern Europe, two for Latin America, two for Western Europe. The decisions of the Council shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members. However, the decision cannot be taken, even if one of the permanent members would vote against, IE uses its right of veto. The decisions of the Council are binding on all Member States .
Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon 8-th UN Secretary General. Succeeded Kofi Annan. since 1 January 2007 Residence Sutton Place, Manhattan, New York City, United States Term length Five years, renewable indefinitely Inaugural holder Gladwyn Jebb 24 October 1945 (Acting) Trygve Lie 1 February 1946 Formation United Nations Charter, 26 June 1945
Secretaries-General of the United Nations No. Name Country of origin Took office Left office Note 1 Trygve Lie Norway 2 February 1946 10 November 1952 Resigned 2 Dag Hammarskjöld Sweden 10 April 1953 18 September 1961 Died while in office 3 U Thant Burma 30 November 1961 31 December 1971 First Secretary-General from Asia 4 Kurt Waldheim Austria 1 January 1972 31 December 1981 5 Javier Pérez de Cuéllar Peru 1 January 1982 31 December 1991 First Secretary-General from the Americas 6 Boutros Boutros-Ghali Egypt 1 January 1992 31 December 1996 First Secretary-General from Africa 7 Kofi Annan Ghana 1 January 1997 31 December 2006 8 Ban Ki-moon South Korea 1 January 2007 Incumbent
UN General Assembly may resolve non-compulsory recommendations to states, or suggestions to the UNSC (not a Parliament) decides on the admission of new members, on proposal of the UNSC adopts the budget elects the non-permanent members of the UNSC, all members of ECOSOC, on the proposal of the UNSC the UN Secretary General, and the 15 judges of the ICJ
UN Secretariat supports the other UN bodies administratively, e.g. in the organization of conferences, writing reports and studies, and the preparation of the budget-plan its chairman - the UN Secretary General - is elected by the UN General Assembly for a five-year mandate and is the most important representative of the UN Outside its headquarters in New York City, the organization has three main offices in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna.
International Court of Justice - Universal court for international law (based in The Hague) - decides disputes between states that recognize its jurisdiction and creates legal opinions the 15 judges are elected by the UN General Assembly for nine years. It renders judgement with relative majority. parties on the ICJ can only be countries, however no international organizations and other subjects of international law (not to be confused with the ICC)
UN Security Council - For international security issues - responsible for the maintenance of international peace and security the most powerful organ of the UN, as it may adopt compulsory resolutions its decisions include peacekeeping- and peace enforcement-missions, as well as non-military pressure mediums, such as trade embargos has 15 members: five permanent members with veto power, and ten elected members
UN Economic and Social Council - For global economical and social affairs - responsible for cooperation between states on economic and social fields (raising the general standard of living, solve economic, social and health problems, promotion of human rights, culture and education, as well as humanitarian aid) therefore it has established numerous functional and regional commissions also coordinates the cooperation with the numerous specialized agencies of the United Nations has 54 members, who are elected by the UN General Assembly to serve staggered three-year mandates
UN Trusteeship Council Was administering trust territories (currently not active) was originally designed to manage colonial possessions that were earlier League of Nations mandates is inactive since 1994, with the last trust territory (Namibia) attaining
The basic directions of activity of the United Nations: the health of the population; education; demographics; environment; economic development.
The structure of the UN, where the main UN agencies
OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization-NATO Was established in 1949 as a standoff threat of communism In 2008, members of the 26 NATO States: In 1999, the three new members joined NATO, Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary. In 2004, the seven Eastern European countries to NATO: Slovenia, Slovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia. The headquarters of the governing bodies is located in Brussels (Belgium).
The Council for mutual economic assistance, CMEA the economic cooperation organization of socialist countries that existed in 1949-1991 Gg. Member countries: Albania (did not participate in the work of the organization in 1961, after breaking off relations with the Soviet Union), Bulgaria, Viet Nam, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, Soviet Union. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia has had the status of associate member; browser status had the so-called socialist countries — Afghanistan, Angola, Ethiopia, Laos, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Yemen.
АНЗЮС (Australia-New Zealand-United States Security Treaty — ANZUS) военно-политический блок США, Австралии и Новой Зеландии (именуется по первым буквам названия стран-участниц: Australia, New Zealand, United States). «Договор безопасности», положивший начало деятельности АНЗЮС, подписан в 1951 г. на неопределенный срок (действует с 1952 г.). С 1986 г. деятельность союза сводится к ежегодным встречам Австралии и США).
The Organization for security and cooperation in Europe-OSCE A forerunner of the OSCE Conference on security and cooperation in Europe, the final act of a long-term programme of development of the process of détente, cooperation in Europe — was signed in 1975 in Helsinki (Finland), the heads of State or Government of 33 countries in Western Europe and the United States and Canada. A new period began with the work of the OSCE Charter of Paris for a new Europe, signed in 1990, and the Budapest meeting, 1994. The OSCE in 2008 — 56 States from Europe, Asia and America
Of The Islamic Conference, OIC founded in 1969, the heads of State and Governments of Muslim countries in Rabat (Morocco) in order to achieve Islamic solidarity in the economic, social and political sphere, the Elimination of racism and colonialism, Muslim peoples in the fight for independence and the support of the Palestine Liberation Organization. The OIC has 57 members: The headquarters of the General Secretariat is located in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia).
The League Of Arab States (LAS) founded in 1945, the family of the Arab States, Asia and Africa – Egypt, Iraq, Yemen, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Transjordan. In 2008, included 22 members of the ARAB LEAGUE It is headquartered in Cairo.
Organization of petroleum exporting countries OPEC established in 1960, to coordinate oil policy. Member countries (13) Algeria, Angola, Venezuela, Iraq, Iran, Indonesia, Qatar, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, U.A.E., Ecuador.
The Union Of Independent States CIS formed in 1991 to coordinate cooperation and ensure a civilized the collapse of the Soviet Union. As part of the 12 CIS member countries, former Soviet republics in Europe and Asia: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Ukraine. The company is headquartered in Minsk (Belorussia).
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Topic 10. International organizations. Geopolitics and geostrategy.
The modern world is constantly becoming more complicated and contradictory. The amount of the states was constantly growing in the past and will be growing in the future. Now there is 15 countries (territories) that are subjected “The Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples” in the list of the UN. Next in turn is the granting of independence to Palestine, to Western Sahara etc. So, there are over 200 countries on the political map of the world today that carry out the differently directed politics on the political map of the world. Tens of thousands (!) of political parties operate in them, there is plenty of confessions, members of parliament, heads of governments, presidents etc. All these political and religious, up to secret, organizations have their own opinion on the arrangement of the country, nation and all the world community. Thus the interstate problems are unavoidable. For their solution, and also for the achievement of the certain general goal, defending of the national interests and so on more and more countries, parties and simply people create the international organizations. Currently, in the world there are already over four thousands of such organizations. We will examine those that were formed by two or several countries. There are the global (worldwide) organizations, regional organizations (Africa, North America, countries of the Middle and Near East and so on) and interstate organizations that unite the states not on the basis of the geographical situation, but after the defined goals or features.
The United Nations (UN) is indisputably the biggest, the most important, global and universal organization today. It was created after the Second World War, in 1945, with the aim of preventing of the next world war and local conflicts, strengthening of international safety and development of international cooperation. The UN operates on the basis of the Statute. Its clauses are obligatory for the countries that are members of this organization.
The principal organs of the UN are the General Assembly and the Security Council. The other leading organs of this international organization are the Secretariat, the International Court of Justice, the Trusteeship Council, the Economic and Social Council.
The Headquarters of the UN is situated in New York (USA). In 1945 being a part of the USSR Ukraine was one of the countries that founded the UN. Now our state is a member of several specialized international organizations of the UN.
During the sessions of the General Assembly, where the delegations of all the member countries of the UN assist at, the most actual problems of the worldwide policy are discussed, the recommendations concerning their solution are worked through and adopted. Every country has one voice, irrespective of its area, population size, economic and military power.
The Security Council is responsible for the maintenance of the international peace and security. All members of the UN must carry out its decisions. The Security Council consists of 15 member countries, one third of which (the USA, the Great Britain, France, China and Russia) have status of permanent members. Other ten member countries are elected for definite term in definite sequence.
The UN is headed by the Secretary-General. The main regional offices of this organization that are led by the deputies of the Secretary-General of the UN are in Geneva, Vienna and Nairobi (Kenya). So, in Geneva there is a center of diplomatic conferences. The problems of disarmament and human rights are also discussed here. Vienna has functions of international control of the abuse of drugs, prevention of crime, criminal justice, international trade law. This regional office also watches after the use of the space for peaceful purposes. Nairobi office manages the activity of the UN in the field of the environmental protection. There is also the Commission on Population and Development that operates in the same place.
The International Court of Justice, which importance is constantly growing, belongs to the leading organs to the UNO. It is a main judicial body of the UN that decides the legal arguments between the states. The private persons have no authority to address it. The International Court of Justice is situated in Hague (Netherlands).
There are 16 specialized establishments of the UN that work in different countries. The most famous among them are UNESCO, the IAEA, FАО and others.
The headquarters of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), one of the member countries of which is Ukraine, is situated in Paris (France). The leading organs of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are in Vienna (Austria). Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FАО) is located in Rome. Other famous UN agencies are the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the World Health Organization (WHO), located in Geneva.
Under the aegis of the USA after the Second World War the World Bank Group was created in the system of the UN (Washington). It is a family of financial organizations, the declared aim of which is facilitation of the economic growth of the developing countries. They are the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International Development Association (IDA) and others. It includes also the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The UN includes a lot of other worldwide organizations that are especially important in the definite spheres of the modern life of the human society. So, the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) carries out the population census, different international comparisons and calculations. It was founded in 1946 in New York. Other spheres of the worldwide activity of the humanity are controlled by the Universal Postal Union (UPU) based in Bern (Switzerland), the World Meteorological Organization (WМО) and the International Telecommunication Union (both are situated in Geneva, Switzerland). There are also such agencies as the International Maritime Organization (IMO) that is based in London, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in Montreal (Canada) and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) in Vienna. There are more and more agencies that address not only the global problems, but also the regional topical problems in the UN system. One of the most famous among them is the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA), situatedin Amman, the capital of Jordan, and in the Gaza strip (Palestine). But the majority of the regional agencies of the UN are occupied with the economic and social problems of the whole continents and parts of the world. For example, the Economic commission for Africa (ЕCА) (Addis Ababa), the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific (ЕSCAP) (Bangkok) and others. The aim of these organizations is the facilitation of the socio-economic growth of the developing countries, in particular the poorest states that are 48 in the world after the list of the UN. The worsening of the ecological situation in the world considerably raises the role of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (Nairobi), that rather persistently and sharply comes out for the protection and preservation of the natural environment of our planet. There are other international organizations in the UN system. Besides the organizations of the UN, there are quite a bit of other worldwide formations of different spheres of the activity of the society in the world. So, the World Peace Council (WPC) operates in Helsinki from 1950. It coordinates the work of the drives for peace in more than 150 countries. The World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) (Prague, Czech Republic) administrates the union activities. At the same time there is the World Confederation of Labour (WCL), based in Brussels. The world scientists unite in the World Federation of Scientific Workers (WFSW)(London) and belong to the International Council of Scientific Unions — ICSU (Paris). There are a few UN-independent international ecological organizations. Among them there is rather diversified International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). It is based in Gland (Switzerland). IUCN publishes the world-known Red List of Threatened Species.
The activity of the international sport, religious, student and other organizations that are not the agencies of the UN grew after the Second World War. The most distinguished are the International Olympic committee (IOC) (Lausanne, Switzerland), the World Council of Churches (Geneva), the International Union of Students (Prague), the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol), based in Paris. There are more and more member countries of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Its authority is constantly growing.
In the world there is also an enormous amount of international organizations official status of which is regional or subregional, but their real influence spreads all over the world. The most active regional organizations are the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU). The headquarters of both of these organizations are in Brussels.
NATO is the most famous and powerful military-political alliance (bloc) in the world. This bloc is constantly growing due to the joining of the former socialistic countries. There is a largish turn of countries that would like to become members of this organization. Although it has a regional denomination, it is called North Atlantic, it acquires more and more global features. Over 1500 military bases of this alliance are placed on the territories from Greenland to the islands of Oceania.
There are still more countries that want to join another organization with the regional name the European Union. There are near 80 countries in different part of the world (Europe, Africa, Asia and others) that want to become full members of the EU. The EU was transformed from the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1993. At present the EU includes 27 countries. Today the EU produces over one third of the world gross product. Over 40 % of the world export is the export from the EU.
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