Инфоурок Другое Научные работыПроектная работа на английском языке на тему "Традиции Дагестана"

Проектная работа на английском языке на тему "Традиции Дагестана"

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Traditions of Dagestan.

 Introduction

     Dagestan is a home to a large number of small nationalities who are distinguished with their unique features in the field of culture, language and interpersonal relations. Each nation is very interested in their traditions and customs of their ancestors. So it is necessary for us to learn the deeper understanding of general Dagestan culture.

     Each representative of nation is particularly sensitive to the formation of their own worldview which from the childhood is based on the customs of Dagestan. The older generation is very serious about preserving and transmitting all the subtleties of the traditions of Dagestan, as well as ensuring that their essence is not distorted. Each of them is a unique reflection of the mentality of the people, their worldview and national spirit.

     So the main aim of my project is learning and preserving traditions and their transmitting to the younger generations.

     The family traditions of Dagestan are particularly interesting for studying. In general, the family for this people is a sacred concept which is based not only on blood relationship, but also on spiritual unity. Representatives of each nation, even if they are not related by blood are still considered brothers and sisters carriers of a single cultural and ethnic spirit.

     The novelty of the project is that I studied a new phenomena in the traditions of the nations of Dagestan. The phenomena is that due to the large number of marriages between nations, traditions began to lose their uniqueness. More and more traditions and customs are becoming similar of different nationalities.

     I consider that under such circumstances our main task is not to lose the traditional uniqueness of each nationality. I think local authorities should be interested in this problem.

 

Chapter I. The laws of the mountains.

      No matter what part of the mountainous Dagestan you visit, you will be amazed by the unusual colors of nature, chased silhouettes of villages, unusual mountain roads and numerous wall ornaments, the silence of the mountains, the beauty of the local architecture and the soul of the people.

1.Respect for elders.

     A great number of customs, traditions, rituals, and parables were spread among the Daghestan peoples in former times. Aboriginal culture is based on respect, for the land and for their elders. Not showing respect is one of the biggest mistakes non-Aboriginal people do when interacting with Aboriginal culture.
      Lack of respect for elders is growing. But they are not supported because they have lost the respect of their community. Young people see how non-Aboriginal people do not listen to them. and refuse to listen themselves.
Younger generations must learn the importance of respecting their elders.

    The social and family life of  Dagestan people has been based from time immemorial on respect and reverence for their elders. Old people were the keepers of knowledge, skills and experience developed by previous generations. A young man of any origin is obliged to stand before every old man without asking his name, to give him a seat, not to sit down without his permission, to be silent before him, and to answer his questions meekly and respectfully.

    The social role of the older generation in Dagestan has always been great. According to custom, no significant event in auls was held without the participation of elders - the most honorable and respected people. They were considered the guardians of folk traditions, customs, customs, and rituals. No dispute was resolved without their participation. Their authority and their word was unquestioned.

     Young people constantly experienced the benevolent influence of the elder in the family. For them he was a mentor and educator. In turn, the old men met with mutual respect and deference. To show kindness, attention to elders-this was instilled in Dagestan from infancy.

     Obedience to parents and respect for elders are the laws of the mountains. Here are some generally accepted norms of respect for elders that exist among the Dagestan people:

-when a father, a girl, or an elderly stranger enters the room, the younger one gets up and gives way;

-when there are several elderly and young people in a room, the elderly sit in order of seniority, and the young stand or sit separately. It also happens that when the older one sits, the younger one stands until he receives an invitation to sit down;

-at the table the first food to accept begins to senior;

-when meeting a senior on the street, everyone greets him respectfully;

-any senior has the right to make a remark to a Junior if he behaves unworthily and can give him any assignment. And he will not be offended or disobeyed;

-the appearance of the older stop fighting, Smoking, gambling, etc.

    If you want to be respected, be respectful to others - so the mountain proverb says.

 

             2.Hospitality.

     Dagestan people are famous for their hospitality. In Dagestan, there is a "guest cult": wherever they are from, whoever they are, regardless of their faith, first of all, a guest is a Guest.

     Since ancient times, it has been believed that receiving a guest is a great honor for the host. The guest was ready to receive at any time of the day, day or night. Hospitality has become so widespread because of the peculiarities of the mountainous region, as well as cultural and trade-economic relations between neighboring and remote areas.

     Since ancient times, travelers who left on important business often did not have time to complete them in one day and return back, so they were forced to think about the basic amenities for the night. Everyone could be a traveler, so everyone knew how difficult it was to be a traveler. It is for this reason that the custom of hospitality has become in time the most important, persistent and sacredly observed. The peoples of Dagestan have certain rules for accepting guests. Each village had its own order and order of reception of the guest, which was coordinated over a long period of time. Even in our time, when the family sits down to dinner at the table, the hostess just in case leaves another portion, if suddenly a guest comes to the house.

     There was a rule according to which the older person was obliged to accept the guest. If this person for some reason could not invite a guest, it could be accepted by any other person.

     If a traveler visited the same village several times and stayed with the same person, their relationship developed into a brotherly one. These people were called friends. If Kunak came to the village and stayed with another owner, it was a very big shame for the receiver. According to the accepted etiquette, Kunak was obliged not to cause trouble to the owner, to be moderate and modest in his needs, taking into account the financial situation of the owner.

     A traveler could come to the village at night. In this case, he could knock at any house where he was sure to be received. This was considered a great honor for the owner of the house. It is a kind of moral duty of a mountaineer to receive guests with respect.

     The highlanders usually assume that the guest is the messenger of Allah. People used to say: "Why does one live in the world for whom the arrival of a guest is a punishment?"

                  3.”Adats”.

      In countries where Islam is the leading religion the entire life of society is subject to Shariat law, which in most cases is enshrined in law. Dagestan people relations, customs, traditions and almost all aspects of society very often are regulated by "Adats". The way of family life, relationships with neighbors, rules of matchmaking and marriage, hospitality-everything is taken into account in the set of unwritten rules of the highlanders, intertwined with some dogmas of religion, but does not always correspond to legal norms. If the rules for receiving guests and honoring elders deserve respect and praise, then the Adat of blood feud is already going against state laws. Many traditions in modern Dagestan are gradually losing their relevance, but the laws of the ancestors are still strong in the local society.

      Due to the large number of marriages between nations, traditions began to lose their uniqueness. More and more Adats and customs are becoming similar of different nationalities.

      4. Training for industriousness.

     Working for every mountaineer is the most important thing at any age. That is why among the peoples of Dagestan there is an unspoken rule to teach every child from the age of three to work of different types: grazing sheep, milking goats, mowing grass, etc. The Highlander works not only to provide himself and his family with material goods, but also to harden his own character. To do this, the father of the family constantly takes his sons to various kinds of work, and mothers involve their daughters in household chores: cooking, caring for the elderly and men, and running the household.

 

Chapter II. General Dagestan traditions.

      Dagestan is not only a "country of mountains", but also a "country of languages". Having merged into one multinational nation, about 30 nationalities live in Dagestan-Avars, Dargins, Lezgins, Kumyks, Russians, Laks, Tabasarans, Azerbaijanis, Aguls, Rutuls, Chechens, Nogais, and many others. So the more nationalities are the more traditions of great interest to study we have.

 

       1.The holiday of the first furrow.

    The holiday of the first furrow is celebrated by the peoples of Western and Central Dagestan-Avars, Dargins and Laks. Historians suggest that it was previously distributed throughout the mountainous territory, but later in the South, under the influence of the Persians, it was supplanted by Novruz. The highlanders believed that for a good harvest the land must be fertilized. This ceremony the Laks called the wedding field, Dargin – fertilization of arable land, and the Avars - the breeding of a bull or bull's wedding. The bull as a symbol of fertility was the "bridegroom" of the earth.

     The ceremony was not scheduled for a specific date, but when the soil was ready. The first furrow had to be carried out by a respected and successful person who certainly grows a beard. Snow and mud were thrown at it from all sides. It was believed that if he stood with an unruffled face, then the ears would be strong.

     From the field, everyone rushes back to the village. Young people run or ride a tractor, old women in black sing "La ilaha illa llah" in chorus. Then the villagers divided by age and gender competing in the race. They try their best sometimes in the excitement of grabbing opponents by the shirt. Although this spectacle looks modern, its roots go back to time immemorial and the prizes for the fastest runners had a sacred meaning. In some villages they are richly decorated with fruits, nuts, sweets or boiled eggs. The holiday ends with songs and dances.

     Recently, the festival of the first furrow in Balkhar has become a lure for tourists. On this day, a dozen buses and a lot of cars from all over the Republic and from abroad come to the small village.

     Balkhars welcome visitors, generously treat them to a ceremonial meal of seven cereals and invite them to visit. The holiday ends. Tired villagers go home. From the next day they will have hard work on the field. But the first furrow was carried out successfully.

           2. The date of the water.

     The date of the water Festival in Dagestan is counted from the day of the spring equinox on March 21. According to an ancient belief if you wash your face on the fortieth day of spring with water from a spring you  become  beauty person. At the dawn of the holiday stately young Dagestan women covered with white shawls embroidered with gold (kazy) leave the village and go for water to a distant source. They are accompanied by spectators. Behind the girls are a muchal gleam and tall copper vessel. On the chest, it is balanced by a Kutka, a slightly smaller copper jug. Tormented has a capacity of 10 liters of water and the cotton four. Having collected water and led the dances at the spring the girls return home by a short way – because each carries 14 liters of water. And the dancing begins again.

     On this day, it is customary to choose brides. And no wonder: the girls have just demonstrated their ability to have fun and work. The girls holding hands start a round dance, and soon one of the guys is inside the circle. Dancing lezginka he approaches one of the dancers and lightly hits her on the shoulder with a wooden stick. After a pause the chosen one also steps into the circle and holding her hand over her head with a handkerchief gives herself to the dance and the guy with lightning speed turns his legs around the partner.

     This is nothing more than the oldest rite of choosing a bride! Of course today boys choose brides quite another way. However, it also happens that a girl throws her wand on the ground and does not go into the circle. The rifle cannonade that accompanies the holiday all day is also understandable: it is an echo of the most ancient pagan custom — to drive away evil spirits by clicking the whip at important events for the life of the family.

 

          3. Dagestan food.

     Many dishes that were previously not used at all or were prepared only on the days of celebrations are now included in the daily menu of each family.

     Dishes that exist in each individual district of Dagestan have a special flavor. For example, in each national region hinkal is prepared, which is served as the first or second dish,but it is always possible to determine what its origin is. Common dishes are considered "kurze", "chudu", which are prepared from different herbs, cottage cheese, vegetables, eggs, and gourmets who understand a lot about Dagestan cuisine will never make a mistake about what nationality the cook prepared this dish.

     Dagestan is a multinational Republic. Each of its nationalities has its own cuisine. At the same time these cuisines have a lot in common: a combination of plant and animal products, relatively simple cooking, and high taste qualities of dishes. All first and second courses are mainly prepared from lamb and beef. Often use offal-intestines, scar, heart, liver, lungs.

     Dishes made from wheat and corn flour are very popular in Dagestan cuisine. The most common dishes are considered kurze (a type of large dumplings) and chudu (pies). Kurze is prepared from various herbs, cottage cheese with pumpkin and egg, meat, browned onions.

 

4. History and traditions of carpet weaving in Tabasaran.

     The art of carpet weaving is more than two and a half thousand years old. The oldest carpet that has survived to the present day is a carpet that was woven more than two thousand years ago.

     This unique work of art with a long history now adorns the Hermitage collection. And this ancient art has its roots in the Ancient East.

     The rich history of carpet weaving in the Middle East is impressive. Here, almost every settled people has its own unique traditions and practical techniques of carpet making. For many centuries, this art has been an integral part of the life of the peoples of this region.

     Carpet weaving has found its spread in Dagestan. This art has evolved over many centuries. According to reports, already in the bronze age the people of Dagestan were engaged in spinning and weaving.

     Original centers of carpet weaving development in Dagestan were formed by Tabasaranians. The South Dagestan peoples created the most perfect works of this ancient art.

      Tabasaran was the main center of carpet weaving in Dagestan. The works of masters were famous throughout the middle East, they could be found in the richest houses of Persia, the Ottoman Empire and the Arab countries.

      In this work I want to talk about Tabasaran carpets, Tabasaran carpet-making traditions, and local craftsmen. Carpet-making in Tabasaran as a traditional craft has been practiced for centuries. Sheep wool was hand-made into yarn and it was dyed in a primitive way.

     Only dyes made from roots, tree bark, leaves of shrubs, herbs, and vegetables were used. The only thing purchased was Indigo, that is, blue paint. Such works of art decorated their homes, especially living rooms and a certain part was sold or exchanged for goods.

     Carpet-making received favorable ground for its development in the 30s of the last century, when more than 14 artels were created and then carpet factories. New workshops were built in our area where more than two thousand women craftsmen worked.

     In a rich house, there should always be a lot of carpets, and of the highest quality. The basis of the pattern of Tabasaran carpets has always been a geometric ornament depicting symbolic silhouettes of the animal and vegetable world.

     Its construction requires high qualification, fine taste, individual skill, patience and perseverance. Many of our masters, not having before them, but knowing the scheme of building a pattern perform it from memory.

     Despite its importance and necessity, where a certain part of the district's population earns a living, it also reflects and vividly shows the culture and history of the ancient Tabasaran people.

     And it must be preserved, because future generations will not forgive us if everything happens differently. With the transition to market conditions of management, carpet making, which has always had its own peculiarity and high labor intensity lost state support.

     High inflation and the growth of crisis processes in the economy led to the depreciation of Enterprises ' own working capital.

5. Balkhar pottery.

The masters of the Balkhar village have preserved the traditions of the pottery art of the ancient masters. At the beginning of our era, the ceramic products of Balkhar masters were in demand all over Dagestan, even in those areas where the pottery industry was established. The products of Balkhar ceramic craftsmen were valued for their high strength, excellent decorative qualities, elegant shapes and thin walls of dishes. And for the shape of the vessels corresponding to their purpose and functionality. However, it is noteworthy that women were engaged in pottery in Dagestan.

In addition to strength in the manufacture of ceramic dishes, thinness was also important. After all, the thinner the walls of the dish, the lighter it is. Vessels with thin walls and a wide bottom, that is, stable, were in high demand. They stored supplies of fresh water and grain. Good were the pitchers and bowls for washing, as well as the plates and bowls for setting the table.

One of the main decorative advantages of Balkhar ceramics was its original and original painting. Products could be made in one color or in several. But they had one thing in common: any type of ceramic ware had filigree lace made in white.

The history of the village of Balkhar goes far back centuries. As well as representatives of other districts, residents of Balkhar also changed the place of their settlement. And it turned out that because of the harsh climate, the only way to earn a living for them was pottery.

 

                6. Kubachi jewelry art.

     In the mountainous regions of Dagestan, which in ancient times Eastern merchants and travelers called the impregnable country of armourers and chainmailers – Zirikhgeran, the ancient village of Kubachi is located, the birthplace of the world-famous goldsmiths, virtuosic masters of making perfect in form and decoration of cold weapons, armor, precious silver tableware, elegant women's jewelry. The original material culture of the kubachi people which developed and improved in close connection with the natural and geographical conditions, economic needs and aesthetic needs of the people who inhabit this harsh mountain region, goes back to ancient times.

     The plant produces highly artistic silver products for various purposes – jugs, vases, cups, women's jewelry, sets, cigarette cases, decorative dishes. Many of these fine examples of Kubachi jewelry were awarded top prizes at Russian and international exhibitions.

     Modern kubachi masters continue the work of their predecessors and teachers with dignity, creating exclusive gift items, unique in beauty and virtuosity of the collection, as well as products of mass assortment.

 

 

 

 

                            

Conclussion

     It is impossible to list all the traditions of Dagestan in one work. In this work I have tried to cover the most important traditions of the Dagestan people. Some of them are all-Dagestan ones and others are unique for their people. Each nation is very interested in their traditions and customs of their ancestors. So it was necessary for us to learn the deeper understanding of general Dagestan culture.

   The main aim of my project was learning and preserving traditions and their transmitting to the younger generations. I studied a new phenomena in the traditions of the nations of Dagestan. The phenomena is that due to the large number of marriages between nations, traditions began to lose their uniqueness. More and more traditions and customs are becoming similar of different nationalities.

      Due to the large number of marriages between nations, traditions began to lose their uniqueness. More and more Adats and customs are becoming similar of different nationalities.

     I consider that under such circumstances our main task is not to lose the traditional uniqueness of each nationality. I think local authorities should be interested in this problem.

    If you want to be respected, be respectful to others - so the mountain proverb says.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sources

 

-https://otdyhpress.ru/tradicii/obychai-i-tradicii-narodov-dagestana.html

 -https://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/people/respect-for-elders-and-culture

-www.obzor-smi.ru/dagestan/13821

 -www.moidagestan.ru/news/articles/47135

- https://www.kavkazr.com/a/29876996.html

-inter.pskovlib.ru/info/etnomir2017/DAGESTAN.HTM

 -https://flnka.ru/glav_lenta/5531-tabasaranskie-kovry.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                               

Supplement

Respect for elders

уваж.jpg

Hospitality

гостеп.jpg

Adats

адат.jpg

адат1.jpg

 

 

Training for industriousness

трудол.jpg

трудол1.jpg

The holiday of the first furrow

бороз.jpg

 

The date of the water

вода.jpg

 

 

                                                    

Dagestan food

еда.jpg

 

еда1.jpg

 

History and traditions of carpet weaving in Tabasaran

коврод.jpg

                                                    Balkhar pottery

гончар.jpg

Kubachi jewelry art

кубачи.jpg

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