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Проект по английскому языку на тему: "Breaking down the stereotypes about Daghestan"
Ministry of Education and Science of Daghestan.
Municipal Institution of General Education V-Labko Secondary School.
«Breaking down the stereotypes
Luisa Abdulkadirova Form 10
Teacher: Rabiyat Ramazanova
My aim is to break down stereotypes about my homeland, to talk about the valiant people of Daghestan, remember worthy mountaineers, and encourage people to keep the
true human values.
I would like to talk about Dagestan and its people. If we do not tell about our Motherland and us, nobody will know us, real Dagestanis.
We get much information about the unique history of Daghestan - Imam Shamil, Partu Patima; its great riches – Caspian Sea, natural resources; amazing nature- mountains, deserts ; warm resorts such as Talghi, Kayakent and Akhty, and hospitable Daghestanis, rousing lezginka.
At the beginning of our era, Daghestan was part of the ancient state of Caucasian Albania. Then it was conquered by the Khazars and in the 4tn century was invaded by the Huns. In that period new arrivals assimilated with the local settlers enriched their culture and became known as craftsmen Derbent, the oldest town, grew as a centre of trade and craft. The Arabs brought Islam to the coastal plains and to some mountainous districts in the 7th century, but it became universally spread in Daghestan during the 15th century.
In the 13th century, Daghestan was subjected to the Tatar-Mongol invasion, which greatly slowed down its economic and cultural development for along time. In the 14th century, Tamerlan penetrated into Daghestan from Azerbaijan and brought to its people uncountable calamities. However, the freedom-loving mountaineers offered him stubborn resistance and drove him out of their land. Partu Patima was one of courageous fighters against Tamerlan. She was very a clever and reasonable girl, a fearless and skilful warrior. Under the leadership of Partu Patima lakets made rapid forced marches on the enemy. The present day, the monument of white stone was erected in honor of Partu Patima in the village of Kumuh.
In the first half of the 18th century, the united forces of Daghestan peoples waged heroic struggle against the Iranian Shah Nadir and inflicted his troops a final defeat in 1743. Russia, Persia and Turkey fought over Daghestan in the 17th and 18th centuries. In 1722 Peter I annexed lowland Daghestan to Russia. Following a treaty between Russia and Persia, the whole region was finally annexed by Russia in 1813.
Shamil was the most famous imam. He headed the national-liberation movement of the Caucasian highlanders and fought against tsarist colonizers for 25 years. He had a strong will and turned out to be a skilful organizer and talented military leader.
Shamil united local peoples under the banner of Islam and called them for to a «gazavat» - a holy war to which Moslems are called in case of a threat to their faith.
The historical monument in Derbent, the ancient fortress Narynkala, reminds us our history. Tourist routes to historical settlements, cultural heritage of excellent, are of great value and cause great interest among tourists. In Dagestan, more than six thousand monuments of history, the most significant of these is the architectural complex of Naryn-Kala citadel (VI century), the oldest part and Fortress Buildings of Derbent on the List of World Cultural and Natural Heritage Daghestan is famous for the outstanding military leader Bagration. Kizlyar is his birthplace, a hero of the Patriotic war of 1812.Now the local museum of regional studies is named after him.
Daghestanis are hardworking people. Their preoccupations are wood and stone carving, metal-chasing, carpet-weaving, ceramics, incrustation. Derbent and Kizlyar are the oldest places of wine making. Moreover, there are whole villages whose inhabitants specialize in this or that art or craft. The village of Kubachi is famous for its jewelers, Gotsatl-for silvermiths, Balkhar – for potters, Untsukul-for wood carvers, Khubachi – for carpet-weavers. The articles produced by them can be found in museums in many countries. Daghestan craftsmen have won many prizes at different exhibitions of folk decorative art. The girl from our village presented to the head of the USSR Brezhnev a carpet with his portrait made by herself.
Our republic is rich in resources such as oil, natural gas, copper ore, sulphur, quartz sands, mineral fertilizers and different building materials, such as clay, limestone, sandstone, granite.
Mountain in Daghestan have a unique charm, which inspired many poets and artists. They are not merely an integral part of Daghestan’s nature, but also of the mentality and consciousness of its people, their life, culture and history. For the majority of Daghestanis a mountain is their field, their house, their workplace. It is, as a poet has said , their mother , on whose bosom they live.
Specialists say there is no consensus about the origin of the dune. However, one thing they agree - this part of the desert at least a few hundred thousand years. Sand Mountain Sarykum - a unique monument of nature with extreme climatic zone. The temperature of the sand comes here sometimes up to 90 degrees. At least seven species of animals living on the dunes is listed in the Red Book. Alone plants in the reserve more than a thousand.
Today, the whole Caspian Sea coast of Daghestan transforms into a zone of recreation and to expand considerably the capacity of the existing health resorts by building new sanatoriums, rest-homes hotels, camping on the coast of the sea and in picturesque localities in the mountains, where there are splendid climatic conditions.
From the ancient traditions of mountaineers, perhaps, the most striking first visited Dagestan human custom of hospitality. For long been the established customs of every mountaineer consider it an honor worthy to receive a guest at any time of the day or night. In Dagestan existed a custom: when sat lunch or dinner, the food was divided equally between separated family members and an extra portion in case you suddenly come late guest. Guest should not need anything - this is an unwritten custom of Highlanders. Given that, the traveler could get wet on the road or simply, in many mountain homes kept coats available to guests.
The lezghinka Ensemble from Daghestan is a most spectacular company, which provides total contrast between its serene and stately women and its exuberant, warlike men. Not for one moment does the action cease, the dancers seem to be tireless. The men perform astonishing acrobatic feats and their elevation is superb. Their ability to dance on their toes and even to land on them from high leaps is startling.
It is seldom, too, that one sees a company with so many beautiful women. These women combine striking beauty with quiet, feminine dignity. Their costumes, in exquisite pastel shades, are one of the great joys of the performance
The girls move with an uncanny ability and at a great pace round the stage, seeming to the travelling on hiding wheels. The man also achieve this effect when they wear full-length military capes. Lezghinka is excitement, charm and beauty.
Although Daghestan literature is still very young, a number of our poets and writers are well known outside the republic. They wrote about the beauty Of Daghestan and its people.
Akhmedkhan Abu-Bakar from Kubachi graduated from the Literary Institute by Maxim Gorky. He gained fame as the author of novels and plays on the life of modern Daghestan. The story "Dargin girl" (1958) was translated into Russian, French, English, German, Spanish, Polish. . He has prizes and awards: Order of the Red Banner of Labor, Order of Friendship of Peoples, Order "Badge of Honor", and Republican Prize by Suleiman Stalsky.
Other Daghestan poet Rasul Gamzatov was eleven years old when he wrote his first verses. He graduated from the literary Institute in Moscow. In all his poetry, Gamzatov speaks about the good in man, fights for the best sides of human nature. He would be famous only for his poem «Cranes» if he wrote nothing else. It is difficult to name his prizes and awards. Rasul Gamzatov has been awarded a number of international prizes (prize «For Outstanding Contribution to the Treasury of World Literature»).
The Daghestanis are especially proud of the outstanding achievements in the field of space research by Musa Manarov, the first Daghestan cosmonaut (lakets), whose name was entered in the Guinness Book of Records after he had spent more than 500 days in the outer space during his two space flights.
Do not forget the history.Hundreds of thousands of Caucasians in the Great Patriotic War voluntarily went to the front and there gave their lives defending every inch of the land of their homeland. Only from Daghestan more than 600,000 people had gone to the battlefields, nearly 70 became Heroes of the Soviet Union.
Our fellow-countryman Abdulhakim Ismailov hoisted the banner of victory over one of the dome of the Reichstag. Our village is small, 62 men did not come home, were killed.
As for feats the Daghestanis recent years, and in the recent 1999 regulated militia, our compatriots expelled from their native land uninvited "guests" - bandits who invaded Dagestan. There are many examples of heroic deeds of our young people.
Not only Daghestan learned about the heroism of the young Daghestani mountain village, but the whole of Russia, young people in many countries. At the age of 17, Hadzhimurad Kuharmaev accomplished the feat equal to the feat of Alexander Matrosov. Being among armed bandits, he used a single chance to avenge conquerors. Hadzhimurad snatched weapons out of the enemy bandits, found the courage and self-control to kill four of them and wound several, though really realized that he would give his young life. The Daghestani makes this feat.
Let us remember the fight for the television tower in Novolak. It was very important for Basayev and his 100 gangsters. "Without the" founder "the whole operation will fail, and you cannot grab it for so long." Khalid Murachuev Rashidovich - platoon commander Battalion patrol police police department Novolak Republic of Dagestan, a police lieutenant. He was born January 11, 1972 in the village of Cooley Kulinsky district of Dagestan ASSR. Lakets. He graduated from high school, Ulyanovsk Agricultural Institute with a degree in "Veterinary". He served in the Russian Army veterinarian. Since May 1997, he served in the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. Since May 1999, he commanded a platoon in the battalion patrol police Novolak police department of the Ministry of Interior Dagestan. He accomplished a heroic feat during the invasion of Chechen and international gangs in Dagestan in 1999. In early September 1999, gangs invaded the Botlikh district of Dagestan. The only supported the bandits of the village, they are the same - a stronghold of local Wahhabis Karamahi and Chabanmakhi - were surrounded by Russian troops. The outcome of the battle for them was obvious. Then the leaders of the invading gangs Basayev and Khattab decided to apply a new sudden blow in Novolak area is not covered by military operations. The enemy hoped for success, knowing that the main forces of Russian forces involved in the fighting. The consideration was made on the suddenness and speed of action. The capture of the village Novolak paid much attention to the commanding heights "founder". With its view, one can see not only the village, but also a large part of the area to the main roads. Therefore, that morning September 5, 1999 a few dozen militants broke into the area immediately went to the height. There was a group of police officers Novolak service police department, headed by Lieutenant Khalid Murachuev. The group included five policemen-Daghestanis Policemen from the sounds of firing realized what was happening in the village. Lieutenant Murachuev organized a perimeter defense, distributed ammunition. Successfully repulsed the first attack dagger fire at close range. Soon the second, her third. Five men were fighting over a day with more than 100 militants! The attacks followed one another, and between them, the bandits shelled the height with mortars. Seven times, the bandits raised in the attack and seven times rolling back carpeting the slopes of the bodies of those killed. Lieutenant Murachuev and sergeant Isaev remained at an altitude; they both were already wounded. They went on all night. The latest report was received early in the morning September 6: "Chucks ended. Mutey wounded, he takes grenades, and I throw." The bandits seized two severely wounded police officers and brutally killed them. Khalid Murachuev was beheaded. In unparalleled battle 50 (according to other sources - to 70) militants were killed. Losing a day in the battle for the height of the "founder", the militants have been surprised. More was at the height of the battle, and the first part of the Russian troops had already put forward in the Novolak district. The enemy did not work. After the battle, Khalid Murachuev and Mutey Isaev were considered missing. In September 2000, captured militants told about the details of their exploits and death, indicating the burial places of Heroes. For courage and heroism in the line of duty police lieutenant Khalid Murachuevu Rashidovich was awarded the title of Hero of the Russian Federation (posthumously). Mutey Isaev was awarded the same decree the title of Hero of the Russian Federation. In 2002, Kuli high school number 1 in Daghestan was named after the Hero of the Russian Federation Khalid Murachuev.
The Daghestanis are very noble and helpful people. Noble acts are a feature of the Daghestanis. There is a lot of evidence for this. Marat Rakhmetov, a young Daghestani, gave his life to save two drowning girls in the Moskva River. He was young and wanted to live, get married and have a family. He died, saving the lives of others. It is an act of this man, mountaineer and Muslim. Marat Rakhmetov with his cousin Rasim decided to swim in the Mosckva River. Not far, a group of local teenagers from seven people rest who periodically bathed in the river. Suddenly, a few girls who were swimming in the moment began to concern over the deep, and they began to call for help. Hearing the screams, Marat Rasim, without hesitation, rushed to the aid. Marat first swam to the drowning girl. He pushed them to a shallow, but he was unable to swim. Attempts to find and rescue the young man were no avail. A few minutes later, Rasim called the family and told what had happened. "Young and handsome guy. I express my deep and sincere condolences to the family and friends of the deceased. I also would like to thank the parents of Marat, because they raised such a worthy son "- said the reporter of a Daghestan newspaper.
But here, apparently, there were people who did not want to advertise a noble act of our Dagestani: many media were silent, and only after the appeal of the head of Dagestan Ramazan Abdulatipov and public, the feat of Marat Rakhmetov was evaluated. For courage and selflessness, courage and determination in rescuing people in extreme conditions of the Decree of the President of Russia, he was awarded the Order of Courage.
Malik Akhmadov became disabled.13 July 2010 was fatal for the Akhmadovs. Rest on the Caspian Sea suddenly turned into tragedy: that day the student of the Novgorod State University, football player, athlete Malik rescued a drowning girl, and at the same time, he was in a whirl. The boy was under the water for about 10 minutes. He was pulled out of the water in a state of clinical death. In the Caspian Central Hospital, the young man was in a coma for 21 days. The result - a terrible diagnose, operations, hospital.
In addition, this is not the only case where the Daghestanis come to the rescue. In November of the last year, the morning boxers who had come to the championship of Russia in Khabarovsk had a morning jog. Near the Palace of Sports "Arsenal» they noticed a burning tram. Tram doors were shut, and the inside of the firetrap there were people. Our young men first rushed to the rescue! They knocked the glass and pulled from a burning car 20 people. Among them were elderly people and children.
The Daghestanis are always ready to help in a difficult moment. There are many such examples. I would like journalist’s central publications to be often oblivious to the fact manifestations of courage and friendliness of our fellow-countrymen and less exaggerated the negative information.
It is important to do justice to our Olympic champions. Daghestan athletes have achieved high results in some traditional sports. The most popular of them are freestyle wrestling and martial arts. In recent years, an increasing number of our athletes who take part in the Olympic Games, in Europe and World championships as members of the national teams of Russia and bring back gold, silver and bronze medals. The distinguished Daghestani athlete Ali Aliyev won the world championship in freestyle wrestling five times. Getting medals on the Olympic Games, the Daghestanis bring glory and victory not only to Daghestan but also to the whole Russia. 25 Olympic medals, it is a great number for a small republic.
Victory of Mansur Isaev was the second victory of the Russian judoist at the Olympics in London. It should be noted that prior to the Olympic Games in London our judoists could not climb to the top step of the pedestal of the Olympic Games for 32 years. The Russian judoist after winning restraint showed his feelings by saying that "special emotion until it feels." However, he said he trusted in his strength, and emotions will probably be later.
Batirov’s father instilled love to fight taking his boy from an early age to various contests and competitions. The first time the father brought Mavlet and his younger brother Adam in the gym when they were seven and six years. The first competition, in which Batirov took part, was junior contest in Khasavyurt, where he won the first place. Mavlet Batirov was ten years old and weighed 22 kilograms. He has two Olympic gold medals. Today it is difficult to name other medals.
Buvaysur Saytiyev brought glory to Daghestan. He got three Olympic medals and was the youngest to win it in freestyle wrestling. Five times, he was recognized as the best wrestler all over the world. He tolls about himself that he has suffered a defeat. Once he had been crying all day long. However, today he says that there is not a victory without defeats. Sometimes to be defeated is more useful than victory. Defeat is a natural thing in our life, which insists on a big attention. His younger brother Adam won an Olympic medal too.
We can name Elena Isinbayeva, Gaydarbek Gaydarbekov, Sharip Sharipov etc.
I conducted a survey of opinions of 27 Russian educated persons over 40 years in Vladimir, Riga and Moscow. They answered 4 questions.
1. What Daghestan writers do you know?
2. What Daghestan Olympic champions do you know?
3. What Daghestan heroes do you know?
4. What is Daghestan associated with?
The first question. 67% of people called the name of Rasul Gamzatov, 33% could name nobody.
The second question. 34% could name nobody, 33% said that there were Olympic winners in freestyle wrestling and others told that there were good sportsmen in Daghestan.
The third question nobody knows Daghestan Heroes.
The fourth question. 40% said that Daghestan is associated with mountains, 30%- with lezghinka, national costumes and Mountain Rivers and the rest- with mountains, Caspian Sea and Mahachkala.
I asked the same questions the 10th and 11th year students of my school.
The first question. 34% of pupils named 13 writers; 58%- 8 writers; 8%- 18 writers.
The second question. 34% of pupils called the names of 7 champions; 33%-5 champions; 33%-4 champions.
The third question. 62% of pupils called the names of 4 heroes; 14%-5 heroes; 24%-3 heroes.
The fourth question. 13% of pupils announced that Daghestan is associated with proud; 13%- with honour; 17%- with mountain and nature; 8%- with sport; 13%- with hospitality; 4%- with religion; 13%-with courage; 13%- with dignity; 6%- with expanse.
I did not like the results of my survey. It is a pity; the people of Central Russia almost know nothing about us. I think it is our mistake too.
I have only told about a few people and a small information. However, we can continue the list. We had the time to discuss a small information about Daghestan. We should tell about positive acts of our fellow citizens because central mass media reports only negative points. We should expand cultural relations with other republics and regions of Russia; organize sport meetings. If we do not do it, nobody will do it. Telling people about usual Daghestanis, we can break down the stereotypes about our Motherland and its people. I think that today I have done a tiny part of this work.
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