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Ablyaeva Lenara, Akopova Liana.
The first ship with the British arrived in Petersburg in 1704. It was Peter the First who came to Petersburg on that ship as a pilot. The ship from England was loaded with various goods - books, cards, engravings, furniture, clothes, horses, crews, the medicines, almost all subjects of use, comfort and luxury, arrived here.
Daniel Defoe (1660—1731). engraving D. Defoe “Robinson Crusoe” 1719 Jonathan Swift (1667—1745). Vertues’ s engraving Gulliver's travels. 1726
. They usually carried English ale in butts which Petersburg’s dandies liked to drink with oysters.
English merchants occupied the whole district named the English line in Petersburg. The English line, or English embankment was called Galernaja. This name was given because at the end of the embankment there was Galernaja shipyard then. During the first years the embankment was built up with poor houses of workers.. Later rich English merchants started to build their new magnificent private residences. With the opening of an English church, and an English theater the name of the English line was fixed for a long time. English church .
On March, 1st, 1770 businessman F. Gardner founded the English club, lots of Russian aristocrats were its members. Besides the club was famous for its excellent English cuisine. The cooks of the club were considered to be the best in Russia. The English club stopped its existence in 1917. But in 1998 it was reopened. Not far from the English embankment between the rivers the Moika and the Fontanka is the beginning of the English prospect of Petersburg which appeared in XVIII century and since 1771 it was called Aglinsky prospect. The English prospect was mainly built up in XIX-XX centuries. “House-dream". The ballerina Anna Pavlova lived here. English bridge
You can also see English influence on the creation of landscape English parks. In 1771 Catherine II invited to Russia the English gardener, John Bush. He arranged the English garden in Gatchina and a landscape part of Ekaterinisky park in Tsarskoje Selo. . In August, 1781 the English gardener, James Medersom, and an architect Dzhakomo Kvarengi created the English park which became the first landscape park in Peterhof
In1770 an architect Charles Cameron started to work in Petersburg. He created the ensemble of Cameron gallery, a term and a handing garden in Tsarskoje Selo. In 1782 Cameron started the construction of residence of Pavel — Pavlovsk. The Pavlovsk ensemble is the top of architecture and park-building in Russia at the end of the XVIII-th century.
In 1783 during the building of the Taurian palace, the English gardener William Guld created the remarkable palace garden in a landscape style. A Taurian palace from a garden, 1797 In 1784 Cameron invited, Adam Menelas Edinburgh to Russia. He created park "Alexandria" in Peterhof and a summer palace "Cottage" in Gothic style, Aleksandrovsky park in Tsarskoje Selo. The Egyptian gate in Tsarskoje Selo became one of the latest works of the master.
Foreigners were the first artists of a new capital on the banks of the river Neva. Among them were English masters worked in Petersburg. The court engraver James Walker who lived and worked in Russia (1785 -1801_. He introduced to the Russian public new technics of engraving – metstso-tinto, (a black manner, manera negra), one of the most beautiful and refined technics of engraving received in Russia the name of "an English manner”. The sights of Petersburg from the end of the XVIII century the beginning of the XX-th century were painted by many English draughtsmen: . “The panorama of Petersburg”, John Atkinson
In 1784 one of Catherine II favorite architects Charles Cameron managed to invite to Russia from England his fellow countryman William Geste. William Geste quickly became one of the leading architects of the Russian empire. First he became famous as the builder of bridges. In 1806 -1818 William Geste built Red, Dark blue and Kisses bridges in Petersburg. The newest technology of building of the bridges from metal was applied. The Green (Police) bridge became the first pig-iron bridge in Petersburg. Green (Police) bridge Red bridge Kisses bridge
In XVIII-XIX centuries Englishmen opened a number of the industrial enterprises in Petersburg. The first Russian steam vessel "Elizabeth", the ancestor of the first Russian steamboats was constructed in 1815 at Charles Baird's factory Baird's factory where steam vessel "Elizabeth“ was built. In 1868 Englishman James Mjurged created a Mechanical factory in Petersburg. The factory of cars, then it began to produce its own steam-engines, cranes, metalcutting machine tools, in 1914-17 the factory produced ammunition. In 1922 it was renamed to the factory "Sverdlov", but it went bankrupt in 2005.
. In 1851 the newspaper «Northern bee» wrote: « The English sport began to develop in our country with the establishment of yacht club and races” The first tennis tournament in Fighting rack of English prize-winning The first international meeting Petersburg took place in 1896 boxer James Brauton (1740) of football players of Russia.
In 1768 by the order of Catherine II an English doctor Thomas Dimsdale came to Russia for inoculations from natural smallpox. In 1778 Catherine II got a valuable collection of an Englishman Robert Walpole. A special ship was sent to England to bring 204 works of art painted by Rembrandt, Rubens, van Dyck and other. In 1774 the Russian empress Catherine II ordered in Wedgwood “Service of a green frog”(Pic.16) on 952 items from royal faience with images of English sights. T. Dimsdale 1635Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn
In 1917 almost all Englishmen emigrated. Prince Charles was the first of the British royal family who visited Post-Soviet St.-Petersburg. The first visit took place in May, 1994, and Second his visit was in July, 2003 with the celebration of the 300 – anniversary of St.-Petersburg and the 450 anniversary of the British-Russian relations. Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II visited St.-Petersburg in October, 1994. According to an English legend jam was invented by Janet Keiler at the beginning of the XVIII century, when her husband bought a lot of cheap oranges from the Spanish ship. The oranges were bitter, but Mrs. Keiler decided to make orange jam which soon became world famous. The slice of bread and butter received the English name “sandwich” in the XVIII-th century. A legend says that in 1762 the sandwich was named after John Montagu, 4th earl of Sandwich,
In the XIX-th century one rich Englishman, heard about the beauty of Petersburg, at the end of his life declared that it was absolutely necessary for him to visit Russia and to see the fencing of the Summer garden and the Arrow of Vasilevsky island (Pic. 17). His yacht entered the Neva and dropped an anchor opposite the Summer garden. Amazed and fascinated by the fantastic beauty of the northern masterpieces, the elderly British refused to step on the coast.After that the yacht lifted its anchor and headed for England.