Министерство образования РФ
Муниципальное общеобразовательное учреждение
Средняя общеобразовательная школа № 25 с углубленным изучением отдельных предметов
По английскому языку
«Sport & Drugs»
Исполнитель: Шевелев Станислав Валерьевич
ученик 10 класса «А»
Научный руководитель: Яшкина Елена Валерьевна
г. Орехово-Зуево, 2012 г.
Sport in my life………………………………………………………4
Sport in Russia………………………………………………………5
Sport in Great Britain……………………………………………..5-6
The History of Olympic Games…………………………………...8-9
Sport and Healthy Way of Life…………………………………...9-10
The Concept and Manifestation of Drug Abuse…………………10-14
International For a and Legal Acts on Drugs……………………14-18
Sport in My School………………………………………………….19
Summer and Winter Sports………………………………...………..19
My Favorite Sport and My Favorite Sportsman………………….19-21
Sport-is probably as the humanity itself. All over the world people of different ages are very fond of sports and games. Sport does not only help people to become strong and to develop physically but also makes them more organized and better disciplined in their daily activities. It makes a healthy mind in a healthy body. Sports help people to keep in good health.
We all need to exercise. Even if you don't plan to make a career in sport you still have to practice. Regular exercises give you more energy. That is why many people who suffer from general tiredness should take more exercise than more rest. Exercise makes you feel and look better. The best exercise is one of which involves in repeated movements, those are: walking, jogging or swimming. Bending and stretching will add flexibility and feeling of lightness.
Among the sports popular in our country are football, basketball, swimming, volleyball, ice hockey, tennis, gymnastics, figure skating. A person can choose sports and games for any seasons, for any taste.
Drugs kill people every day. The 20th century has witnessed the spread of narcotics to the entire world. In the past narcotics in the natural economy were confined to territories where drug-bearing plants were grown. By the end of century drug addiction has become a worldwide socially dangerous trend. Drug abuse has become a real plague of the 20th century in many countries of the world and may become the plague of this country in particular. Drug sales are the closing stage in drug trafficking. Drug trade earns huge profits that cover the costs of cultivating drug-bearing plants, producing (or illegally acquiring from medical institutions) transportation, sale expenses, and the bribery of officials, including those of the law enforcement agencies. Since illegal drug trafficking is extremely advantageous in terms of illegal profit accumulation and so harmful and immoral it must be regarded by the entire world community as a socially dangerous phenomenon. Some countries qualify its certain manifestations as a heinous crime.
The subject of my project is to research the negative influence of drugs on people all over the world and especially on sportsmen, to consider the wide spreading phenomenon of using drugs during sport competitions. I also want to prove that all people and especially teenagers must have a healthy way of life if they want to be success. Drugs are not good for people’s health and destroy their brain and body.
As for me, I fond of sport and spend a lot of time on doing different kinds of exercises. I don’t use drugs, don’t drink alcohol and don’t smoke. I want my project to show my attitude to this subject and to be a good example for all teenagers.
SPORT IN MY LIFE.
As for me, my life is impossible without sport. I agree that sport helps people to stay in good shape, keeps them fit and healthy. Anyone who knows my family can say that it's strange that I am a table tennis player, because my father plays volleyball. He was the captain of the students' team of Moscow Lomonosov's University. When I was 6 years old, my father began taking me to the gym. While he was playing volleyball, I was running, climbing up the Sweden wall, etc. But all the summer before going to school, I stayed in our yard, playing ping-pong. There were two tables in the yard. I was the youngest, only 7 years old, so the older boys often defeated me and I lost the matches more often then won them. Sometimes I cried. In September my parents suggested me going to the table tennis club. Of course, I agreed. Some boys, whom I played with, also decided to join this club. That is how it began.
I liked training. Some months later I was moved to an older group. That very winter I went to the competition for the first time. Of course, I lost many games, but I liked to compete. I enjoyed the atmosphere. I started training harder. A year later I took the second place in my age group in the Moscow Region. Next years I participated in different competitions in many cities of our country, such as Cheboksary, N.Novgorod, Petrozavodsk, Tula, Ivanovo, Vladimir, etc. It is interesting to have competitions in the place where you have never been yet.
Many times I was the first in the Central zone which includes 17 regions of Russia. Some years ago I took the third place in all-Russian national competitions in my age group in pairs. Though table-tennis is an individual game, there are team competitions too. I like to play team-games. While playing in the team you always feel support of your team-mates.
But you mustn't think that I am only interested in table-tennis. I am also fond of volleyball, basketball, biathlon, but of course, I am fond of football most of these sports. In summer I always play football with my friends in the yard or sports ground. I enjoy shouting for my favourite team “SPARTAK” sitting in front of the TV-set. I don't know why I am a Spartak fan. Maybe, because my father likes this team, maybe, because it is the most popular team in Russia. I always take to heart our national football team's results. It is true, our football is not having its best time now, but I am sure that soon the time will come when we will be proud of our football team as well as our country in the whole.
SPORT IN RUSSIA.
Russian and especially Soviet sports have many glorious pages. In all times our sportsmen have been the strongest in many kinds of sports. Athletes from Europe and Asia, Africa and America have always been afraid of their Russian opponents. People all over the world know such names as Larisa Latynina, Valery Borzov, Vladislav Tretiak, Irina Rodnina,Vladimir Salnikov and of course Leo Yashin, who was recognized as the best goalkeeper of all times and all nations.
In the Soviet Union junior sport was well-developed. There were many sport clubs, stadiums, grounds and gyms all over the country. Many competitions between schools took place in every town. In our clubs the best coaches worked. Among the sports popular in our country are football, basketball, swimming, volleyball, ice hockey, tennis, gymnastics, and figure skating. A person can choose sports and games for any seasons and for any taste. Unfortunately the situation has changed to the worse in the nineties. If an athlete wants to reach a good result he has to train abroad. Many qualified coaches left Russia, because of the material factor. The number of free sports clubs for children reduced greatly. More children's clubs became paid ones. Many stadiums and gyms were changed into markets and shops. Some talented athletes can't regularly participate in competitions because they must go to other towns and live there at their own expenses, paying for the tickets, hotels and meals with their own money. Sports equipment and sports clothes are rather expensive, too.
But nevertheless Russia has remained the greatest sport power. Our skiers like Larissa Lazutina and Lyubov Egorova, swimmer Alexander Popov, wrestler Alexander Karelin, gymnasts Alexey Nemov and Svetlana Kchorkina, hockey player Pavel Bure and tennis player Eugeny Kafelnikov and others with brilliance defend the honour of our national flag.
SPORT IN GREAT BRITIAN.
The British people like every one else like sports and games. They are called sport-lovers in spite of the fact that some of them neither play games nor even watch them. They only like to speak about sports. Sport plays such a large part in British life that many idioms in the English language have come from the world of sport. For example, “to play the game” means “to be fair” and “that's not cricket” means “that's not fair”. Britain invented and developed many of the sports and games, which now are played all over the world. There are different sports societies and clubs in Great Britain. Thousands of people devote their leisure time to outdoor and indoor games, athletics, cycling, mountain climbing, boxing and other sports. Horse-racing, dog-racing and motor-racing are among the most popular sports in Britain. They gather many spectators.
Football is the most popular game in Britain. It is a team game. There are some amateur teams but most of the teams are professional in England. Such teams as Arsenal, Chelsea and Manchester United are well-known all over the world. The Cup finals is one of the most important football matches of the year in England; it is always played at the Wembley stadium, near London, which holds 100,000 spectators. The matches between England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland also excite great interest.
English people like to play cricket. To many Englishmen cricket is both a game and a standard of behavior. They think that summer without cricket isn't summer. Cricket is the English national sport in summer. If you want to play cricket you must wear white boots, a white shirt and white long trousers. It is played with balls, bats and wickets. Girls play cricket too.
Golf is a widely spread all over Great Britain game. The Scots are sure the golf is a Scottish game. It is played all the year round.
Many people in Great Britain like to play table tennis. Englishmen heard about table tennis in 1880. Then the International Table Tennis Association was formed and the international rules were worked out.
Wimbledon is the center of lawn tennis. Nowadays every summer in June, the British hold the International Tennis Championship at Wimbledon. It's a great honour for every tennis-player to be the champion of Wimbledon.
Horse-racing is a popular sport in Britain. A lot of people are interested in the races and risk money on the horse which they think will win.
In England great attention is paid to sports in all the schools, colleges and universities. English boys like running, swimming and rowing. Boxing is very popular sport, too, to say nothing of football and cricket. In girls' schools grass hockey is the most popular game.
The world's greatest international sports games are known as the Olympic Games.
The Olympic idea means friendship, fraternity and cooperation among the people of the world. The Olympic movement proves that real peace can be achieved through sport.
The Olympic Games have a very long history. They began in 777 BC in Greece and took place every four years nearly twelve centuries at Olympia. They included many different kinds of sports: running, boxing, wrestling, etc. All the cities in Greece sent their best athletes to Olympia to compete in the Games. For the period of the Games all the wars stopped. So the Olympic Games became the symbol of peace and friendship.
The Games were for men only. Greek women were forbidden not only to participate but also to watch the Olympics.
In 1896 the first modern Olympic Games took place. Of course, the competitions were held in Greece to symbolize the continuation of the centuries-old tradition. The initiator of these Games was a French Baron Pierre de Coubertin.
In 1896 the International Olympic Committee was set up. It is formed by the representatives of all countries which take part in the Olympic Games. The International Olympic Committee decides upon the programme of the Games, the number of the participants and the city-host for the Games. Over one hundred and fifty countries are represented in the International Olympic Committee now. Besides, each country has its National Olympic Committee.
Since 1936 the opening ceremony is celebrated by lighting a flame, which is called “The Olympic Flame”. The Olympic emblem is five interlinked rings: blue, yellow, black, green and red. Any national flag contains at least one of these colours.
The ancient Greeks had no winter sports. Only in 1924 the first Winter Olympic Games were held in France. Now they are being held regularly. Summer and Winter Games are held separately. There are always several cities wishing to host the games. The most suitable is selected by the International Committee. After that the city of the Games starts preparations for the competitions, constructs new sports facilities, stadiums, hotels, press centres. Thousands of athletes, journalists and guests come to the Games, and it takes great efforts to arrange everything. There is always an interesting cultural programme of concerts, exhibitions, festivals, etc. for each Games.
Russia joined the Olympic movement in 1952. Since then it has won a lot of gold, silver and bronze medals. In 1980 Moscow hosted the Twenty-Second Olympic Games. The world knows glorious names of our Olympic champions such as Lydia Skoblikova, Lyudmila Pakhomova and Alexander Gorshkov, Alexey Yagudin.
2004 is an Olympic year. The 28-th Summer Olympiad will take place in Greece in the city of Athens. Russian athletes are getting ready to take part in it. We hope that they will be a success and win many Olympic medals. We are sure that many new names will be added to the list of our Olympic champions.
THE HISTORY OF OLYMPIC GAMES.
Long ago Greeks often waged wars. The ruler of such a small state, Elis, wanted to live in peace with all neighbours. He was a good diplomat because his negotiations were successful and Elis was recognized a neutral state. To celebrate this achievement, he organized athletic games.
The games were held every four years in Olympia on the territory of Elis. The first games which later were called the Olympic Games were held about a thousand years before our era.
Winners were called "olympionics", they were awarded olive wreaths and cups of olive oil. The olympionics of ancient Grees became very popular. Best craftsmen were chosen to make honourary cups, many poets wrote and recited in public poems about the best athletics.
Only men could take part in the Olympic Games. Women were not allowed even to watch the competitions at the stadium under the fear of death penalty.
Magnificent strong bodies inspired artists and sculptors. They painted wall pictures and made statues of marble and bronze.
The Olympic Games had been held for about eleven hundred years, until the emperor Theodosius banned them for religious reasons in 394 A. D. The revival of the Olympic Games began long time afterwards, in 1892. On the 23rd of June 1894 the International Congress of amateur sportsmen made an important decision: to revive the Olympic Games and to establish the International Olympics Committee which would be responsible for the administration of the modern Olympic Games.
SPORT AND HEATHY WAY OF LIFE.
To be healthy is very important. You can work, learn and have fun only when you are healthy. Health is the man's greatest wealth. Of course, you can inherit some problems from your parents. But you can always keep your health if you want to.
We are healthy when all parts of our bodies and of our minds work together properly. We cannot be happy unless we feel well.
The ancient Greeks knew the value of good health. They even named one goddess Hygenia, which means goddess of health. The Romans spoke of a health in a proverb:” A healthy mind in a healthy body”. The body does a great deal to take care of itself, but it is possible to help the body to work at its best.
The human body is much more complicated than any machine. No machine can do all the things the body can do. No machine will work for 70 years or more, day and night, requiring only air, water, food and a few simple rules.
The first rule of healthy way of life is to have normal weight, not to be overweight. One of the ways to keep normal weight is to regulate your diet. A person needs vitamins and fibre. One must eat fruit and vegetables every day. Too much food makes you fat. Fat and sugar give a lot of energy. If the energy is not used it becomes fat in your body. If you eat sweet, fat food, even from time to time, you have to exercise regularly. Physical exercises help people keep fit, have a good gait and figure. They also help you lose weight and work out energy. It is not good to be as thin as a stick, but extra weight can cause serious problems, such as heart problems and diabetics.
There are a lot of advertisements both on TV and in newspapers of different pills and drops which can help you become slim and slender in two weeks. But all those pills cannot work a miracle.
Bad habits, such as smoking, drinking alcohol and using drugs, can ruin your health. Regular sports help people to avoid these bad habits. What exercises are better? Swimming, jogging, basketball, football, table tennis, skiing or morning exercises? It's upon a person to choose.
As for me. I eat what I want and as much as I want, and I don't care how much to eat, because I go in for sport every day and use a lot of energy training and competing.
THE CONCEPT AND MANIFESTATION OF DRUG ABUSE.
Sociologists, lawyers and medical experts single out three basic aspects of drug abuse: social, legal and medical.
These aspects are interconnected and interdependent and reveal the diverse nature of drug abuse. Moreover one can also point out the criminological, economic and ecological aspects.
To highlight the entire multiplicity of this phenomenon, it is necessary to go beyond the widespread notion of "drug addiction" because strictly speaking it applies only to the medical or biological aspects of drug use being viewed exclusively as a disease without covering social, legal and some other aspects. This is why the notion "drug abuse" rather than "drug addiction" is used in juridical literature as a much wider term covering social, legal and other aspects. So, drug abuse is understood as a "social phenomenon" which combines such illegal actions as willful consumption of narcotics, dealing in narcotics illegally, as well as solicitation to use drugs, creating the conditions for becoming a part of illegal drug trafficking.
This definition is acceptable on the whole and may be used as a basis for describing the phenomenon, yet it fails to cover the biological aspect and insufficiently expresses the economic, legal and criminological aspects.
There is a need for a term that would cover all the aspects of this negative phenomenon, and of the ways of combating it.
Social Aspects of Drug Abuse:
Most concisely, the social aspect of drug abuse can be described as a combination of social behaviors linked to narcotics and their social consequences in the form of damage that has been done and can be done to society.
The actual negative social manifestations of drug abuse are expressed in various drug-related actions: cultivation of drug bearing plants, preparation, acquisition, storage, sale and consumption of narcotics, as well as persuasion to use narcotics.
Negative Social Consequences of Drug Abuse:
The negative social consequences of drug abuse are similar to the social consequences of crime. They amount to "real harm caused by crime to social relationships and expressed in the cause-and-effect combination of criminal behavior and in the direct and indirect, immediate and mediate negative changes (damage, losses, and other ill effects), ultimately affecting the social (economic, moral, legal, etc.) Values and also implying the combination of society's economic and other social hazards attributed to the effort to combat and to socially prevent crime.
Proceeding from this definition it is possible to recognize the negative social consequences of drug abuse. The first is the negative social changes, such as harm to people's health, the destruction of family foundations, and a decline in work efficiency. The second is the cost which society has to pay to overcome these changes. Other changes also include refusal to work, various antisocial actions, and crime. A closer look at these negative changes shows that drug addicts are poor workers because of their ill health, which, in general, makes work impossible for them during spells of abstinence. Their entire range of interests and thoughts lies in the desire to find ways of obtaining drugs. The list of negative changes also includes material damage perpetrated by the drug addicts who are often the source of transportation accidents and accidents in industry. For example, 60 billion dollars worth of damage is done annually in the United States alone. There is also the moral damage resulting from the various unlawful actions motivated by the desire to find means for buying drugs, such as the willingness to commit crime for the sake of meeting that desire. Forgery, embezzlement, abuse of authority and office duties is just a few. Drug addicts create unbearable conditions for their families by denying them normal lifestyles and means of existence. They harm their offspring by upsetting the hereditary stock. Drug addicts undergo physical and moral degradation and die early. They destroy their own basic moral and ethical values.
The Committee of Experts of the World Health Organization determines the social danger and negative consequences of drug abuse according to the basic factors and divides them into two main groups: the breach of relations among drug consumers and the spread of unfavorable consequences among many people.
Specific Social Problems of Drug Abuse:
WHO experts describe the specific social problems caused by drug abuse as follows: the huge material losses and their consequences in the form of all kinds of damage done to those who immediately surround drug consumers (parents, college roommates and so on) and to the society as a whole; the deterioration of relations with official organizations and institutions, staff at college and at work etc.; drug consumers' inclination to commit crimes motivated by the need to have drugs or the means to buy them, and also the mercenary and violent crimes committed under the influence of drugs; the additional demand for welfare benefits and medical care for persons using drugs other than for medicinal purposes and in connection with this the unnoticed spending both by drug addicts and by society as a whole; the danger arising from drug addicts as potential conduct of drug addiction in their immediate surroundings.
Detailed research however allows for a broader list of specific social aspects. They include: ideological and cultural, law enforcement, medical care and preventative medicine, labor and education, family and leisure time, and material resources. The specific ill effects of narcotics and their unfavorable social consequences can be seen in any of the categories listed above. For example, in the ideological and cultural area they express themselves in the development of a specific drug ideology; in the law enforcement area there is an increase of crime. In Medicare and preventive medicine, there is deterioration in people's health and an increase in the number of handicapped children. In industry and education - a decline in labor efficiency and poor results at schools and other educational centers is evident. One can also point to accidents and to deterioration of relations among staff. In the family relations, a loss of understanding occurs. All this requires setting up special schools, preventive centers, drug departments at medical institutions, rehabilitation centers and new antidrug programs.
To sum up the above-cited social aspects of drug abuse one may state, that it is harmful in physical, moral and proprietary ways. This harm is caused by the proliferation of the narcotic sub-culture as it draws more victims into it; secondly, by drug-related crimes; thirdly, by crimes committed for the purpose of getting means for buying more drugs; fourthly, by crimes committed under the influence of drugs; and, finally, by the spending needed to carry out various programs aimed at eliminating drug abuse.
Legal Aspect of Drug Abuse:
The legal aspect of drug abuse is also a part of the social aspect. Crimes and other law-breaking acts covered by the totality of legal norms involve the illegal cultivation of drug-bearing plants, the preparation, storage, transportation, trafficking, sales, and theft of drugs, the use of drugs without doctor's prescription, and the violation of laws regulating the handling of narcotics. This also covers the situation when suitable conditions are created for taking drugs and those in which more people are persuaded to use drugs or when people have to commit crimes in order to obtain means to buy drugs. Crimes committed under the influence of drugs, as well as crimes that are committed for the purpose of getting money to purchase drugs are included as well.
These crimes should be viewed as part of the notion of drug abuse since they are caused by the desires of drug users to boost drug-inspired activities or their level of intoxication. The legal aspect of drug abuse also includes those relationships regulated by law and arising from the non-medical use of drugs.
Criminological Aspect of Drug Abuse:
The criminological aspect of drug abuse includes a part of this phenomenon that poses an extreme danger to the public, i.e. is linked to the above-cited crimes, their state, level, structure, dynamics, cause-and-effect, criminal's personality, and prevention measures, among others.
Economic Aspect of Drug Abuse:
The economic aspect of drug abuse is associated with its affect on economy, such as large sums of money in possession of drug dealers, a decline in labor productivity of drug addicts; an increase in spending on law-enforcement engaged in combating drug-related crimes; and a drain on national budgets due to preventive and rehabilitation measures to combat drug addiction. Experts claim, for example, that in the former USSR, the cost of illegal drug trafficking within the "narco-business-shadow economy" amounted to billions of troubles.
Biological Aspect of Drug Abuse:
The biological aspect of drug abuse is associated with the notion that it is "a disease manifested by a constant and insurmountable craving for drugs (morphine, for example) causing euphoria in small doses and stupor in large ones. The regular use of drugs arouses a desire to increase the dose. The abstinence syndrome usually accompanies withdrawal.
Narcotics damage the internal organs of drug takers, destroy their nervous systems, their state of mind, and bring about their social degradation.
Since drug addiction is a disease, there is a need to find a cure for it. Hence, the need to have qualified medical personnel, special drug rehabilitation centers and branches offices, effective medicines and curative methods.
Ecological Aspect of Drug Abuse:
The ecological aspect of narcotics is associated, on the one hand, with the natural existence of drug-bearing plants, and on the other, with their man-made cultivation. These plants are a source of obtaining and preparing narcotic substances. From the ecological point of view there is a need, first, to do away with the spread of wild drug-bearing plants, and second, to ban their man-made cultivation. The economic, biological and ecological aspects are subjects for research by experts.
INTERNATIONAL FORA AND LEGAL ACTS ON DRUGS.
Legal measures figure prominently in the system of actions aiming to combat drugs. It is precisely the legal acts that determine the object, the subject of narco-crime and influence the shaping of measures of preventive-educational and curative interference, as well as the range of drug-related actions, considered dangerous to the public.
Measures against drug abuse rest, first and foremost, on a number of international law acts ratified by the Supreme Soviet of the former USSR. These acts have different names: treaty, pact, convention, agreement, protocol, declaration and so on. From the juridical point of view, the difference in names is of no principal importance. No clear-cut criterion for the use of these names has been worked out in international practice. In each particular case, this question is resolved by the parties (countries) to negotiations, who agree on the definition of relations between them in this or another special field.
Actions against drug abuse are regulated by international law because they involve international relations, as they touch upon the interests of not one but, sometimes, of many countries. As for narco-crimes, they encroach upon the international cooperation, violate human rights, and state interests.
All crimes bearing international nature and coming under the norms of international criminal law, can be divided into two groups by the degree of their danger to the public, and the forms of manifestation: crimes of international character.
International crimes are those posing the biggest threat to the development of peaceful relations and cooperation between nations regardless of their social, political and government systems. They include heinous crimes against peace and security of the mankind, such as aggression, genocide, biocide, ecocide or apartheid.
Crimes of International Character:
Crimes of international character are defined as those covered by the international law but not belonging to the category of crimes against peace and security of mankind, rather those infringing upon normal relations between countries and damaging their peaceful cooperation in various fields, as well as infringing upon relations between organizations and citizens. These crimes are much less dangerous and are hard to compare to crimes against the peace and security of mankind. They are punishable "in accordance with the norms covered by the international agreements (conventions), ratified in the proper order, or by the national criminal codes which conform to these agreements."
Various areas of inter-state relations are the objects of crimes of international character. This factor makes it possible to divide these crimes into four rather relative sub-divisions:
1) Crimes that infringe upon the peaceful cooperation and normal conduct of international relations (terrorism, hijacking and other crimes);
2) Crimes that damage in a variety of norms international economic, social and cultural development, such as smuggling, illegal emigration, counterfeiting and dissemination of narcotics through illegal trade;
3) Crimes that against property, moral values, and rights of individuals, such as trafficking, piracy, pornography and other crimes covered by international conventions and agreements;
4) Other crimes of international character, such as crimes committed on board of aircraft, damage to underwater cables, collision of ships and the failure to provide help at sea etc.
This classification rules out an identical approach to crimes that are crimes against humanity, and crimes that are of international character. This classification allows to examine them in conformity with the set of laws they infringe upon and in conformity with the extent of harm they do to international relations. Moreover, this classification largely helps prevent any broader interpretation of the notion of international crimes.
The categories - listed above of these are not something permanent, as these crimes are of the changeable and dynamic nature. The extent of danger they pose can move them from one category to another. At present any crimes encroaching upon the vital interests of all nations and countries can be considered as international crime or crime of international character.
Virtually all countries recognize the need to combat international crimes and crimes of international character, including the illegal dissemination of and trade with narcotics. The binding nature of this effort stems from the universally recognized principles of international law, including the international duty of all countries to maintain peace and promote security of all nations, as well as to hold persons guilty of committing crimes against the peace and security of mankind and other crimes of international character accountable for their actions.
All international legal acts against drug abuse can be divided into general and specific. General acts regulate various types of international relations, particularly, those formed in connection with actions against international crimes and crimes of international character, including the dissemination of and trade with drugs. Specific acts of international law bear direct relation to actions against drug abuse and its most dangerous aspect- narco-crime.
General Acts of International Law:
General acts of international law lay the legal foundation for cooperation among nations, in actions against international crimes and crimes of international character, the dissemination of narcotics among others. One of these acts is the UN Charter. Its Preamble urges all UN members to join in a common effort to maintain international peace and security. The UN Charter stresses the need to use international machinery for promoting the nations' economic and social progress and sets the goal "to practice international cooperation in resolving international problems of economic, social, cultural and humanitarian nature and in encouraging and promoting respect for human rights and basic freedoms for all regardless of race, sex, language and religion"
The UN Charter (part 2 art. 2) also calls on nations to strictly and unswervingly observe international commitments that they have taken upon themselves voluntarily and among them, as the Preamble points out, to the commitments stemming from treaties, agreements and other sources of international law.
One of the major historically evolved principles of international law states that international agreements must be observed. Stemming from this principle is a member nation's duty to cooperate in combating crime, international crimes and crimes of international character, including the dissemination of and trade with narcotics.
These crimes have certain particularities. This has a bearing on the question of accountability if such crimes are committed. According to I.I. Karpets, there is a need to single out crimes covered by conventions or other signed and ratified international agreements, especially, if national legislation have been brought in accord with them. The existence of both is a good reason for making those guilty of committing these crimes to be held accountable. A failure to do so must be qualified as a violation of both international law and national legislation.
In case there are no coordinated norms of accountability, the involved countries should proceed from the general principles that had developed among nations and resolve questions of cooperation against crime on that basis. Specifically, they may determine the forms of this cooperation, its confines, the need to institute criminal proceedings in view of the committed crimes of international character, etc.
Special Acts of International Law:
Special norms of international law dealing with measures to combat drug abuse have been taking shape gradually. The history of their development is uneven- from establishing international control over the lawful distribution and use of drugs to introducing control over illegal drug trafficking.
It is not accidental that crimes bearing on drug abuse are qualified as crimes of international character. This can be attributed to a number of circumstances.
As an age-old phenomenon, drug addiction has spread over large territories. As it kept crossing national borders, whole areas appeared that specialized in growing and processing drug-bearing plants, manufacturing and distributing narcotics. Recently, areas where drug money can be laundered at a profit have emerged. In short, drug addiction has become widespread practically on all the continents. Drug abuse has acquired a transnational nature. At the turn of last century it had already been clear that drug addiction endangered not only the lives of individuals and social groups but also the economic advancement of many countries, as it is bound to inflict considerable damage on agriculture and trade and undermine whole industries. (chemical, pharmaceutical or pharmacological).
Measures that various governments tried to employ within their countries in the hope to "curb" drug addiction, so to speak, and ban, say, in Turkey or China, the non-medicinal use of drugs, failed to bring any positive results.
On top of that, programs against drug addiction required additional financial resources for treatment and social rehabilitation of addicts, medical personnel, curative medicines, and preventive measures by law enforcement agencies. Many countries lacked such financial resources. So, actions against drug abuse began crossing national boundaries. The awareness of a possible proliferation of drugs raised concern of the world public opinion and governments of many countries began pressing for the intensification of the rule of law on the international scene.
Consequently, an objective need arose to work out and put into practice joint inter-governmental agreements, adopt effective legal norms that would regulate international cooperation, enable countries to employ coordinated measures against drugs as a whole and its specific manifestations and to establish, as a result, both a domestic and international control over the use of narcotics and their consumption.
The first experiment of international control over narcotics and of measures against drug addiction at the international level dates back to the Shanghai Opium Commission held between February 5th and 26th 1909 in the city of Shanghai.
Shanghai Opium Commission of 1909:
This commission consisted of the representatives from 13 countries: Russia, the USA, Austria-Hungary, Germany, Britain, France, China, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Persia, Portugal and Siam.
The commission attempted to work out measures that would block the illegal flow of drugs from the regions of Asia to European countries and the United States. It also discussed questions related to opium smoking and to international trade in opium derivatives.
In the long run, however, no constructive measures were produced. Documents issued by the commission contained no specific bans even on opium smoking. Members of the commission thought it was sufficient to only speak about its regulation and gradual restriction.
Nevertheless, the work of the Shanghai opium commission of 1909 played a significant role. Officially it marked the beginning of actions against drug addiction at the international level and to the launching of a system of international control over the spread of drugs. It also mapped out directions for the future international legislation in resolving problems reviewed in Shanghai.
A further advancement in combating drugs was made in the Hague at the International Opium Conference held from December 1st 1911 to January 23d 1912. Representatives of 12 countries took part in it (the same as in Shanghai excluding Austria-Hungary). The conference prepared and adopted the first convention on drugs (known as the Hague Convention). As a follow up to the Shanghai Commission, in terms of ideas, the conference proclaimed the timeliness of actions against narcotics as a whole and its specific trends.
SPORT IN MY SCHOOL.
We have fine teams at our school and different kinds of competition take place there. The boys of my school are crazy about football, they play football and the girls are football fans.
And now a few words about our physical training lessons. In winter our Physical training lessons are held out-of-doors. We play different team games such as basket-ball or volley-ball. Besides we have some training in gymnastics. I like my P.T. Lessons!
SUMMER AND WINTER SPORTS.
People all over the world are very fond of sports and games. That is one of the things in which people of every nationality and class are united.
The most popular outdoor winter sports are shooting, hunting, hockey and, in the countries where the weather is frosty and there is much snow - skating, skiing and tobogganing.
Summer affords excellent opportunities for swimming, boating, yachting, cycling, gliding and many others sports. Among outdoor games football takes place in public interests; this game is played in all the countries of the world. The other games in different countries are cricket, volley-ball, basket-ball, and so on. Badminton is also popular both with young and old. Over the last few years aerobics has become popular with young girls and women. Aerobics helps them to be slim, healthy and strong.
MY FAVORITE SPORT AND MY FAVORITE SPORTSMAN.
I like sport. I like tennis, swimming, figure skating, football, valley-ball. But my favorite sport is soccer. I buy the sports magazines and newspapers, for example: "Sport Exspress", or "World soccer". I like football in our country, because i live in Russia, but Italian series A I like more. I think that this game is very strict and thick. There are many popular football-players, for example: Paolo Maldini, Pirlo - they are playing in Milan; Konovaro is playing in Parma; Nesto is playing in Lazio; Baggio is playing in Breshia; Totti, Toldo, Ronaldo, Vieri are playing in Inter. My favorite football-player is Ronaldo. Many people don't like him, but I do.
He was born in Rio (Brazil). He hadn't any money, but he wanted to play football. When he was sixteen he started playing in "Gruzeiro", then he went to the World Cup in USA. Then he played in "Barcelona", then he went to Milan in "Inter". He was the best football-player in Europe. He is very rich now. He has a very beautiful wife and son. All people call him Fonomenon. I wish him good luck in World Cup 2002!
The most important sport event of this year is the World football championship which is held in Japan and South Korea. I'm a great football fan so I'm really upset that our teem lost the match against Belgium and Italian teem lost the match against Korea. And left the competition I agree with Onopko's words: “I still thought we could get the draw, and when Dmitri Sychev scored I believed it would happen. I really thought we would equalise.” And I think that D. Sychev is hope our football: Only 18 years of age, Sychov already has eight goals to his name in the Russian Premier League. He has appeared in 12 games for Spartak Moscow. Though a regular on the under-18 national team, Sychov has three appearances and a goal under his belt for the full Russia squad.
Also My favorite Russian football-player is Valery Karpin.
Valeri Karpin is one of Russia's highest profile players. The midfielder was a star at Spartak Moscow in the early 1990s when the club won three league titles and two Cups of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Karpin moved to Spain and played for Real Sociedad and Valencia CF before settling at Celta de Vigo. He made his debut in the Russia squad in 1992 and scored a goal in his first match from the penalty spot against Mexico. He was part of the Russian team at the 1994 FIFA World Cup™.
Now, I'm supporting the Brazilian teem, because I'm convinced that they will be champions.
Well, I like tennis. I'm a fan of Marat Safin and Dimentieva.
I like hochey so much. I like to watch NHL games on TV.
I like figure-skating. I like special Marina Anisina and Gvendal Pesera, evgeny Plushenko and Alexei Yagudin. I like Irina Slutskaya so much.
All of them are very beautiful and talented sportsmen. I like them!
Sports are very important in our life - in my life. So we have all grounds to say that sport is one of the things that makes people kin.
“Sport means life.” These are the words of a well-known French scientist and the sponsor of the first modern Olympic Games Pier de Kuberten. It's difficult to argue with it. Sport has become an essential part of our life. It has great effect on our health and creative work for many long years. Sport is one of means of bringing up a healthy and harmonious person. It is also a means of uniting people in the name of friendship and peace.
“Drugs means dead.” The international community sees narcotics as one of the most dangerous social evils. International legal acts, as well as national legislations, including that of the Russian Federation, contain numerous norms regulating actions against narcotics bound to suppress and prevent it. Moves are made to perfect and update these norms so that they could counteract new forms and methods of committing drug-related crimes. Naturally enough, legal regulations trail after criminal thought in these and other criminal offenses.
To narrow the gap between the rapid advancement of criminal know-how and the introduction of the new anti-crime legislation there is a need to monitor the spread of narcotics, assess it, watch its dynamics, forecast its progress and carry out appropriate research. Monitoring and research are to help pinpoint the sensitive spots of drug abuse and work out new legal norms and methods for dealing with them.
Highly important are the application of legal norms and the planning of various measures aiming to oppose narcotics.
Private business has been made legal in the new social and economic conditions. Under the guise of legally established private enterprises underground drug manufacturing laboratories and drug trade hideouts (houses, apartments) have begun functioning as unofficial operational reports confirm. Illegal efforts to produce and sell drugs and the tendency for their proliferation demand emergency antidrug legislation. Illegally-operating drug-producing and drug-selling companies present a much bigger threat to society than all other drug-related ventures do, now that they (a) spread new varieties of and increasingly more hazardous drugs, (b) increase, drug production and sales manifold, (c) promote an organized system of narcobusiness and, consequently, the takeover of drug-trafficking by organized criminal groups, (d) take monopoly control of drug-trafficking and reap super-profits in this field, (e) take drug-trafficking operations beyond the national borders and make use of their foreign connections for the acquisition, manufacture, transportation, sending, smuggling and sale of drugs. Their activities prompt many related crimes.
All this calls for moves to update the Russian Criminal Code with articles on legal responsibility for the production and sale of drugs which must be considered to belong to the categories of serious and most serious criminal offenses punishable by ten to fifteen years of imprisonment and the confiscation of property.
The climatic conditions on the territory of Russian Federation favor the natural growth and cultivation of drug-bearing plants, which may be, or are already, used for the purpose of drug production. This calls for the need to constantly perfect methods of exposing and destroying such plants, both those that are wild and those that are raised, which, in turn, calls for a wide range of financial and organizational efforts.
Its geographic and geopolitical position makes the Russian Federation a convenient trans-shipment point on the road from Asia to other former Soviet republics and on to Europe. The Russian government, its law-enforcement agencies, in particular, must, as a result, check illegal attempts to take drugs across the national border, bolster up its customs services and see to it that they upgrade their performance and work in close cooperation with the territorial and traffic police and other agencies expected to carry out programs of action against narcotics.
The newly gained independence requires that the Russian Federation confront two problems directly related to narcotics and efforts to overcome it.
First of all, borders between Russia and other former Soviet republics show the highest degree of transparency, i.e. border-crossing presents almost no problem. Given the geographic and geopolitical position of Russia, the transparency of the national border aggravates the problem of drug smuggling and calls for the need to essentially fortify the border and better customs control along it.
Secondly, there is the problem of international relations in the field of narcotics and international efforts to deal with it. There are two angles to this second problem. Now that it has gained sovereignty, Russia has to assume upon itself the functions of establishing and maintaining international relations, especially since it represents a sort of a link in the chain that ties drug- producers and drug-consuming regions together.
The second angle of this problem lies in the fact that once being a part of the Soviet Union, Russian Federation neither faced nor could possibly face obstacles concerning the jurisdiction of its anti-crime effort, including crimes committed on territories of different Soviet republics. Now that they are sovereign nations, the former Soviet republics have national borders, which, transparent as they are, make legal action against criminal elements possible only in the context of international relations and in keeping with international agreements. This, naturally, complicates the timely launching of operational and investigative actions aimed at solving criminal cases including those of drug-trafficking.
200 topics English languages ("BAO-press" M. 2002)
Conversational Topics ("Korona-print" S.P. 2001)
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