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Education in the UK and Russia


1 .1Age Start

1 .2 Subjects

1 .3 Types of Schools

1 .4 Primary schools

1.5 Secondary schools

1 .6 A School Year

1 .7 Tests

1 .8 Uniform

1 .9 recess

1 .10 School Day


Made byGolubeva M.,Saveleva A.,Schus D., Grade 11, Teacher:Chernyakova T.M. Odintsovskaya school № 3


Research problem: how the educational process in the UK and Russia. What are the similarities and differences in the education system of the two countries .

Objective: to study the education system in England compared to the Russian education system.)

The subject of research is the comparative characteristics of the education systems of England and Russia.

In order to achieve the objectives outlined the dominant method of research: Theoretical (analysis of the literature on the formation of education in England and Russia) and practical (interview with British schoolgirls)

Scientific novelty of the work lies in considering the relationship and comparison with the development of the education system in England and Russia.

School life in an English School

At what age do children start school in England? (Age Start)

The statutory school age in England and Wales is from 5 years to 16 years.

English children enter the reception class (first grade) of primary school in the next term after their fifth birthday. They attend primary school for seven years, where they study English, arithmetic, science, Religious education, history, geography, music, art and crafts, physical education, and information technology (computers).Children also learn French from the age of 7 at our school.

What subjects do you learn? (Subjects)

Subjects studied in Key Stage 2 (5 -11 year olds)English, Mathematics, Science, Information Technology (Computers), Religious Education (RE), Design and Technology, History, Geography, Art, Music and Physical Education (PE).

The National Curriculum at Key Stage 3 includes English, Mathematics, Science, Design and Technology, IT, History, Geography, Modern Foreign Languages, Art, Music and PE. In addition to the National Curriculum, RE is also taught and, for secondary pupils, Sex Education.

At Key Stage 4 students have to study English, Mathematics, Science, Design and Technology, a Modern Foreign Language, IT and PE. RE and Sex Education are also taught, although parents can choose not to let their child study these subjects.

What different types of schools do you have in England? (Types of Schools)

There are schools run by the Government. These schools are known as State Schools and parents do not pay. They are financed by public funds, which means that the money comes from the national and local taxes. Ninety percent of children in England and Wales attend a state school.

There are also private schools. Parents pay for their children to attend these schools. They are known as Independent Schools

Primary schools (5 - 11 year olds)

In the UK, the first level of education is known as primary education.

Secondary schools (5 - 16 year olds).

Secondary schools provide compulsory education for children between the ages of eleven and sixteen in England and Wales. Children may stay on at school until the age of eighteen in order to pursue further studies, however this is not compulsory.

From the ages of fourteen to sixteen, pupils study for the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE).

Pupils who stay on at school from the ages of sixteen to eighteen in England, may take the Advanced (A) level examination, which traditionally is required for entry into higher education.


When are school vacations? How long do they last? (A School Year)

State schools in England are closed on national holidays and at weekends.

English schools have three terms (semesters), separated by vacations.

The summer vacation lasts for about 6 weeks from July 20 to September 4; winter and spring vacation both last two weeks, from December 21 to around January 6 and March 25 to around April 5, respectively.

The new school year starts in September, at the end of summer vacation.

The three terms are:

Autumn Term: September to December

Spring Term: January to April

Summer Term: April to July

Each term lasts for approximately thirteen weeks and there is a week half term break in the middle of each term.

The local educational authority decides the dates of the school terms and the school governing bodies determine the times at which schools open and close each day.

What tests do the children do in a school in England? (TestsC:\Users\Светлана\Desktop\ИНГЛИШ1.jpg

Do children wear a school uniform? (Uniform)

Most school in England require children to wear a school uniform.

Boys Long grey or black trousers (shorts may be worn in the Summer) White Shirt. School tie (optional in most primary schools). Jumper or sweater with the school logo on. The colour is the choice of the schools. Black shoes

Girls As above. Girls may wear skirts .During the summer term girls often wear summr school dresses.

What sorts of games do primary school students play during break time? (recess)

The amount of time devoted to break times differs from school to school, but at many schools there are two breaks, lasting about 20 minutes each, for key stage 1 children, and one 20 minute break for key stage two children. The children also have an hour long lunch break. During break times and lunch times the children go out and play in the playground. Adventure playground .Our Adventure Playground Kids play on an adventure playground or form teams to play soccer and basketball. Also popular are skipping and such games as tag. On rainy days and at other times when they can't go outside, children spend the time chatting with their friends, play board games or reading and drawing in the classroom.

At what time does school begin and end? (School Day)

Our School starts at 8:55 with registration.At 9:10 we go to assembly. In assembly we sing songs, listen to a story and pray. Our first lesson begins at 9:20. We have break time from 10:20 until 10:35. During break time, the children have a snack and play games out doors. Afterwards, we go back in for another lesson until lunch at 12:00. Afternoon lessons begin at 1:10 and end at 3:15, when the children go home. We do not have a break in the afternoon. Actual taught time as defined by D.F.E = 23.5 hours weekly.

On what days do your children attend school?

The children attend school from .Monday to Friday, from 08:55 - 15:15. We have a two week break (holiday) at Christmas and also at Easter. We have a six week break during our Summer (July/August). We also have a break at mid-term which usually lasts for about a week.

What school events do you have during a typical school year? (School Events)


Schools in Russia

History of Education in Russia

(Beginning of the formation of the Russian system of education should be considered school ( college ) at princely courts Svyatoslavich Vladimir in Kiev and Novgorod Yaroslav the Wise , which served as a model for the establishment of schools and the courts of other princes . Schools were opened in the capitals of principalities and monasteries. The schools teach literacy and foreign languages. In 1086 in Kiev, opened the first school for women.

On the prevalence of education and literacy in ancient Russia say birchbark and graffiti on the walls.

First higher education institution in 1687 became the Slavic-Greek - Latin Academy . In the XVIII century created the first Russian universities - University Academic at the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences ( 1724 ) and the University of Moscow ( 1755 ) . From the reign of Peter the Great begins active creation of technical schools , aimed at training engineers.

Beginning of the state of women's education should be considered in 1764 , when it was founded by the Smolny Institute for Noble Maidens , at which the following year opened a branch for " philistine girls " ready governesses , housekeepers , nannies . After that they created and private pensions for noblewomen .

In 1779, at the University of Moscow raznochintsy gymnasium was opened Teachers Seminary , which became the first educational institution in Russia.

At the beginning of the XIX century the education system in Russia has changed . According to the statute in 1804 could receive education consistently in parish schools , county schools , provincial high schools and universities. The first two types of schools were free and classless . In addition, there were theological schools and seminaries , subordinate to the Holy Synod , charitable School Department of Institutions of Empress Maria and educational institutions of the War Ministry .

School districts were established , headed by the trustees , the county education system led university.

Under Nicholas I, after the Decembrist uprising education became more conservative. Schools have been withdrawn from the jurisdiction of universities and directly subordinate to the trustee of the school district , appointed by the Ministry of Education. Private educational institutions were closed or converted for greater harmonization of curricula with the educational process in public schools and gymnasiums . Higher education institutions were deprived of autonomy , rectors and professors were appointed by the Ministry of Education. During the reforms of Alexander II at the universities were established higher courses for women - an organization giving women education programs of universities (although it is still higher education can not be named ) . The first such course was opened in 1869. Status of higher education institutions higher courses for women received only shortly before the 1917 revolution .

In 1864, the Regulation on the accessibility of primary schools were introduced and classless primary education. Secondary educational institutions were divided into classical high schools and colleges . They could have done everyone who successfully passed the entrance exams . Do the same university graduates could only classical high schools and those who passed the exams for the course classical gymnasium . Graduates real schools could enroll in other institutions of higher education (technical, agricultural and other ) .

In 1863, the universities autonomy was returned , lifted restrictions on the admission of students .

Significantly increased the public's role in the education system (care and teaching tips ) .

After the October Revolution was a radical change in the education system. SNK RSFSR Decree of December 11, 1917 all schools were transferred to the People's Commissariat of the RSFSR . [26] Private institutions were banned, education has become a non-estate and public .

The main task in the field of education for the Soviet government was the elimination of mass illiteracy , the decision which has become a decree "On the elimination of illiteracy among the population of the Russian Federation " dated December 26, 1919 . Decree was formed Russian Extraordinary Commission to eliminate illiteracy in the People's Commissariat of the RSFSR , directs the entire work in this direction. Actively opened schools for adults and paragraphs literacy increased publication of textbooks .

In 1923, a joint resolution of the Central Executive Committee and SNK of the RSFSR was introduced tuition fees in high schools and universities. From the board was exempt certain categories of citizens - the military , educators , farmers , the disabled, the unemployed, pensioners , public scholarship , Heroes of the Soviet Union and Hero of Socialist Labor . Sets a limit on free places in universities . Fee for teaching is not charged in the communist universities , faculties and pedagogical workers colleges . Tuition fees persisted until the 1950s .

Since the 1990s in the Russian education reform. Its main areas of focus became on the personality development of students, building knowledge and skills ( competencies ) , standardization of education for continuity of educational programs and the unity of educational space , the transition for many tiered system of higher education and the introduction of the unified state examination as a form of combining GCSE and entrance examinations to universities .)

Education in Russia

(Education in Russia is provided predominantly by the state and is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Science. Regional authorities regulate education within their jurisdictions within the prevailing framework of federal laws. In 2004 state spending for education amounted to 3.6% of GDP, or 13% of consolidated state budget. In 2011, the spending on education amounted to $ 20 billion. Private institutions account for 1% of pre-school enrollment, 0.5% of elementary school enrollmentand 17% of university-level students.

Before 1990 the course of school training in Soviet Union was 10-years, but at the end of 1990 the 11-year course had been officially entered. Education in state-owned secondary schools are free; first tertiary (university level) education is free with reservations: a substantial number of students are enrolled for full pay. Male and female students have equal shares in all stages of education,[ except tertiary education where women lead with 57%.

The literacy rate in Russia, according to the 2002 census, is 99.4% (99.7% men, 99.2% women).[ According to a 2008 World Bank statistic 54% of the Russian labor force has attained a tertiary (college) education, giving Russia the highest attainment of college-level education in the world.[8] 47.7% have completed secondary education (9 or 10 years old); 26.5% have completed middle school (8 or 9 years old) and 8.1% have elementary education (5 years old). Highest rates of tertiary education, 24.7% are recorded among women aged 35–39 years (compared to 19.5% for men of the same age bracket).)

Pre-school education

(According to the 2002 census, 68% of children (78% urban and 47% rural) aged 5 are enrolled in kindergartens.[10] According to UNESCO data, enrollment in any kind of pre-school programme increased from 67% in 1999 to 84% in 2005.

Kindergartens, unlike schools, are regulated by regional and local authorities. The Ministry of Education and Science regulates only a brief pre-school preparation programme for the 5–6 year old children. In 2004 the government attempted to charge the full cost of kindergartens to the parents; widespread public opposition caused a reversal of policy. Currently, local authorities can legally charge the parents not more than 20% of costs. Twins, children of university students, refugees, Chernobyl veterans and other protected social groups are entitled to free service.

The Soviet system provided for nearly universal primary (nursery, age 1 to 3) and kindergarten (age 3 to 7) service in urban areas, relieving working mothers from daytime childcare needs. By the 1980s, there were 88,000 preschool institutions; as the secondary-education study load increased and moved from the ten to eleven-year standard, the kindergarten programmes shifted from training basic social skills, or physical abilities, to preparation for entering the school level. After the collapse of the Soviet Union the number decreased to 46,000; kindergarten buildings were sold as real estate, irreversibly rebuilt and converted for office use. At the same time, a minority share of successful state-owned kindergartens, regarded as a vertical lift to quality schooling, flourished throughout the 1990s. Privately owned kindergartens, although in high demand, did not gain a significant share due to administrative pressure; share of children enrolled in private kindergartens dropped from 7% in 1999 to 1% in 2005.

The improvement of the economy after the 1998 crisis, coupled with historical demographic peak, resulted in an increase in birth rate, first recorded in 2005. Large cities encountered shortage of kindergarten vacancies earlier, in 2002. Moscow's kindergarten waiting list included 15,000 children; in the much smaller city of Tomsk (population 488,000) it reached 12,000. The city of Moscow instituted specialised kindergarten commissions that are tasked with locating empty slots for the children; parents sign their children on the waiting list as soon as they are born. The degree of the problem varies between districts, e.g. Moscow's Fili-Davydkovo District (population 78,000) has lost all of its kindergartens (residents have to compete for kindergarten slots elsewhere) while Zelenograd claims to have short queue. Independent authors assert that bribes or "donations" for admission to kindergartens compete in amount with university admissions while authorities refute the accusation.)

Forms of learning

In Russia , there are three basic forms of education :

- Full-time ( day );

- Part-time ( evening) ;

- Correspondence.

Restrictions on education for one or another form of training may be established by the legislation on education and (or) educational standard.

Also possible to obtain education in the form of external ( self ) education and family with the right of passage and an intermediate state attestation in educational organizations.

The new law on education , new forms of educational organization :

Web-based training . Network form of educational programs - an educational program using the resources of several organizations engaged in educational activities , including foreign ones , as well as , if necessary, using the resources of other organizations;

electronic and distance learning.)

Expenditure on education

Gross value added in the Russian system of education - 1.05 trillion rubles. (2009). Public expenditure on education in 2005 amounted to 3.8% of GDP , in 2006 - 3.9 % of GDP. Private expenditure on education in 2006 amounted to 0.7% of GDP . Total expenditure on education in 2006 amounted to 4.6% of GDP , in 2007 - 4.8% of GDP .

I n November 2010, at a meeting of Prime Minister Vladimir Putin said at the event the federal program of education in Russia in 2011-2015 will be allocated 137 billion rubles : the program significant funds will be used to support gifted children , as well as the creation of centers for talented youth in the federal universities and distance learning schools at research universities. In addition , the program will continue to update the material- technical base of federal universities .

Public expenditure on education in the Russian Federation

Expenditure federal budget bln .

  • 1997 18.5

  • 1998 17.2

  • 1999 20.8

  • 2000 37.6

  • 2001 48.8

  • 2002 80.0

  • 2003 99.0

  • 2004 119.3

  • 2005 160.5

Expenditure federal budget bln .

  • 2006 - 211.9

  • 2007 - 294.6

  • 2008 - 329.7

  • 2009 - 387.9

  • 2010 - 386.4

  • 2011 - 552.4

  • 2012 - 603.5 *

  • 2013 - 558.9 *

  • 2014 - 499.5 *

* - The draft budget .

December 5, 2011 , Dmitry Medvedev said that "consolidated expenditure on education - 2 100 billion. While in 1999 they (costs ) were about 10 billion rubles . " It was planned that in 2011 the amount of the federal budget under the heading " Education " will be 495.8 billion rubles.

According to research by the OECD in 2010 the share of private expenditure in the cost of primary and secondary education in Russia was less than 5 % (in the UK more than 20% , 18% in Australia , Canada and Germany, 12%). As for higher education , the situation looks quite different : the share of private expenditure is 35 %, which exceeds all European countries except the UK (65%) and Portugal ( 38%).

Students in England


Schools , working with students older than 16 years (ie, those who came from the care of the compulsory education system ) refer to a system of further and higher education UK (Further and Higher Education, F & HE). Conditionally ( since the boundary gradually eroded ) can be divided into two groups: schools and further education institutions of higher education.


Educational institutions provide further education UK , usually secondary special education . They offer a wide selection of training programs designed in such a way as to meet the needs and interests of students of any age . This " colleges for adults" , educational institutions under the jurisdiction of local municipalities , many specialized educational institutions - such as the London College of Printing .

Certificate of completion of education further education England (GNVQ / NVQ) are recognized throughout the country and employers and higher education institutions , so that you can then continue their studies at universities in the UK.


The higher education system in the UK began in the XII century. , When they were based Oxford and Cambridge universities . Prior to the beginning of the XIX century . other universities in England was not. However, based universities in Scotland - for example, in St. Andrews ( 1411g. ), Glasgow ( 1451 ) , Aberdeen ( 1495 ) and Edinburgh ( 1583 ) .

 Industrial revolution sweeping the UK in the XIX century . , Brought the country to have to prepare experienced managers and administrators. In many industrial sites , new universities . University of London was founded in 1836 , University of Manchester - in 1851 , in Birmingham - in 1900 , in Liverpool - in 1903 , in Bristol - in 1909, at Reading - 1926 After world War II in the country were based universities in Nottingham (1948) . Kiel (1949) , Exeter ( 1922) , Sussex, Warwick , Kent and Essex ( 60s ) . Until recently, they were called "new" or " glass " - because of modern buildings. " Newest " wave " universitezatsii " came in 1992, when 33 were converted into polytechnic universities .

 Differences between old and new universities in the UK are gradually obliterated , but still exist. New universities in the UK , which is closely related to industrial and commercial enterprises , seek to form their curricula on the basis of requests of employers. Old British universities also go down this road , trying to make connections with local and national economies . Nevertheless , they still dominate theoretical disciplines - philosophy, literature, history , science . Old universities in the UK have always attracted to his foreign students , which is why they are well known in Russia , but not so new .

 academic degrees

Degrees in the UK are given to students who have successfully completed a training course . Formally, the degree of the same value obtained in different universities in the UK , do not differ from each other , but in practice their "weight" is determined by the reputation of their university appropriated .

Here are some of the first stage of academic degrees awarded by universities in England and Wales :

BA Bachelor of Arts

BSc Bachelor of Engineering Sciences


BEd Bachelor of Education Sciences

BMus BMus

BM Bachelor of Medicine

MA Master of Arts

MSc Master of Engineering Sciences

LLM Master of Laws

MBA Master of Business Administration


duration of training

 UK universities accept students with 18. Bachelor's degree programs last 3-4 years. However, there are degrees , for which we also need a practical experience - training period is increased accordingly . Future designers , for example, is required to pass a preparatory course , and then - the main three . To obtain a degree in medicine , dental business and architecture need to learn to 7 years. Length of master programs and MBA - one year.)

Students in Russia

Higher education system in Russia has adopted a five-year ( six-year ) two-step system of higher education , historically divided into senior and junior courses , but for several years is the creation of a two-tier system of higher education ( European System of Education - Bologna Process) . Several specialties suggests a further period of externship within six months after the end of the five-year period of study . Six years and more medical students are taught , as well as part - time student .

The main higher education institutions are universities, institutes , academies. Forms of education : full-time , part-time , part - time (evening ) , external . Students arrive on a particular specialty , the curriculum is determined by the state educational standard of higher education .

Until 2009, admission to university was carried out on the results of entrance examinations , and now the results of the exam . Training is conducted at both the paid and free of charge. Tuition fees paid in its process .

During training, students are encouraged to study a certain number of subjects in accordance with the curriculum of the specialty. Usually junior courses were emphasizing fundamental to the whole group of related professions disciplines , and to increase the proportion of older narrower courses directly in the specialty.

In Russian universities survived the global approach to the verification of the quality of student learning , namely holding transferable exams every year, with at least two times . In some cases supplemented by colloquia session , state examinations , commonly used control , course , checking homework.

Accordingly, in most universities the academic year consists of two semesters - spring and autumn and sessions - winter and summer ; practices , summer and winter vacations .

After the last session, students take state exams and defend a diploma. Graduates usually receive a diploma and graduate students on the basis of defending his doctoral dissertation may be awarded the degree .

  At the last stage of training undergraduate and graduate students are required not only to be educated in the usual sense of the word, but also directly participate in research , and a diploma or degree depends on the results of scientific work.)

Differences and similarities of higher education in England and Russia

In Russia , as in England , formed a system of higher education. The higher education system in England is fully consistent with Europe , and in Russia, the transition is not yet fully completed.

          With the introduction of the USE scheme for admission to universities in Russia to become closer to the British .

            If Russia can get a higher education , not only on a fee basis , but for free, in England only on a fee basis. However, if the Russian students have to make money during the training process , in England only after graduation and employment to work with a minimum monthly salary of 21 thousand pounds a year.

        More widespread than in England in Russia were such forms of education as correspondence and evening . With the introduction of the USE scheme for admission to universities in Russia to become closer to the British .

        In Russia, higher education primarily involves obtaining a degree , and in England to obtain scientific or doctoral degree.

Advantages and disadvantages of education in England and Russia

Thus, based on the differences and similarities of education systems can know more about their advantages and disadvantages .

    The higher education system in England is fully consistent with Europe , and in Russia, the transition is not yet fully completed, in connection with which the graduates of Russian universities have to confirm their degrees abroad .

          Study " in debt" gives you the opportunity of higher education to poor people of Great Britain .

          With regard to higher education UK traditionally takes 2 or 3 position in the international rankings of universities , and the quality of work and professional level of graduates of many institutions of Russian higher education leaves much to be desired.)







Краткое описание документа:

Research problem: how the educational process in the UK and Russia. What are the similarities and differences in the education system of the two countries .

Objective: to study the education system in England compared to the Russian education system.)

The subject of research is the comparative characteristics of the education systems of England and Russia.

In order to achieve the objectives outlined the dominant method of research: Theoretical (analysis of the literature on the formation of education in England and Russia) and practical (interview with British schoolgirls)


Scientific novelty of the work lies in considering the relationship and comparison with the development of the education system in England and Russia.

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