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Проект по английскому языку на тему "Language of Advertising"

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Язык рекламы



Тема моей работы – реклама и ее язык. В данной работе я ставлю перед собой задачу выяснить некоторые достоинства и недостатки современной рекламы, ее влияние на психологического состояние людей, а также проблему слишком большого количества рекламы на улицах больших городов.

В наше время реклама окружает нас повсюду – на телевидении, на радио, в интернете, на улицах наших городов. Нельзя не отметить то, что у рекламы есть огромное количество достоинств, которые я постаралась выяснить с помощью моих одноклассников и учителей в школе. Но также я попыталась понять, в чем заключаются недостатки современной рекламы.

В данной работе я также рассматриваю историю рекламы, ее типы, а также то, какие уловки используют маркетологи для того, чтобы повлиять на умы нас и наших детей и заставить купить нас тот или иной товар.

На настоящий момент существует множество видов рекламы: реклама на ТВ и радио, в интернете, трейлеры, постеры, уличная реклама, брошюры, логотипы на одежде и других продуктах. Я держу пари, вы считаете, что реклама это искусство убеждать людей в преимуществах одного продукта перед другим. Задача рекламщиков – заставить вас предпочесть их товар и их марку другому товару и марке.

Развитие рекламы происходит уже на протяжении более 200 лет, и я постараюсь рассказать и показать вам, с чего все начиналось, и какой вид имеет реклама в наши дни. А началось все в Древней Греции, когда жители городов при переезде вешали на дома большие объявления о продаже. Египтяне же использовали папирус для этого. Коммерческие объявления и политические постеры были найдены в руинах Помпеи. Объявления о пропаже были распространены в Древней Греции и Риме. Наскальные объявления, сохранившиеся до наших дней, были обнаружены в разных частях Азии, Африки и Южной Америки.

Как было сказано ранее, существует множество типов рекламы. Одна из них – реклама в газетах. Множество британских издательств выделяют в своих газетах несколько страниц специально для рекламы, которая подразделяется на несколько категорий, таких как работа, услуги, купле-продажа, подержанные машины, туры и т.д.

Другой тип рекламы – объявления о купле-продаже. Язык рекламы означает комфорт и роскошь, в таких объявлениях автор использует различные уловки, чтобы показать свой товар в лучшем свете. Иногда для этого используются фразы, истинный смысл которых неясен.

Методы рекламы – это описание, сравнение, убеждение, информирование, обращение к научным исследованиям, относящимся к продаваемому продукту, реклама с участием известных личностей, а также игра на эмоциях покупателей.

Более того, знаете ли вы, что музыка также способна продавать? Например, музыкант Джордж Фредерик Гендель, умерший уже 300 лет назад, написал музыкальную композицию, которая в последствии была использована для рекламы бренда «Levi`s» и стала хитом в наше время? Компания Levi`s подвергла композицию “Sarabande in D Minor” перезаписи. Данная композиция звучит очень драматично, так же, как и сама реклама: в ней двое молодых людей делают необыкновенные вещи.

Большинство певцов и музыкальных групп охотно соглашаются написать и исполнить музыку для рекламы, так как зрители ассоциируют их имя с конкретным продуктом, и это помогает музыкантам стать известнее, а также увеличить продажи их дисков и билетов на концерты. Конечно, певцы предпочитают рекламировать известные марки и бренды.

В прошлом, компании использовали так называемые ‘jingles’ – специальные композиции, написанные для рекламы конкретного продукта. В наши дни все иначе. Сейчас музыка в рекламе играет такую же значимую роль, как и в фильмах: она передает настроение, что усиливает «посыл» потребителям. Часто люди запоминают музыку и ее автора, что помогает ему стать популярнее. Короче говоря, музыканты и компании рекламируют друг друга.

У каждой марки в наши дни есть свое имя и логотип. Это помогает потребителю отличить конкретную марку от любых других. Некоторые имена брендов используются в повседневной жизни для обозначения всех продуктов одного типа. Это такие слова как «Термос», «Ксерокс» и т.д. В современном мире некоторые бренды используются даже в космосе, и, может быть, в скором времени мы будем смотреть на луну и видеть логотип Pepsi.

Логотип – это маленькая картинка, официальная «подпись», баннер компании или организации, которая также помогает нам различать товары разных марок. Так, мы видим черную лошадь на логотипе «Феррари» и золотые «арки» «Макдональдса», и сразу узнаем эти бренды. В наше время, компании готовы платить большие деньги, для того чтобы их логотипы были показаны на «Формуле 1» или на сцене популярного шоу.

Будущее рекламы непредсказуемо. Но уже сейчас можно смело утверждать, что реклама постепенно распространяется не только на Земле, но и в космосе. Сейчас мы можем встретить рекламу даже на некоторых космических кораблях. А вот креативная компания “Pizza Hut” даже планировала разместить свою рекламу на Луне, но оценив всю стоимость этой затеи, они решили отказаться от этой идеи и поместить рекламу на космическом корабле.

Кстати, технологию размещения изображений на Луне изобрел американский ученый Дэвид Джонс и назвал ее
Shadow Shaping(«рисование» тенями). Он уверяет, что такую рекламу увидят более 12 миллионов людей на Земле и это будет самая популярная реклама путешествий в космос. Такая реклама в первую очередь подталкивает молодое поколение к более глубокому изучению космоса, и это без сомнения положительная ее сторона.

Собрав все сказанное мною ранее воедино, я могу с уверенностью сказать, что рекламная индустрия в наши дни получает миллиарды долларов ежегодно. Кроме того, реклама тоже имеет «пол». Одна рассчитана на потребителей-мужчин, другая на женщин. Мужчины представляются как сильные и независимые, а женщины как хозяйки и матери. Мужчины и женщины реагируют на рекламу по-разному. Мужчины предпочитают «счастливую» рекламу, когда им грустно, а женщины предпочитают эту же рекламу, когда они сами чувствуют себя счастливыми.

Важно также то, что сейчас развитие интернет-рекламы идет очень интенсивно, и она постепенно вытесняет рекламу на радио и ТВ.

Реклама оказывает положительное и отрицательное влияние на нашу жизнь. Иногда она оказывает психологическое давление на покупателей. Но все же, когда вы собираетесь купить сумочку в качестве подарка для своей подруги и видите одну с логотипом Channel, а другую без – какую вы выберете?











Municipal Educational Institutionhello_html_m3628adf1.jpg

Lesnogorodskaya Secondary School



































Student: Kseniya Dosaeva
Form 8 A


Teacher: Peregudova Natalia Igorevna

Lesnoy Gorogok, Odintsovo, Moscow region
2014







Contents



1.Introduction……………………………...1

2.The History of Advertising…………….. 2

3.Newspaper Advertising …………………3

4.Looking for a Flat. Houses for Sale……..3-4

5.Methods of Advertising…………………4-5

6.Brand Names……………………………5-6

7.Promotion……………………………….6

8.Logo…………………………………….6-7

9.Titles……………………………………7
10.Slogan…………………………………8

11.Leaflets and Brochures.……………….8

12.Posters. Outdoor Advertising....………9

13.Music Sells……………………………10

14.Space Advertising……………………..11

15.Conclusion…………………………….12

16.Projects ……………………………….13

17.Theses…………………………………14-15
18.Appendix……………………………...16

19.Bibliography…………………………..17





Sanely applied advertising could remake the world.



  1. Introduction.


Advertising is very popular nowadays. It`s everywhere. As soon as you open your eyes in the morning you can see or listen to advertisements. They fill the newspapers and cover the walls, they are on menu cards and in your daily post and even on match boxes. I am going to look at advertising development for more than 200 years and to analyze the importance of it. hello_html_7c5dfc3d.jpg

I am ready to bet you believe that advertising is the art of convincing people of the advantages of your product and of persuading them to prefer your product to any other. This is a misconception. Advertising is the art of convincing people that they want certain things they don`t need at all. hello_html_2fe51854.jpg

They tell you that if you wash with a certain soap you`ll become rich, if you use a certain orange squeezer, you will remain young, if you eat only a special kind of tomato ketchup you will learn foreign languages more easily.

Of course, people are much more intelligent to believe such silly statements. But after all there may be something in it – why not to try?

What do we mean by advertising?

Let`s look up in the dictionary.

Advertisement and advertising have in their root a Latin word “advertere”, meaning “turn torwards”.

Advertise – to tell people publicly about a product or service in order to persuade them to buy it. [1]







-1-



  1. The History of Advertising


So how advertising began? Let’s look at the history of advertising and look at the examples of some kinds of it. The history of advertising began in ancient Greece when people wrote “For sale” on the sides of their houses if they wanted to move. Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of ancient Arabia. “Lost and Found” advertising on papyrus was common in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, which is presented nowadays in many parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. hello_html_2fc9bab4.jpghello_html_38a62ea4.jpg

Advertising has gone through some stages of development from domestic, export to international, multi-national and global. The first term “advertising agency” was used dates back to 1842 when Volney Palmer created his agency in Philadelphia. The person who changed the advertising in the 19th century was Thomas Barratt who was the chairman of the Pears Soap company and whose advertising genius led him to become known as the “Father of advertising”. His techniques were revolutionary for the time. He was the first to understand the value of words anв images in order to promote ideas. His slogan “Good morning. Have you used Pears soap?” made the brand famous. [2]

As I have already said there are different kinds of advertising.



hello_html_44ed9476.jpg



















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  1. Newspaper Advertisements



Most British local newspapers usually contain several pages of advertisements, which are grouped in different categories such as jobs, lost and found, services, for sale, coming events, holidays. Such adverts are not very long. [3] There are some examples:



mn $ФВ





hello_html_13147a9.jpghello_html_7eb07b6d.jpg









4. Looking for a Flat. Houses for Sale



Here the author describes the living conditions and starts like this: “This comfortable house is four miles from the city centre. It’s rather expensive, but…”

There are many abbreviations here, such as clkrm = cloak room, dng – dining room, bdrms = bed room, kit = kitchen, frpls = fireplace.

Advertising language suggests comfort and luxury. For example:









Advertising language uses interesting or poetic words that paint pictures and bring the description to life, instead of using dull, everyday words.

For example, advertising language suggests using colour metaphors (a red-letter day, whiter that white), but doesn’t make use of approximate or vague characteristics (reddish brown, yellowish, oldish). Exotic words with special associations are often used to describe colours:



-3-

  • Violet

  • Strawberry

  • Magnolia

  • Ruby

  • Lime

  • Amber

  • Coral

  • Saphire

All these methods are used in order to convince, impress, persuade and sell. [3]



5. Methods of Advertising



There are some commonly used methods of advertising. hello_html_m79ee07a9.jpg

INFORMATION
If a product is new it is often enough to show it and explain what it does. Such words as ‘really new’, ‘sensation’ may be of help.

COMPARISON
A product is described as better than rival products. The advertising language makes use of comparative and superlative forms of adjectives.

e.g. Our coffeemakers are of unique design.

REPETITION
Key words or the name of the product are repeated many times so that to make you associate a particular product or service with its brand name. Sometimes the name of a product is put into a rhyme and sung repeatedly. It is called a ‘jingle’. That helps most people remember it easily.

SCIENTIFIC BACKING for a product.
Sometimes the ad shows a person in a white coat a doctor, a professor, a scientist, who tells you about the product and its benefits. More often the ad makes use of statistics, ‘scientific’ words. There are references to how ‘natural’ or ‘pure’ the product is.

e.g. Health drink comprises 51 miracle ingredients.

Our electric kettles are scientifically tested.

New fitness program is developed by a group of international experts.

These words have a magic effect in Russian advertisements.

APPEALING TO EMOTIONS
Advertising appeals to people’s feelings and emotions, such as feminity/manliness, sexuality, mother-love/father-love.
Another common device is to write about the thing you are selling as if it were a person, attributing to its feelings, character.





-4-



Here are some commonly used phrases:

Treat yourself to…/allow yourself…/pamper yourself with…/spoil yourself…/etc.

PURE SNOB APPEAL
Ads say the product is exclusive. It is for really stylish/intelligent/outstanding people.

hello_html_52e35212.jpg

ASSOCIATION OF IDEAS
Ads show attractive people using the product in some beautiful situations, having a wonderful time. This is especially suitable for the teenage market.

POPULAR PERSONALITY
A well-known person is invited to advertise a product (a singer, an actor, a famous sportsman) [4]



6. Brand Names



Brand name (trade name) is a name given to a particular product, that helps you recognize it from other similar products. Some brand names are used in everyday conversation for all products of the same type, whoever makes them, but are well-known and international.[1]
hello_html_5c51f1f7.jpg















-5-

hello_html_f718bab.png









hello_html_8d13b58.png















7. Promotion



Promotion is all activities supporting the sale of a product, including advertising.

Promotion describes:

  • Discounts or reduced prices(the most often uses phrases are: colossal discounts, prices slashed, ridiculously-low prices, rock-bottom prices, etc)

  • A free gift(you are welcome to try or taste a bit of the product without paying money for it)

  • A free sample(it goes with the product you buy)

  • Competitions with prizes(many supermarkets run them) [1]



8. Logo


It is a small design that is the official sign of a company or organization. [1]hello_html_m553dc0aa.jpg



-6-

The latest fashion for many teenagers is wearing these logos like jewelry around their necks. If you want to keep up with your friends in the battle to look cool, then this kind of theft may be your only option. hello_html_m54bdc9aa.jpg

A company’s image is always represented by its logo.hello_html_5345cdbb.jpg

We see the black horse of Ferrari or the golden arches of McDonald`s and we recognize them immediately. Companies often prefer to pay for their logo to be displayed on a Formula One car or on the stage of a pop concert.

Technology is now being developed to put logos on the Moon. And may be next time you are going for a romantic moonlight walk under the Pepsi Stripes.



9. Titles
hello_html_m770f5ab8.jpg

The first thing readers see in your paper is the title. It should make the main topic perfectly clear and make everyone see right away which something is involved.

VAGUE titles are very bad. They are empty and general they don`t let on what the paper is about, such as





  1. People

  2. Life

  3. Our Times

Long and clumsy titles waste people’s time. If the title is too wordy and complicated people might not bother to read the paper.







-7-

10. Slogan


It is a laconic phrase that expresses the essential idea of an advertising message. [1]

  • HAVE A BREAK – EAT A KIT-KAT.

  • A MARK A DAY HELPS YOUR WORK, REST AND PLAY.

  • THE BANK THAT LIKES TO SAY ‘YES’

  • ALL BECAUSE THE LADY LOVES MILK TRAY.

  • A MILLION HOUSEWIVES EVERY DAY PICK UP A CAN OF BEANS AND SAY BEANZ MEANZ HEINZ.



11. Leaflets and Brochures



hello_html_m3b583ea8.jpg

They are printed documents, usually illustrated, distributed free. As a rule, brochures are thick, highly illustrated booklets. [1]

Leaflets are often single sheets of paper, often folded in three, with a balance of text and illustration.

Information sheets are also usually single sheets of paper, not folded, with few or no illustrations. Infosheets and leaflets are sometimes called ‘handouts’.[1]

To be able to persuade people to believe you, to arouse their interest and desire to buy a product, you should enrich your vocabulary with a great variety of appropriate words.

Language of advertising suggests supplying appropriate adjectives express your idea effectively.



-8-

There are some adjectives to help you to describe smells:

  • Sweet-smelling

  • Aromatic

  • Perfumed(scented fragrant)

There are also some adjectives to help you to describe taste

  • Bitter

  • Sour

  • Sweet

  • Spicy

  • Hot

  • Salty

  • 12. Posters. Outdoor Advertisinghello_html_246a3e6.jpg

  • Poster is a printed sign, usually a large one, which is shown in a public place. Its purpose may be to announce an event or to advertise something. There are travel posters, posters for art exhibitions and political posters.

    Posters developed from printed notices which were stuck on walls. As printing methods developed, it became possible to produce colour prints. This was the beginning of the poster as we know it today. Posters became more colorful and pictures were used to express the idea. The text grew less important.

    Posters reflected the social changes of the industrial age. Humorous posters have always been very popular. The unusual, the astonishing posters catch the attention of the passer-by. Advertising experts say that if people do not take in a poster in two seconds, it is not a good one.

  • Posters are often used as means of propaganda. They can be a vivid commentary on different events in the history of the country. Some of the most effective political posters have been designed to protect against the atomic bomb. One of them had a single word: “No!”[2]

  • -9-

  • 13. Music Sells

  • hello_html_m59d56594.jpg

  • By the way, do you know that music sells?

  • Have you ever seen this man? He’s George Frederick Handel. He was born in 1685 and died in 1759. Over 300 years ago. He was a musician. He composed a lot of music: “The Messiah” (remember The Halleluiah chorus?), “The Water Music”. You may ask me why I am talking about him. Well, that’s the link with the Levi’s campaign.

  • Levi’s jeans launched a new advertising campaign in Europe. Like most ads, these used music. And what did the advertising agency choose? Handel’s “Sarabande in D Minor”. Levi’s rearranged it for a full orchestra. It’s very dramatic – just like the ad. In it, two people do amazing things. They crash through walls, run up trees, and then jump to a huge night sky. Wearing Levi’s, of course! Levi’s have used classical or old pieces of music for their ads in the past. And these pieces often becomes hits. They’re recorded in an exciting way, and so they seem modern. They introduce teens to classical music and they sell things.

  • hello_html_3f4110fb.jpg

  • Most bands and groups are really happy to record music for ads. People associate their name with specific products – mobile phones, clothes and so on. This helps them to become famous. It also makes it easier to sell their other things – CDs and tickets for their concerts. Of course, they prefer to provide music for ‘cool’ products. And there can be ethical problems. For example, will vegetarian group provide music for a hamburger advertising?

  • In the past, most ads used ‘jingles’ – special words and music written about the product. But now these soundtracks are more like film music. They express a mood, which reinforces the visual message. Often, people remember the music, and what to know who performed it –and who wrote it. Briefly, companies and musicians advert each other. [5]


  • -10-

  • 14. Space Advertising

  • The future of advertising is unpredictable. We can tell about space advertising now. You can see it on the sides of some space ships.


  • In 1990 Pizza Hut company decided to put its logo on the Moon. But taking into consideration all expenses they organized the delivery of pizza to the spaceship.


  • An American scientist David Jones invented technology of creating images on the Moon. He called it “Shadow Shaping”. He said that this advertising would be seen by 12 billions of people. It will be the most popular advertising inviting people to travel to the Moon.


  • Japanese company “Otsuka” will send the can with a very popular drink “Pocari Sweat” in 2015. It will take 4 days to reach the Moon. But scientists think it will inspire the young generation to explore space.


  • So advertising make scientists extend their knowledge to give them a chance do their best in order to improve our life.


  • hello_html_122d2d74.jpg

  • -11-

  • 15. Conclusion

  • To sum it up I come to the conclusion that advertising industry today has billions of dollars yearly. A lot of large companies are involved in looking through advertisements. I come across with many interesting things.


  • First of all, advertising has gender: men are represented as independent people. Women are represented as housewives and mothers. Men are often shown advertising business products or cars while women advert domestic products. Advertising persuades men to improve their body.

  • Advertisers and agencies nowadays recognize the value of women’s insight during the creative process of ads. It’s women who come to an important decision “to buy or not to buy”.

  • By the way male and female react to advertising differently, depending on their mood. Men prefer happy advertisements when they feel sad, women prefer happy advertisements when they feel happy.

  • Secondly, modern media is overtaking many of the ‘traditional’ media such as television, radio and newspaper. Technological progress made it possible to reach audience at any time and location. With the Internet come many new advertising opportunities. That is why mobile and internet advertising grew by 18% and 9% accordingly. Old kinds of advertising go down: 10% - TV, 11% - radio, 14% - magazines, 18% - newspapers.


  • -12-

  • 16. Projects


  • I interviewed my classmates and teachers at school. The question was “What’s your attitude to advertising?” There are different opinions about it.
    Without any doubt, advertising has positive influence.

  • It informs consumers about new products and services that can help them to improve their lives.

  • It increases sales so that companies can produce things at lower costs and make things cheaper.

  • It helps the economy and gives jobs to many people.

  • Advertising has cultural significance encouraging people to exchange their customs and traditions.

  • Some goods can educate public. Powerful words and images can move people to take actions.

  • On the other hand, advertising isn’t always useful.

  • Some forms of outdoor advertising as the display of billboards spoil the image of our cities. It should be controlled by the city authorities. The government should protect our interests by regulating. There are some examples nowadays such as the ban of tobacco advertising on TV.

  • Under the influence of advertising people buy products that they don’t need and can not afford. Sometimes these goods are thrown away and it leads to the pollution.

  • Advertising techniques are being important into politics and used to persuade voters to accept politicians they would otherwise objected to.

  • And the last and the most important. Advertising is invading public places such as schools, universities and many people speak about influence on children’s minds. In addition advertising uses psychological pressure appealing to feelings of the consumer, which may be harmful and can manipulate the consumer’s needs and wants.
    Children are the main target of advertisers. They sometimes don’t know which product is good for them and buy the wrong things. For example, fast food advertising is harmful for children, sometimes it leads to obesity and diabetes.
    hello_html_133d5ca1.jpg

  • I think my research will help you to understand advertising better. So it’s up to you to decide is advertising useful or not? But just for the sake of argument imagine you are thinking of buying a new handbag – for yourself or as a present. One of them has a Channel logo and the other doesn’t. Which one would you buy?

  • -13-

  • 17. Theses

  • The aim of my research is to look at advertising and to show the variety of types of it and their role in our life.

  • Advertise – to tell people publicly about a product or service in order to persuade them to buy it. (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English)

  • There are different kinds of advertising nowadays: newspaper and magazine advertisements, TV advertisements, trailers (brief excerpts from a film, TV programme, radio programme used to advertise it), posters, billboards, sandwich boards, brochures, flyers, logos on clothing and other products.

  • The history of advertising began in ancient Greece when people wrote “For sale” on the sides of their houses if they wanted to move. “Lost and Found” advertising on papyrus was common in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.

  • The first term “advertising agency” was used dates back to 1842 when Volney Palmer created his agency in Philadelphia.

  • The person who changed the advertising in the 19th century was Thomas Barratt who was the chairman of the Pears Soap company and whose advertising genius led him to become known as the “Father of advertising”

  • Newspaper ads are grouped in different categories. Such advertising are not very long. “Looking for a flat. Houses for sale”. Here the author describes the living conditionals.
    Advertising language suggests comfort and luxury, it uses interesting or poetic words that paint pictures and bring the description to life, instead of using dull, everyday words.

  • There are some commonly used methods of advertising such as:

  • Information

  • Comparison

  • Repetition

  • Scientific backing

  • Appealing to emotions

  • Pure snob appeal

  • Association of ideas

  • Popular personality

  • Brand name is a name given to a particular product that helps you to recognize it from other similar products. Promotion describes discounts or reduced prices, a free gift, competitions with prizes.

  • -14-

  • Logo is a small design that is the official sign of a company or organization.

  • Titles is the first thing the readers see in your paper. If the title is too wordy and complicated people might not bother to read the paper.

  • Slogan is the laconic phrase that expresses the essential idea of an advertising message. “Have a break – eat a kit-kat”.

  • Leaflets, brochures and information sheets are printed documents, usually illustrated.

  • Posters, outdoor advertising is a printed sign, which is shown in a public place. Its purpose may be to announce an event or to advertise something.

  • Like most ads, advertising campaign uses music. Most bands and singers are really happy to record for advertising.

  • To sum it up I come to the conclusion that advertising industry today has billions of dollars yearly. First of all, advertising has gender: men are represented as independent people. Women are represented as housewives and mothers. Secondly, modern media is overtaking many of the ‘traditional’ media such as television, radio and newspaper. Old kinds of advertising go down. Advertisements have positive and negative influence on our life. It uses psychological pressure appealing to feelings of the consumer. And I think my research will help you to understand advertising better.

  • -15-

  • 18. Appendix

  • The results of public opinion pool made at school

  • Took part: 50 students from 13 to 15 years old.

  • The question was: “Is advertising important in our life? Name positive and negative aspects of it”

  • Answers:
    70% of students considering the question in all aspects determine advertising is useful.

  • 25% take it in a bad sense.

  • 5% don’t give the definite answer.

  • -16-

  • 19. Bibliography

  • 1. Longman dictionary of Contemporary English

  • 2. The History of Advertising by Stephane Pincas and Marc Loiseau

  • 3. English Newspapers and magazines

  • 4. Business English by Elena Napalkova

  • 5. “Entertainment“ by Macmillan

  • 6. Image resources were taken from http://images.yandex.ru

  • -17-

Автор
Дата добавления 11.10.2016
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Презентации
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