Проект на тему "Безопасность на дорогах"
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Актуальность данной работы обусловлена тем, что в настоящее время безопасность жизнедеятельности личности на дорогах является одной из глобальных ценностей человечества. Это связано с тем, что возрос рост дорожно-транспортных происшествий на дорогах. А также увеличилось количество автомобилей.
Безответственное поведение на дорогах.
Мотивировать людей к соблюдению правил дорожного движения.
Правила Дорожного Движения.
5. Предмет исследования
Взаимоотношения людей и дорог.
1. Дать понятие термина «правила дорожного движения».
2. Ознакомиться с имеющейся информацией по этой теме в литературе и в Интернете.
3. Систематизировать полученные знания.
4. Провести анкетирование среди сверстников на вопрос соблюдения ПДД.
7. Рабочая гипотеза
Помогают ли знания правил дорожного движения в жизни?
8. Предполагаемая новизна
Отличительной особенностью является комплексный подход к изучению правил дорожного движения.
9. Этапы работы
1) Выбор темы, обсуждение предмета исследования и рабочей гипотезы..
2) Сбор информации .
3) Анкетирование и Анализ полученной информации.
4) Работа над оформлением проекта.
10. Сроки выполнения
Сентябрь 2013 – февраль 2014
11. Способы оценки
Визуальный и аналитический: обсуждение рабочего проекта в рамках внеклассной работы, выступление в классном коллективе и на школьном этапе, анкетирование.
12. База проекта
Фонды школьной и районной библиотек, Интернет-ресурсы; обсуждение этапов работы на внеклассных мероприятиях.
13. Используемые методики
Метод анализа и сопоставления, наблюдения (при изучении взаимоотношений человека и дороги). Обобщение полученных данных и выводы на основании полученных результатов.
14. Ресурсное обеспечение
Учебные пособия по ОБЖ, интернет-сайты.
15. Форма представления результатов
Работа реализована в форме презентации и может быть использована на уроках и факультативных занятиях по английскому языку, а также ОБЖ. На очном туре выполненный проект также может быть представлен в виде постера.
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ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ
CРЕДНЯЯ ОБЩЕОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНАЯ ШКОЛА №1420
Адрес: 109444, Москва, мкр. Выхино - Жулебино, Ташкентская ул., д.21, корп. 2.
Адрес электронной почты: email@example.com
по английскому языку
«Безопасность на дорогах»-
Воронцова Нина, 6«В» класс
Киселева Елизавета, 6«В» класс
Орлова Ирина, 6«В» класс
Зуева Карина, 6«В» класс
Филимонова Елена Вячеславовна
Прохина Елена Александровна
Учитель истории и обществознания
Москва, 2014 год
Rules of the Road safety
What is it?
When you cross the street on foot.
When you ride your bike.
When you travel on a bus.
When you travel in a car.
Think to prepare before making a journey.
Road safety produced to beginner.
How to avoid a running tragedy.
Many people look at road safety as non-essential, but always there. What people don’t know is that every day more than one hundred peopled is killed due to road safety, or lack thereof. Around six thousand people are injured or due to this. Road safety is a very important issue; it affects most people’s lives. Whether they know it or not.
The purpose of my work is to collect information about road safety, to make a questionnaire for my friends and classmates and see does the rule of road safety help them?
Rules of the Road safety.
What is it?
a principle or condition that customarily governs behavior
"it was his rule to take a walk before breakfast"; "short haircuts were the regulation"
convention, normal, pattern, rule, formula(noun)
something regarded as a normative example
"the convention of not naming the main character"; "violence is the rule not the exception"; "his formula for impressing visitors"
prescribed guide for conduct or action
rule, linguistic rule(noun)
(linguistics) a rule describing (or prescribing) a linguistic practice
a basic generalization that is accepted as true and that can be used as a basis for reasoning or conduct
"their principles of composition characterized all their works"
the duration of a monarch's or government's power
"during the rule of Elizabeth"
dominance or power through legal authority
"France held undisputed dominion over vast areas of Africa"; "the rule of Caesar"
directions that define the way a game or sport is to be conducted
"he knew the rules of chess"
any one of a systematic body of regulations defining the way of life of members of a religious order
"the rule of St. Dominic"
a rule or law concerning a natural phenomenon or the function of a complex system
"the principle of the conservation of mass"; "the principle of jet propulsion"; "the right-hand rule for inductive fields"
(mathematics) a standard procedure for solving a class of mathematical problems
"he determined the upper bound with Descartes' rule of signs"; "he gave us a general formula for attacking polynomials"
measuring stick consisting of a strip of wood or metal or plastic with a straight edge that is used for drawing straight lines and measuring lengths
exercise authority over; as of nations
"Who is governing the country now?"
decide with authority
"The King decreed that all firstborn males should be killed"
predominate, dominate, rule, reign, prevail(verb)
be larger in number, quantity, power, status or importance
"Money reigns supreme here"; "Hispanics predominate in this neighborhood"
decide on and make a declaration about
"find someone guilty"
have an affinity with; of signs of the zodiac
mark or draw with a ruler
"rule the ; line-height: 0.23in">rule, harness, rein(verb)
keep in check
"rule one's temper"
Kernerman English Learner's Dictionary
a statement that tells people what they are allowed or not allowed to do
the rules of the game; You'll be punished if you break the rules.; It's against the rules to run by the pool.; to follow/obey the rules
to allow sth that is normally not allowed
We don't usually take kids under 16, but we bent the rules a little for you.
the system used to govern a country
usually, in general
We don't go out on Sunday evenings as a rule.
a general guide
As a rule of thumb, you should save around 10% of your income.
to be in control of a country
to rule a nation
to officially decide sth, especially a legal matter
The building was ruled unsafe.
A regulation, law, guideline.
A ruler; device for measuring, a straightedge, a measure.
Something to keep order.
A straight line , especially one lying across a paper as a guide for writing.
A regulating principle.
A normal condition or state of affairs.
As a rule our senior editors are serious-minded.
To regulate, be in charge of, make decisions for, reign over.
This game rules!
To mark (paper or the like) with rules .
Origin: * noun: from rule, from riule, from regula, from regere; see regent.
that which is prescribed or laid down as a guide for conduct or action; a governing direction for a specific purpose; an authoritative enactment; a regulation; a prescription; a precept; as, the rules of various societies; the rules governing a school; a rule of etiquette or propriety; the rules of cricket
uniform or established course of things
systematic method or practice; as, my ule is to rise at six o'clock
ordibary course of procedure; usual way; comon state or condition of things; as, it is a rule to which there are many exeptions
conduct in general; behavior
the act of ruling; administration of law; government; empire; authority; control
an order regulating the practice of the courts, or an order made between parties to an action or a suit
a determinate method prescribed for performing any operation and producing a certain result; as, a rule for extracting the cube root
a general principle concerning the formation or use of words, or a concise statement thereof; thus, it is a rule in England, that s or es , added to a noun in the singular number, forms the plural of that noun; but "man" forms its plural "men", and is an exception to the rule
a straight strip of wood, metal, or the like, which serves as a guide in drawing a straight line; a ruler
a measuring instrument consisting of a graduated bar of wood, ivory, metal, or the like, which is usually marked so as to show inches and fractions of an inch, and jointed so that it may be folded compactly
a thin plate of metal (usually brass) of the same height as the type, and used for printing lines, as between columns on the same page, or in tabular work
a composing rule. See under Conposing
to control the will and actions of; to exercise authority or dominion over; to govern; to manage
to control or direct by influence, counsel, or persuasion; to guide; -- used chiefly in the passive
to establish or settle by, or as by, a rule; to fix by universal or general consent, or by common practice
to require or command by rule; to give as a direction or order of court
to mark with lines made with a pen, pencil, etc., guided by a rule or ruler; to print or mark with lines by means of a rule or other contrivance effecting a similar result; as, to rule a sheet of paper of a blank book
to have power or command; to exercise supreme authority; -- often followed by over
to lay down and settle a rule or order of court; to decide an incidental point; to enter a rule
to keep within a (certain) range for a time; to be in general, or as a rule; as, prices ruled lower yesterday than the day before
When you cross the street on foot
Look for a zebra crossing or a traffic lights crossing.
Don't cross between parked cars.
Stop before you walk onto the road.
Stand on the pavement near the kerb.
Listen and look both ways for traffic.
Make sure it's clear and walk straight across the road.
When you ride your bike
Make sure your bike is in good working condition.
Check your brakes and tyres regularly.
Wear a bicycle helmet.
Ride with the flow of traffic, not against it.
Use bike lanes.
Wear bright clothes in daytime.
Never carry a second person on your bike.
When you travel on a bus
Stand well back until the bus has stopped completely.
Don't push others when you enter the bus.
Sit down on your seat quietly and quickly.
If there aren't free seats, use handgrips.
Don't talk to the driver or annoy others on the bus.
Don't lean out of the window.
Don't wave from the window.
When you travel in a car
Always sit in the back seat if you are under twelve years old.
Wear a seat belt.
Don't block the rear view mirror.
Don't play with the car door handles.
Always use the door on the pavement side to get out of the car.
Think to prepare before making a journey.
2.1. Road safety produced to beginner.
Did you know that the most important things in travel by car is the readiness of the vehicle that will be used.
Imagine if the vehicle is not in perfect condition and do not be troubled when he got in the middle would be very inconvenient is not it? Or even cause an accident!
To make sure that our vehicles are the perfect conditions to make the trip so that there is no way it is prevented in the following I explain a little about the readiness of the vehicle is either:
1. Rearview mirror
These tools must exist on our vehicle, its function so that we can look back without looking enough at the lyrics in the mirror, we can know the circumstances behind especially if we are to precede as well as when to turn
This lamp is also absolute must-have equipment on both vehicles to turn signal lamp or lamps for street lighting but the most important is the brake light brake lights. Due to our member means a sign on the back of the vehicle that we are doing to the rider that the braking can keep a distance with a brake or decelerate.
The most important and urgently needed and we must always check every day functions of our brakes; you must know how many accidents occur due to break free from tension? To avoid this it helps us to always control the brakes before we all take a trip so that everything can run smoothly.
Perfect state machine is also very good to support the smooth and safe journey on the road does not strike.
That this may seem trivial, but not in well, you should also see the state of your fuel is enough to purpose or not, if it is not expected to get to the nearest fuel filling not to run out on the road can be troublesome at best before running out of content.
Ban is a foot and a means to advance the state of the tires if you are not comfortable we would also feel uncomfortable not quite sure the air pressure and tire condition is not bald this is to avoid the danger of blowout.
2.2. Road Safety Procedure For Beginner
To maintain safety in the driving course, we should not be in a home and know the purpose of driving a vehicle, but behind it there are some things that need to be noticed that our security is guaranteed and there are not things that are not in want during the trip between is:
Not able to ride home
here we might not be home but we are also in demand to be able to control machines that we carry, control here is that we are proficient with the vehicle so we really cannot truly random origin
completeness here is the body armor for example if we ride vehicle we would have to wear a helmet, jacket, gloves, etc. All of these things is to keep the body from the dangers of the journey
this is the most important, before you do the trip for long distance make sure to check on your vehicle check out everything from oil, fuel, air pressure, radiator, brakes and think things that are important in relating to your machine
Conditions for motorists
for this make sure that you are in good health in the drive, if you feel sleepy or body does not fit a good idea to rest or it could also take turns with your friends to continue the journey.
Avoid taking medicine
avoid taking medicine before driving because there are some of the drugs that will react to your body shaking and sleepy, for it to avoid taking drugs especially alcohol as this will greatly endanger the lives of you and even the safety of other road users five of the above is necessary.
And very important to consider before making the trip especially for long trips, all of it so we can survive until the goal and there is no hitch, hopefully slightly above explanation can be useful for us all.
2.3. How to avoid a running tragedy
Don't assume a driver sees you. In fact, imagine that a driver can't see you.
Run against traffic so as to view (and react to) any mistake an advancing motorist may make.
At a stop sign or light, wait for the driver to wave you through--then acknowledge with your own wave.
Allow at least three feet between you and a passing vehicle.
Be prepared to jump onto the sidewalk or shoulder of the road.
During group runs, go single file when cars need to pass.
Use hand signals to show which way you plan to turn.
Respect drivers' right to the road.
Run with proper ID, and carry a cell phone with emergency contacts taped to its back.
Check with the police for local traffic rules
PROCEED WITH CAUTION
1) With the light yellow and the truck slowing to a stop, the runner moves into the crosswalk—not seeing the car blocked by the truck and rushing to beat the light. He should have waited until all vehicles were stopped at the red.
2) The driver begins to turn right on red. As he accelerates, he looks to his left for oncoming cars—but not to his right. The runner must anticipate that the driver is not looking out for him, and move to the sidewalk ASAP.
3) Using her side-and rearview mirrors to back out of the driveway, the driver fails to see the approaching runner. The runner should slow down and wait until the car backs out, or until the driver finally notices him and waves him past.
When cresting a hill, a driver's vision can suddenly be impaired by such factors as sun glare or backdrops. The runner can reduce the odds of an accident by dressing in highly visible clothing and being prepared to go off-road until she is on the other side of the hill.
On Blind Curves
1) The runner looks to avoid surprising an unsuspecting driver. About 300 feet before the curve, he crosses to the right side of the road. When the road straightens (and traffic permits), he returns to the left side.
2) When such a crossover is impractical or unsafe, the runner should step off the road and run off-road until he's through the curve.
It's pitch black and you're out running. At what distance will a driver spot you? A Runner's World field-test study revealed the best-case scenarios—as well as the worst.
Running with a headlamp or handheld light is the smartest way to make yourself visible. The whitish beam is a color that the eye sees clearly at night. And with your motion causing the light to move—the headlamp a little, the handheld a lot—a driver should recognize you as a runner.
If you don't feel comfortable wearing a headlamp or holding a flashlight, at least run with a reflective vest or a blinking red light. Drivers won't always identify you as a runner, but they'll have a hard time ignoring your motion. The light should have a bright LED (drivers see blinking red as a hazard), and the reflective material should cover half of the vest.
A brightly colored jacket or top will help get a driver's attention. Yellowish green or bright orange are your best bets. Reflective panels on the sleeves can allow a driver to better detect your motion.
At any distance within 100 yards, you put yourself at the mercy of a driver's reaction time. Do yourself a favor and wear clothes and shoes that have some reflective details.
Although a white T-shirt becomes visible before a dark one does, the difference is negligible—especially if a driver is going at a fast clip.
You're asking for trouble by running in dark pants and a dark shirt. Drivers won't notice you until they're dangerously close.
The most interesting part of my project was my questionnaire.
My teacher and I asked the following questions to the pupils of our school:
Знаете ли Вы правила дорожного движения?
Соблюдаете ли Вы правила дорожного движения?
Помогают ли знания ПДД в жизни?
Do you know the traffic rules?
Do you keep the rules of the road?
Does knowledge of traffic rules help you?
We got the following answers:
The most people know the traffic rules.
The most popular answer was: sometimes.
All pupils wrote: Yes
My purpose was to collect information about road safety, to make a questionnaire for my friends and classmates and see does the rule of road safety help them?
And as a conclusion, I’d like to say that my work on the project showed me what a rule is and that there are different types of rules. Now I know a lot about rules and how to avoid a running tragedy. As for the research, I expected something useful, but all the pupils gave typical answers about the rules. Nevertheless, now I know what I should do when I will be on the road.
In the English-speaking World, издательство «Титул», 1998.
Интернет-ресурсы (фото, сайты c правилами).
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Описание презентации по отдельным слайдам:
Many people look at road safety as non-essential, but always there. What people don’t know is that everyday more than one hundred people are killed due to road safety, or lack thereof. Around six thousand people are injured due to this. Road safety is a very important question; it effects most people’s lives. Whether they know it or not. The purpose of my work is to collect information about road safety and motivate people to be more careful on the road.
«Rule» what is it? a principle or condition that customarily governs behavior a basic generalization that is accepted as true and that can be used as a basis for reasoning or conduct directions that define the way a game or sport is to be conducted a rule or law concerning a natural phenomenon or the function of a complex system
How to avoid a running tragedy Don't assume a driver sees you. In fact, imagine that a driver can't see you. Run against traffic so as to view (and react to) any mistake an advancing motorist may make. At a stop sign or light, wait for the driver to wave you through--then acknowledge with your own wave. Allow at least three feet between you and a passing vehicle. Be prepared to jump onto the sidewalk or shoulder of the road. During group runs, go single file when cars need to pass. Use hand signals to show which way you plan to turn. Respect drivers' right to the road. Run with proper ID, and carry a cell phone with emergency contacts taped to its back. Check with the police for local traffic rules
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Glossary and Notes
Road -it’s an open way, usually surfaced with asphalt or concrete, providing passage from one place to another.
Journey- (рус. «путешествие»)
Also: Journey is an American rock band formed in San Francisco in 1973 by former members of Santana. Band has gone through several phases; its strongest commercial success occurred between 1978 and 1987, after which it temporarily disbanded. During that period, the band released a series of hit songs, including 1981's "Don't Stop Believe in'", which in 2009 became the top-selling catalog track in iTunes history.
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