Theme: Productive ways of speaking skills development.
Учитель иностранных языков
ОСШ № 56 им Ю.А.Гагарина
Бегжанова Ирода Бабиржановна
Nowadays according to the contemporary level of the development of our country, when Kazakhstan tries to reach the world standards in all spheres, to get into the number of 50 the most competitive countries of the world - communication with different ethnic groups is inevitable.
Today the market relations rule the world and they define all structure of the world. In these conditions world language - language of the international communication is English. Therefore each соmprehensively developed person has to know English. These provisions define also the educational purpose. The purpose of education is to create comprehensively developed personality of each pupil. The subject of English makes a huge contribution to formation of inclinations of the developed personality.
The target of FLT is communicative efficiency. Learners should be able to make themselves understood, using their current proficiency . They should try to avoid confusion in the message due to faulty pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary, and to observe the social and cultural rules that apply in each communication situation.
As Edward Sapir says: “Language completely interprets direct experience. For most people every experience, real or potential, is saturated with verbalism…”
Language learners need to recognize that speaking involves three areas of knowledge:
Mechanics (pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary): Using the right words in the right order with the correct pronunciation
Functions (transaction and interaction): Knowing when clarity of message is essential (transaction/information exchange) and when precise understanding is not required (interaction/relationship building)
Social and cultural rules and norms (turn-taking, rate of speech, length of pauses between speakers, relative roles of participants): Understanding how to take into account who is speaking to whom, in what circumstances, about what, and for what reason.
Controlling other people’s behavior
The specific signs of speaking process.
Connection with activity.
Connection with thinking.
Connection with a person.
Depending on situations.
Aims of LT
practical —pupils acquire habits and skills in using a foreign language; educational — they develop their mental abilities and intelligence in the process of learning the foreign language; сultural — pupils extend their knowledge of the world in which they live. Therefore there are three aims, at least, which should be achieved in foreign language teaching: practical, educational, and cultural.
Looking through all these provision every teacher of FL will ask himself a question how to teach children the English speech.
What do we Need to Communicate Effectively?
Linguistic competence of grammar, lexis, phonology .
Interest in knowledge of topic .
Goal / Reason for speaking .
Now many linguistics and teachers agree on that students learn to speak in the second language by "interacting". Communicative language teaching and collaborative learning serve best for this aim. Communicative language teaching is based on real-life situations that require communication. By using this method in LT classes, students will have the opportunity of communicating with each other in the target language. In brief, ESL teachers should create a classroom environment where students have real-life communication, authentic activities, and meaningful tasks that promote oral language. This can occur when students collaborate in groups to achieve a goal or to complete a task.
Technologies as interactive forms of teaching speaking skills
Debate is a method of formally presenting an argument in a disciplined manner. Through logical consistency, factual accuracy and some degree of emotional appeal to the audience are important elements of the skill of persuasion, in debating, one side often prevails over the other side by presenting a superior "context" and/or framework of the issue, which is far more subtle and strategic. The outcome of a debate depends upon consensus or some formal way of reaching a resolution, rather than the objective facts as such. In a formal debating contest, there are rules for participants to discuss and decide on differences, within a framework defining how they will interact.
One other way of getting students to speak is role-playing. Students pretend they are in various social contexts and have a variety of social roles. In role-play activities, the teacher gives information to the learners such as who they are and what they think or feel. Thus, the teacher can tell the student that "You are David, you go to the doctor and tell him what happened last night, and…" (Harmer, 1984)
Ask open-ended questions. If you ask your child a broad question such as "What did you do at the park?" you'll get a much more detailed answer than if you ask a yes or no question like "Did you have fun at the park?"
If she's slow to answer, then be more specific: "What equipment did you play on?" Give your child a chance to describe what she's been up to, and listen enthusiastically even if she gets lost in seemingly trivial details about her day at the park. All of it is important to her.
And you might as well enjoy the conversation while it lasts: Soon enough you may have a close-mouthed teenager sitting across the dinner table from you!
In class, the students are asked to report what they find as the most interest news. Students can also talk about whether they have experienced anything worth telling their friends in their daily lives before class.
Dialogue is one of the media in teaching speaking. It helps the students practice in speech, pronunciation, intonation, stress. Dialogue also increases students’ vocabulary. The primary objective of using dialogue is developing student’s competence (pronunciation, intonation, stress) in teaching speaking like native speaker.
On a given topic, students can produce ideas in a limited time. Depending on the context, either individual or group brainstorming is effective and learners generate ideas quickly and freely. The good characteristics of brainstorming is that the students are not criticized for their ideas so students will be open to sharing new ideas.
Students can briefly summarize a tale or story they heard from somebody beforehand, or they may create their own stories to tell their classmates. Story telling fosters creative thinking. It also helps students express ideas in the format of beginning, development, and ending, including the characters and setting a story has to have. Students also can tell riddles or jokes. For instance, at the very beginning of each class session, the teacher may call a few students to tell short riddles or jokes as an opening. In this way, not only will the teacher address students’ speaking ability, but also get the attention of the class.
Simulations are very similar to role-plays but what makes simulations different than role plays is that they are more elaborate. In simulations, students can bring items to the class to create a realistic environment. For instance, if a student is acting as a singer, she brings a microphone to sing and so on. Role plays and simulations have many advantages. First, since they are entertaining, they motivate the students. Second, as Harmer (1984) suggests, they increase the self-confidence of hesitant students, because in role play and simulation activities, they will have a different role and do not have to speak for themselves, which means they do not have to take the same responsibility.
Students can conduct interviews on selected topics with various people. It is a good idea that the teacher provides a rubric to students so that they know what type of questions they can ask or what path to follow, but students should prepare their own interview questions. Conducting interviews with people gives students a chance to practice their speaking ability not only in class but also outside and helps them becoming socialized. After interviews, each student can present his or her study to the class. Moreover, students can interview each other and "introduce" his or her partner to the class.
Play family story time.
One person starts making up a story ("Once upon a time, there was a little dragon who lived in a cave on a big hill"). Then another person continues the story, and so on.
Let your child chime in whenever she wants, and if she can't come up with a whole line herself, prompt her with questions: What color was the dragon? Did he have any brothers and sisters? What was he learning about at school? Write down or record what each person says.
Making multiple –choice questions
Pupils use dictionaries to make multiple-choice questions based on definitions. They can either confine their range of vocabulary to the themes they are studying or, for pure dictionary practice, they can find any word and create 2 or 3 incorrect definitions.
Suggestions for Teachers in Teaching Speaking
Here are some suggestions for English language teachers while teaching oral language:
Provide maximum opportunity to students to speak the target language by providing a rich environment that contains collaborative work, authentic materials and tasks, and shared knowledge.
Try to involve each student in every speaking activity; for this aim, practice different ways of student participation.
Reduce teacher speaking time in class while increasing student speaking time. Step back and observe students.
Indicate positive signs when commenting on a student's response.
Ask eliciting questions such as "What do you mean? How did you reach that conclusion?" in order to prompt students to speak more.
Provide written feedback like "Your presentation was really great. It was a good job. I really appreciated your efforts in preparing the materials and efficient use of your voice…"
Do not correct students' pronunciation mistakes very often while they are speaking. Correction should not distract student from his or her speech.
Involve speaking activities not only in class but also out of class; contact parents and other people who can help.
Circulate around classroom to ensure that students are on the right track and see whether they need your help while they work in groups or pairs.
Provide the vocabulary beforehand that students need in speaking activities.
Diagnose problems faced by students who have difficulty in expressing themselves in the target language and provide more opportunities to practice the spoken language.
Each person develops an individual procedure (actually a sequence of procedures) of thinking ability through speaking process, which is the main sign of outlook improvement of comprehensibly developed human being.
Celce-Murcia. M. 2001. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language (3rd ed). USA: Heinle&Heinle.
Baruah, T.C. 1991. The English Teacher's Handbook. Delhi: Sterling Publishing House.
Harmer, J. 1984. The Practice of English Language Teaching. London: Longman.
Nunan, D., 2003. Practical English Language Teaching. NY:McGraw-Hill.
Staab, C. 1992. Oral language for today's classroom. Markham, ON: Pippin Publishing.
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