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Municipal budgetary educational institution
"Gymnasium No. 13 named after E. A. Bykov"
While we remember the past,we have the future
Author: Bashkatova Elena
MBOU "Gymnasium No. 13 named after E. A. Bykov"
8a class, Central district of Novosibirsk
Project consultant: Pokrovskaya O.V.
Project:«Mauthausen. Death Factory»
Project participant: Bashkatova Elena
Project consultant:teacher of the highest category Pokrovskaya Olga Vadimovna
Name of educational institution:MBOU “Gymnasium № 13 named after E.A. Bykov"
Subject area:English language,history, informatics
Project duration:January 2021 - March 2021 (short term)
Formulation of the problem: History is always a topical topic, because without knowledge of the past, you cannot build the future. The problem with my project is that the Second World War is the most terrible war in Russian history, but few people know about such a side of it as the concentration camps, I want to know as much as possible about this.
Project goal: acquaintance students with the history of the Mauthausen concentration camp and practice in creating a test program in the Java Script language.
1. Find information about the Mauthausen camp (11.01.2021-18.01.2021);
2. Analyze documentaries on the topic (18.01.2021.-25.01.2021);
3. Create a quiz on the topic of the project (11.01.2021-11.03.2021);
4. Conduct a lesson in class.
Project type: research and practice.
Technologies used: multimedia, Java Script.
Project product form: multimedia presentation, “Mauthausen History Quiz” (website with a quiz on the topic of the report).
Contents: 1938-1939: Establishment of a concentration camp. 1940-1942: Internationalization and mass murder. Mühlfiertel hare hunting. 1945: Overflow, death, liberation.
1. Gathering information on the topic of the project;
2. Systematization of the information received.
Scope of the project results:
-educational: history lessons;
-social: acquaintance with the history of the concentration camp for students in grades 7-8; recommendations for out-of-class reading and watching films for students in grades 7-8.
A study of the history of one of the most famous concentration camps of the Great Patriotic War was carried out, skills in programming and writing complex codes were improved. The materials will be used for publication on the public site and for participation in the project competition.
1. 1938-1939: Establishment of a concentration camp
Mauthausen was founded in 1938: first as a prison for criminals, then as a particularly dangerous opponent of the political regime. It consisted of a central camp and 49 divisions scattered throughout Austria. The total number of prisoners in the concentration camp for the entire period of its existence is estimated at about 335 thousand. people, representatives of more than 30 nationalities. 2.5% were women.Most of the concentration camp prisoners were used as cheap labor. At first - for the extraction of stone in quarries, then prisoners were also attracted to work in underground military factories and other works. In April 1938, the top of the SS founded DESt, a building materials company. The prisoners were to be exploited as a labor force.Several months later, people began to break up granite rocks in a quarry near the camp. Granite was used not only for the construction of stone buildings in Linz and Vienna, but also for the construction of monumental buildings in Berlin. Every day, 186 steps of the "death ladder" to a career were overcome by thousands of emaciated prisoners of the camp. The work in the quarry did not solve economic problems on a global scale, its main task was the physical exhaustion of the prisoners of the camp.Mass atrocities with prisoners happened on this staircase every day: the guards beat the prisoners, threw them down the stairs into the abyss, or forced them to jump. Often, emaciated prisoners fell exhausted from the strain and rolled off the top, creating a terrifying domino effect with prisoners falling on the next workers and so on, paved all the way down the stairs. Heavy stones smashed their limbs and bodies. People died on this staircase every day.Sometimes the SS men forced tired prisoners to carry stone blocks up the stairs. Those who survived the ordeal were then placed in a ruler at the edge of the cliff, called the "Paratroopers' Wall". At the battery point, each prisoner had the opportunity to fall himself or push the prisoner in front of him off the cliff. Some prisoners, unable to withstand the torture of the camp, jumped off the cliff without permission. Such suicides were frequent.
2. 1940-1942: Internationalization and mass murder
With the outbreak of World War II, the camp was internationalized. There were people from the countries occupied by Germany, including Soviet prisoners. In Mauthausen, about 200 thousand people were held, of which almost half died from disease, overwork, weakness, hunger, or were killed by the SS. Thousands of prisoners were tortured, shot, killed by lethal injections, or condemned to die from the cold. They even created a special barrack - 20, which contained people to be killed, mainly Soviet officers.In the center of the barracks there are two bowls, similar to mini-fountains, for washing. The prisoners had to run to them and splash water on their faces. Those who did not have time were severely beaten. Those who delayed a little could be killed. Such was the fun of the caretakers. On hooks driven into the wall, the prisoners were hung on belts to calculate how long they could hold out without air. Then they left the belts: if you want, hang yourself. There were no bunks, people were sleeping on the floor on top of each other in three, four layers.In the summer, in the heat, the vents were nailed up - and the prisoners died of suffocation. In winter they were driven out for the whole day in the cold, forced to crawl in single file on their knees in the snow, and in the evening they poured ice water on the floor, in which the prisoners went to bed - there was no heating. It was for torture in the summer of 1944 that this SS "project" was started. Special prisoners acted as living mannequins in the school of atrocities.All kinds of torture and murder with bare hands were practiced here. SS men from adjacent camps came here to improve their skills. We watched from the towers how the local masters skillfully maim the prisoners. Then we went to practice the blows under their careful guidance.
From morning to night, the inhabitants of the neighboring barracks heard heartbreaking screams. In the mornings, carts were taken to the crematorium with such torn apart bodies that even the "stove-workers" were afraid to look at them. During the year, about 6,000 Soviet officers were brutally killed in Barrack 20. According to all the laws, those who were still alive should not have any reason or will left.
At least 10,200 people were suffocated with poisonous gas in the gas chamber of the main camp, as well as in Gusen, or in the killing unit at Hartheim Castle, in a gas chamber that shuttled between Mauthausen and Gusen. Most of the prisoners died as a result of the ruthless exploitation of their labor and beatings, from the lack of vital food, clothing and medical care. In total, at least 90,000 prisoners died in Mauthausen, Gusen and in the outer camps, about half of them 4 months before liberation.
Interview with August Hauser: we said: "They turned on the stoves again". You could feel it, it always stank. It was disgusting! They did it more often at night. Because people were complaining.
Interview with Maria Raffetseder: You knew what was killed and burned there. You've heard of gas rooms. You didn't really try to find out anything. What I don't know won't hurt me. It was the best method to live a normal life at least to some extent. This is how you were brought up: the camp is a ban, stay as far away from it as possible. The prisoners all came and went. Among them were those who suddenly fell.They were placed against the wall. A shot rang out, they were gone. Then a truck drove up. Two prisoners are downstairs, two are in the truck. They picked up the shot. When they left, my father let us out. I had to go to the well, pump water and fill the buckets, and the adults washed the blood off the road.
3. Mühlfiertel hare hunting
On the night of February 2, 1945, more than five hundred Soviet officers escaped from the twentieth block of the Mauthausen concentration camp. Having overcome the camp wall and the energized barbed wire, 419 people broke free. A real hunt was organized on them with the involvement of the SS, the gendarmerie, the Wehrmacht units, the local population, including women and teenagers. The operation to capture the fugitives in the Mühlfirtl area was cynically called a "hare hunt".
The "Mühlfiertel hare hunt" lasted only a few days. Several of the fugitives were taken back to the camp, where they were shot at the wall of the crematorium and immediately burned. Most were shot or killed on the spot with pitchforks, axes, sticks. Their bodies were taken to the center of the small Austrian town of Ried in der Riedmark and dumped in the church square.
Only nine people were saved from persecution. Two of them, Mikhail Rybchinsky and Nikolai Tsimkalo, were sheltered by the Austrian peasant woman with many children Maria Langthaler, whose five sons fought in the Wehrmacht. Several more fugitives were rescued by Belarusians and Poles, who were hijacked for forced labor, who worked not far from the camp.
Mikhail Rybchinsky's interview: The Gestapo sent 17 people to Mauthausen. We were placed in block 20. We were K-prisoners (K - Kugel "bullet"), people to be shot. These were mainly Soviet officers who committed sabotage and tried to escape. There were 1,100 of us, mostly from the Air Force. I was brought in in July 1944. This block in the death camp was created specifically for Soviet prisoners of war on the orders of Field Marshal Keitel. We learned that an escape was being prepared. Those who were recently captured spoke about the situation at the front. We decided to run because we were doomed to die.
10-15 people were shot every day. We were not allowed to eat for two days. We were tortured all the time. And then it was our turn, we learned about the planned escape. But if a few people run away, everyone else will be shot. We must all run together. On the night of February 1–2, we fled. We knew that it would be very difficult to survive: without knowledge of German, without clothes, with shaved heads. Hitler Street was the name.
Anna Huckle Interview: Mother knew she was at stake. She told herself that if anyone came to me, I would take care of him. And on Saturday, the Lord demanded to keep his word: there was a knock at the door, at first she was frightened, because she knew what she had decided to do. A haggard man stood in the doorway. He said: I am a translator from Ukraine, in Linz, please, can I have something to eat. His mother took his hand and said:Come in, I know who you are. - we learned about it from the newspapers. I have five sons in the war, and I want them all to come home. You also have a mother who wants her son back. He said: Yes, I also have a mother with a heart in her chest. Then he began examining the walls in the kitchen, looking for a portrait of Hitler hanging there. He didn't know what kind of people we were, good or bad. He didn't know that.
Nikolai Baklanov, who survived the escape, managed to go far to the northeast, where he hid for three months before being rescued by Czech partisans and the Red Army in May 1945.
4. 1945: Overflow, death, liberation
The number of prisoners as of January 1945 is about 85 thousand people. The death toll for the entire existence of the camp is, according to various estimates, from 122,766 to about 320,000 people. Most of the dead were citizens of the USSR. In 1948, in Mauthausen, where General Karbyshev was brutally tortured, a monument was erected, which became the first monument on the territory of this death camp. The inscription on it reads: "Dmitry Karbyshev. Scientist. Warrior. Communist.His life and death were a feat in the name of life". When a group of prisoners, together with Karbyshev, was brought to the camp, they were immediately driven into a cold shower. After that they were ordered to put on only underwear and wooden shoes on their feet and were driven out into the courtyard. General Karbyshev stood in to a group of Russian comrades, people realized that they were living out their last hours.A couple of minutes later, the Gestapo, standing behind them with fire cannons in their hands, began to pour streams of cold water over them. Those who tried to dodge the jet were beaten on the head with truncheons. Hundreds of people fell frozen or with crushed skulls. General Karbyshev also fell.
List of sources and literature used:
1) The book "The Concentration Camp Mauthausen (1938-1945)"
2) Site "Concentration Camp"
3) Educational portal Geek Brains
4) Sublime Text Application
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