МКОУ « Новопоселковая СОШ» Сулейман- Стальский район РД.
« Derbent – 2000»
Выполнила ученица 7 « в» Мирзабекова Б.А.
Руководитель Магомедова Зоя Абдусамедовна
Derbent location on narrow, three- kilometer strip of land between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains is strategic in the Caucasus. Historical ,this position allowed the rulers of Derbent to control land traffic between the Eurasian Steppe and the Middle East. The only other practicable crossing of the Darial Gorge.
The first intensiv settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8 th centry BCE;
The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BCE . Until the 4th century CE,it was part of Caucasian Albania and is traditionally identitied with Albana, the capital.The modern name is a Persian word ( Darband) meaning “ gateway”, which came into use in end of the 5th or the beginning of centry CE, when the city was restablished by Kavadh of the Sassanid denasty of Persia.
Mjvses Kagankatvatsi left a graphic description of the sack of Derbent by the hordes of Tong Yabghu of the Western Turkic Khaganate in 627.
In 654 Derbent was cartured by the Arabs, who transformed it into an important administrative center and introduced Islam to the area. Because of its strategic position on the northem branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khasars in the course of the Khasar- Arab Wars.
The Caliph Harun al – Rashid lived in Derbent and brought it into great repute as a seat of the arts and commerce. According to Arab historians, Derbent,with population exceeding 50,000, was the largest city of the 9th century Caucasus.
In the 10th century, with the collapse of Arab Caliphate, Derbentb became the capital of an amirate. This amirate often fought losing wars with the neighboring Christian state of Sarir, allowing Sarir occasionally manipulate Derbent politics. Despite that, the amirate outlived its rival and continued to flourish at the time of the Mongol invasion in 1239.
In the 14th century, was occupied by Timur’s armies. In 1437, in fell under the control of the Shirvanshahs of Azerbaijan. Conquered by Shah Ismail of Iran during the 16th century, and while occasionally briefly taken by the Ottoman Turks such as in 1583 after the Battle of Torches and the Treaty of Istambul, Derbent stayed under intermittent Persian suzerainty till the early 19th century.
Being briefly taken by the Russians under Peter the Great during the Persian expedition of 1722- 1723 by Peter Great, the 1735 Treaty of Ganja formed by Imperial Russia and Afsharid Persian, forced Russia to return Derbent and it’s mighty bastion back to Persian. In 1747, Derbent became the capital of the Derbent Khanate of the same name.
During the Persian Expedition of 1796, Derbent was stormed by Russian forces under Valerian Zuboy. As a consequence of the Treaty of Gulistan of 1813 – between Russian and Persia- Derbent became part of the Russian Empire
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