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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Презентации / Проектная работа по английскому языку на тему " Использование устойчивых выражений в английском языке"
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Проектная работа по английскому языку на тему " Использование устойчивых выражений в английском языке"

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Project work on the theme


Using of set expressions in English language”.



























Critique


On project work on the theme


Using of set expressions in English language”.


Makulbek Ayaulim Lesbekovna


Student of the 11”B” form


Comprehensive school №18 by


A.Kurmantaev


The project work of Makulbek A. is devoted to description and

searching of set expressions in English language.


This theme is considered to be actual nowadays because of its


picculiarities.Using of idioms, phrasal verbs and proverbs

makes the speech more colourful and emphatic.


The author has done a great work in comparing of idiomatic


phrases and proverbs and it is equal to all requirements.


This work can be recommended on participations in scientific


research school competitions.


Date: Signature_______

Critic_________________________

Content


  1. Annotation……………………………………………………….1

  1. Introduction. A Brief Overview of English Grammar……………2


  1. A set phrase………………………………………………………2.


    1. What is an idiom?..............................................................3

    2. Articles in set expressions:……………………………….5

3.2.1. Set expressions with the definite article…………………6

3.2.2. Set expressions with the indefinite article……………….7

3.2.3. Set expressions without any article……………………...8

    1. Differences between different cultures………………….10

    2. Examples of idioms……………………………………..

    3. Proverbs………………………………………………….

3.5.1. Idioms and proverbs with proper names………………13

3.5.2. Idioms with people’s names…………………………..13

3.5.3. Idioms with names of countries, streets………………..14

3.5.4. Idioms with names of months, days……………………15

3.5.5. Idioms from mythology………………………………...15

3.5.6. Proverbs with proper names……………………………16

3.5.7.English idioms using colour……………………………17


  1. Quizzes……………………………………………………………..23


  1. Tables………………………………………………………………31


  1. Conclusion…………………………………………………………43


  1. References…………………………………………………………45






Annotation of the research project work

1. The theme «Using of set expressions in English language».

2. School ( Comprehensive school №18 by A. Kurmantaev )

3. Completion of the work 2011 year.

4. Volume of work: 45 pages.

  1. Tables: 12 pages.

  2. References: 9.

Project work characteristics:

1. The aims of the work. The main aim is to find out differences between some kinds of set expressions such as idioms, phrasal verbs and proverbs, to present necessary activities for exception and easy learning of English language.

2. Choosing of direction for the research work. The effectiveness in studying English language depends on colourful word expressions. They should play a great role in interaction between teachers and learners.

3. Conclusion.The first activity that a translator does when s/he faces with each kind of idiom or proverb in the text is to refer a bilingual dictionary to find an equivalent. In this project work given activities make them easy for understanding and learning.

Аннотация научной работы

  1. Название «Использование устойчивых выражений в Английском языке».

  2. Школа ( Абдибая Курмантаева №18 )

  3. Год завершения работы 2011 год.

  4. Объем работы 45 страниц.

  5. Количество иллюстраций: 12.

  6. Количество источников литературы: 9.

Характеристика проектной работы:

  1. Цель работы. Основной целью данной исследовательской работы является выявление различий между идиомами и пословицами, представить виды деятельности для легкого восприятия и изучения английского языка.

  2. Выбор направления исследовательской работы. Эффективность изучения английского языка зависит от красочных выражений. Они играют очень важную роль в изучении английского языка.

  3. Заключение. В изучении языка переводящий обращается к двуязычному словарю. В данной проектной работе представлены такие виды деятельности, которые делают их легкими для понимания и изу-

чения.

- 1-


Introduction

A Brief Overview of English Grammar

All languages are divided into synthetic and analytic. At the same time, no language is completely synthetic or analytic, both features are present in every language.

Synthetic languages have a lot of different prefixes, suffixes, and endings that are added to words to show relations between words in a sentence, such as gender, person, number, case, comparison, tense, mood, active and passive voice. The main feature of synthetic languages is that suffixes and endings make the meanings of individual words and their interaction with other words in a sentence precise and clear, so that word order in a sentence can be quite free. Russian is a highly synthetic language.

Synthetic languages have a lot of different prefixes, suffixes, and endings that are added to words to show relations between words in a sentence, such as gender, person, number, case, comparison, tense, mood, active and passive voice. The main feature of synthetic languages is that suffixes and endings make the meanings of individual words and their interaction with other words in a sentence precise and clear, so that word order in a sentence can be quite free. Russian is a highly synthetic language.

Analytic languages have few suffixes and endings that show gender, person, number, case, and tense. The main feature of analytic languages is that they rely on word order to show relations between words in a sentence. Word order and context help to identify precise meanings of individual words. English is largely analytic.

This major difference between English and Russian is the main cause of the difficulties that Russian-speaking students have in studying English. The most important norms of English grammar are very briefly and very generally described below.


A set phrase or fixed phrase is a phrase whose parts are fixed, even if the phrase could be changed without harming the literal meaning. This is because a set phrase is a culturally accepted phrase. A set phrase does not necessarily have any literal meaning in and of itself. Set phrases may function as idioms (e.g. red herring) or as words with a unique referent (e.g. Red Sea). There is no clear dividing line between a commonly used phrase and a set phrase. It is also not easy to draw a clear distinction

between set phrases and compound words. In theoretical linguistics, two-word set phrases are said to arise during the generative formation of English nouns. A certain stricter notion of set phrases, more in line with the concept of a lexical item, provides an important underpinning for the formulation of Meaning-Text Theory.

Examples of set phrases

Some set phrases are used as either their own statement or as part of a longer statement:

  • I see - Can be used both metaphorically and literally.

  • I don't know

  • Thank you - There is an implied "I" that is almost never used with the set phrase.

  • You're welcome - Note that while 'You are welcome' would have the same literal meaning, it is very rarely used in the same way.

Others are almost always used with more detail added:

  • Don't look now... - Used either literally or figuratively to warn someone about an imminent misfortune.

  • You know... - Usually used rhetorically to make the audience think about the following topic.

Idioms

The English language is full of idioms (over 15,000). Native speakers of English use idioms all the time, often without realising that they are doing so. This means that communication with native speakers of English can be quite a confusing experience.

What is an idiom?

An idiom is a group of words which, when used together, has a different meaning from the one which the individual words have. For example:

- How do you know about John's illness?

- Oh, I heard it on the grapevine.

Of course, the second speaker does not mean he heard the news about John by putting his ear to a grapevine! He is conveying the idea of information spreading around a widespread network, visually similar to a grapevine.

We use idioms to express something that other words do not express as clearly or as cleverly. We often use an image or symbol to describe something as clearly as possible and thus make our point as effectively as possible. For example, "in a nutshell" suggests the idea of having all the information contained within very few words. Idioms tend to be informal and are best used in spoken rather than written English.

Idioms: the good news

Sometimes idioms are very easy for learners to understand because there are similar expressions in the speakers' mother tongue. For example:

He always goes at things like a bull in a china shop!

Sometimes you can guess the meaning of new idioms from context. For example, what do you think these idioms mean?

He was on the carpet last week for being late for work three times


She made a marvellous speech to the conference. She took the delegates by storm.


It was an extremely long report. It took me three hours to wade through.


I believe we should talk openly and frankly about the project - warts and all.


Let's call it a day. I am very tired and we have covered the main points of the meeting I think.


Idioms: the bad news

However, idioms can often be very difficult to understand. You may be able to guess the meaning from context but if not, it is not easy to know the meaning. Many idioms, for instance, come from favourite traditional British activities such as fighting, sailing, hunting and playing games. As well as being quite specialist in meaning, some of the words in idioms were used two or three hundred years ago, or longer, and can be a little obscure. Here are some examples:

1) Now that the Prime Minister has been elected there will be a lot of jockeying for position to get the key posts in his administration.

2) I finally ran the book to earth in a second-hand bookshop in Wales. I had been searching for it for three years.

3) They took her ideas on board and decided to increase the budget.

4) You should fall in with our arrangements; we can't make alternative plans for you.

5) We saw the boss at the bar but we gave him a wide berth. We did not want to talk to him then.


How can I learn idioms?

It is best to learn idioms as you do vocabulary. In other words, select and actively learn idioms which will be useful to you. Write the idiom in a relevant and practical sentence so that you will be able to remember its meaning easily. If you can, record the idioms in your file and on a card along with other words and idioms which have similar meanings.

There are many helpful dictionaries and workbooks to help you to understand and practise using idioms. Ask your Linguarama teacher for information.



Part 5. Articles in Set Expressions

Articles in set expressions may not follow the rules of the use of articles. In many set expressions there is an additional difficulty of using the right preposition. Consequently, set expressions should be learned by heart, there is no other way.

The list below illustrates the use of articles in common set expressions. For your convenience, set expressions are divided here into three groups according to the article that is used in them, i.e., the definite article the, the indefinite article a/an, without any article.

Of course, it is much more logical to group set expressions according to their meaning or according to the main word in them. Most of the set expressions below are described more fully in the section Idioms and in other relevant places of the site. This material just lists examples of article use in frequently used set expressions.

Group 1. Set expressions with the definite article

at the beginning: His name was mentioned at the beginning of the story.

at the end: The index is at the end of the book.

at the most / at most: I can pay fifty dollars at the most.

at the scene of: He was seen at the scene of the accident.

by the way: By the way, where is my book?

do the dishes, wash the dishes: Please wash the dishes after dinner.

get to the point: Let's get to the point.

go to the cinema: How often do you go to the cinema?

in the beginning: In the beginning, the story was rather dull.

in the center: You see a house in the center of the picture and several trees in the background.

in the end: In the end, they got what they deserved.

in the face of: He continued his work in the face of danger.

in the middle: It is in the middle of the book.

in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening: Call me in the evening.

live in the city: He lives in the city.

live in the country: They live in the country.

make the bed: She made the beds in children's rooms.

off the point, beside the point: This question is off the point.

on the alert: He is always on the alert.

on the left, on the "border: none; ">

on the move, on the run: He is always on the move.

on the one hand, on the other hand: On the one hand, I don't want to go there. On the other hand, I want to talk to Mike, and he will be there.

on the point of: They are on the point of breaking up. She was on the point of death a year ago.

on the radio: I heard it on the radio.

on the telephone: She is talking on the phone to her sister.

on the whole: On the whole, your plan seems interesting.

out of the question: This is out of the question.

play the piano, play the violin, play the drums: Can you play the piano?

tell the time: Can you tell me the time?

tell the truth: He told you the truth.

the other day: I talked to Maria the other day.

under the influence: He was driving under the influence of alcohol.

What's the difference?

What's the matter?

What's the point?

Group 2. Set expressions with the indefinite article

a grain of truth: There is a grain of truth in his words.

a slip of the tongue: Sometimes, a slip of the tongue can lead to serious things.

all of a sudden: All of a sudden, she jumped to her feet and ran out of the room.

as a matter of fact: As a matter of fact, he is broke.

as a result: All this happened as a result of his negligence.

as a rule: As a rule, he takes a walk before bedtime.

as a whole: We should consider these issues as a whole.

at a glance: He understood at a glance what was going on there.

at a time: Don't hurry and don't try to do two things at a time.

do a favor: Can you do me a favor?

for a long time: I haven't seen her for a long time.

give a ride, give a lift: Can you give me a ride to the center?

have a cold: He has a cold.

have a good time: Did you have a good time at the party?

have a headache: I have a headache.

have a problem: She has a problem with math.

in a hurry: I'm in a hurry.

make a living: She makes a living by selling flowers from her garden.

make a fortune: He made a fortune in oil.

make an appointment: I'd like to make an appointment with a doctor.

take a break: Let's take a ten-minute break.

tell a joke, tell a story: He told me a very funny story.

tell a lie: He told you a lie.

Group 3. Set expressions without any article

at best: It will give us three or four days at best.

at first: At first he refused to go with us.

at first sight: It was love at first sight.

at home, at school, at work: She is at home. Her son is at school. Her husband is at work.

at last: We are free at last!

at least: I need at least two days to prepare for the meeting.

at noon, at night, at midnight: Her train arrives at noon.

at once: Ask him to come at once.

by chance: I met him by chance.

by heart: Learn the dialogue by heart.

by mail, by e-mail: I sent the report by mail.

by mistake: I did it by mistake.

day by day; day after day; day in, day out: He worked hard all his life, day in, day out.

do homework: Have you done your homework?

face to face: Let's sit down and discuss this question face to face.

go by bus, by plane, by train, by car: We will go there by bus.

go to bed: It's time to go to bed.

go to church: They often go to church.

go to school, go to college: She wants to go to college.

go to work: He goes to work every day.

have breakfast, have dinner: We had breakfast at eight o'clock.

have fun: Have fun!

in advance: They paid him in advance.

in class, in school, in college: They do some exercises in class. Her son is five; he is not in school yet. They met in college.

in debt: She is in debt.

in detail: Describe the house in detail.

in fact: In fact, he is in charge of the whole company.

in general: In general, I like to read detective stories.

in principle: They accepted his plan in principle.

in prison: He is in prison now.

in reality: He looks strict, but in reality he is a kind man.

in spite of: He continued his work in spite of danger.

in time: They came in time to get good seats before the lecture.

in trouble: If you do it, you'll be in trouble.

Keep in touch.

make coffee, make tea: She made coffee and sandwiches for us.

make breakfast, make dinner: She is making breakfast now.

make money: They promise that we will make money quickly. He makes good money. She doesn't make much money.

off guard: Her words caught him off his guard. Her words caught him off guard.

on board: There were about a hundred passengers on board the plane.

on credit: I bought it on credit.

on duty: Who is on duty today?

on foot: We had to go there on foot.

on guard: He is always on his guard. He is always on guard.

on hand: I don't have a calculator on hand.

on page 3: It is on page 5. Open your book at page 7. Go to page 10. / Turn to page 10.

on principle: He did it on principle.

on purpose: He did it on purpose.

on sale: I bought this coat on sale.

on second thought: We wanted to go to Italy in summer. But on second thought, we decided to go to France.

on time: I came to the meeting on time.

on TV: I saw this film on TV.

out of town: He is out of town.

play football, play tennis, play chess: Do you play chess?

take care of: Please take care of my dog while I'm away.

Take care!

word for word: Please repeat word for word what he said to you.

A list of common set expressions illustrating the use of articles.

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Idioms and especially proverbs are the symbols of a nation's manners, behaviors, traditions, customs and culture which indicate the life style of those particular people during years. They reflect the way that a particular group of people think, imagine, act or believe as one of the aspects of their culture which is different from other nations and they face with them every day.

In other words, "differences between different cultures are symbolized by the elements of language such as idioms and proverbs, and studying these languages and comparative analysis of idioms and proverbs between languages lead to realization of differences and similarities which exist between cultures" (Wardhaugh, 1986).

There are many factors which may have a crucial role in the formation of idioms and proverbs of a language/dialect among which, society and its related issues such as culture, religion, age, gender, etc. can be mentioned. There are some other factors such as climate, geographical position of the place and natural elements existing in that place which have influence on the formation of idioms and proverbs as well. All these factors affect the formation of idioms and proverbs during years and according to conditions and environments in which they are used; therefore, they may be different in form and meaning in different areas, and even among the dialects of a region.

Therefore, to get familiar with the language that is used in each particular area, it is suggested that one should refer to popular culture and folklore which exist in that area. Idioms and proverbs are those parts of this popular culture that can reflect all the important issues in that area.

 However this aspect of culture that is affected by region is rarely introduced to target readers through translation and translators only content themselves with finding an equivalent for these types of idioms and proverbs based on what there is in existing dictionaries. Therefore, in such kind of translations, the flavor of native culture in source language is not recognized by target readers, and if the source writer's aim is to introduce the culture by the regional elements through his/her writing, the translator won't be able to transfer it to target readers by this way of choosing equivalents. 

Paying attention to the influence of nature as an effective factor on language, the idioms and proverbs may even vary from one area to another within the same language; therefore, a single concept may be stated differently in different areas of a country. Here the role of translator and the strategies he/she uses for the translation will be important

Clarify this problem, the author of this article is willing to consider several idioms/proverbs of Russian language which are mostly used in Russian provinces for instances. The article aims to concentrate on the Russian idioms / proverbs which include elements such as name of animals, plants or wind, rain, sun, desert, water, soil, mountain, and so on in their lexical constructions and the way they are translated into English will be investigated based on Baker's strategies of translation.

These two provinces have been selected because of having two different regional conditions: 1st Province with a wet, humid climate and with lots of annual rain and thick forests, and the other one, is a desert area with a hot and dry climate, cold nights, lots of sand, and little amount of annual rain.

Idioms and proverbs of the Russian language in the above mentioned areas may be categorized into five main groups including:

     1) Those that are influenced by the animals and birds;

     2) Those that are influenced by plants;

     3) Those that are influenced by rivers and sea;

     4) Those that are influenced by Natural elements such as wind, sun, water, etc.

     5) Those that are influenced by other related concepts to region.

 

Strategies of translation

 Baker (1992) has proposed four strategies for translating idioms and proverbs which are described briefly as follows

a)    Using an idiom of similar meaning and form

First category of strategies consists of those idioms and proverbs that convey the same meaning in both source and target language, as well as the same lexical items which are used in their surface structures. It means that a same pattern of lexical items is used in both languages to express a single concept of meaning.

Using a single pattern of lexical items in these idioms or proverbs shows that there is a cultural and social relation between two languages of Persian and English. However, this similarity may be as the result of borrowing an idiom or a proverb from one language.


b)    Using an idiom of similar meaning but dissimilar form

Idioms and proverbs of this category are those that convey a meaning which is similar to the meaning that there is in target language, but the forms or the lexical items used in their surface structures are different.

In this strategy, meaning concepts are expressed by dissimilar lexical items in target language which can be a reflection of different points of view in both Russian and English society. Since in each society, observable and familiar concepts in the same region are used to convey a meaning, the idioms and proverbs which are in this category can show the differences between regions and societies. As Lakeoff (1987) has mentioned language is a concept which is dependent on experience. In other words, language talks about what people experience, the way they live and about what they care; it actually transfer the experience of a nation.

For example, it can be observed that fortune or misfortune, good luck or bad luck have always existed in all people's lives and their beliefs all around the world either in Russian societies or English societies. However, the difference is in the elements they use for talking about these concepts and the elements they use as the symbols of good luck or bad luck may be reflected in the idioms and proverbs of each society.

 

 However, what is obvious is that a single concept of meaning has been expressed by specific elements which exist in each region, and it can be said that each region uses its exclusive and familiar concepts to talk about a single meaning.

 

c) Translation by omission

As with single words, an idiom may sometimes be omitted altogether in the target text. This may be because it has no close match in the target language, its meaning cannot be easily paraphrased, or there are stylistic reasons.

d) Translation by paraphrase

When there is no equivalent in target language or when idiomatic language seems inappropriate in target text, idioms and proverbs may be translated by paraphrase. In this strategy, only the meaning of idiom or proverb without paying attention to what form it has or what is its surface structure is expressed by a non-idiomatic language to target readers.

As it can be observed, the idioms and proverbs which have been translated by this strategy are those local and traditional ones that don't have an equivalent in English


Idioms and Proverbs with Proper Names


English proper nouns include people's names and surnames (John Smith, Mary Brown), geographical names (Africa, the Thames), names of institutions (the United Nations, the British Museum), places in the city (Central Park, Fifth Avenue), historical and other events (the French Revolution, the Jazz Festival). English proper nouns also include nationalities (Russian, Irishman), weekdays (Tuesday, Saturday), months (January, May), and other notions, objects, and places that are capitalized and used as names. (The use of articles with people's names, geographical names, and other proper names is described in the files on English articles in the section Grammar. See the file Articles with Proper Names and related files on the topic.)


There are many idiomatic expressions that contain proper names. The same as other idioms, they came from people's everyday life, folklore, prose and poetry, myths, fairy tales, fables, songs, slang, and other sources.

Quite a few idioms with proper names are familiar to people of different nationalities, and it's natural that a student of English wants to know how to say those colorful expressions in English. It should be stressed, though, that idioms with proper names are not used in speech or writing often. For example, we all know such expressions as Pyrrhic victory; as wise as Solomon; Uncle Sam. But how often do we actually use them? Generally, we prefer more neutral phrases in everyday speech.

Also, some idioms containing people's names, names of nationalities, cities, or countries may be perceived as offensive stereotypes and cliches, and should be avoided.

The lists below illustrate some English idioms and proverbs with proper names. They include idioms that are still in use as well as some bookish or outdated expressions. Use the lists for studying and understanding idioms, not for active use. Russian translation of the idioms given below is approximate.


Idioms with people's names

Barbie Doll – an attractive but mindless person (man or woman);

before you could say Jack Robinson – very quickly;

doubting Thomas – a skeptic; a person who refuses to believe without clear proof;

every Tom, Dick and Harry – any / every ordinary man;

GI Joe – an American soldier;

Jack of all trades – a person who is able to do many manual jobs;

Joe Blow / Joe Doakes – an average citizen;

John Bull – a typical Englishman; the English people;

John Doe – 1. an unnamed person in legal proceedings; 2. an anonymous average citizen;

John Hancock – a person's signature;

Johnny-come-lately – a newcomer; a participant who started later than the others;

Jolly Roger – a pirate flag;

keep up with the Joneses – to try to achieve the same social position and wealth as one's neighbors or acquaintances;

Mister Right (or Miss Right) – the person one would like to marry; a perfect match;

Mr. Nice Guy – a very decent, friendly man;

Peeping Tom – a voyeur; a person who secretly watches other people undressing.

the real McCoy – the genuine thing, not an imitation;

rob Peter to pay Paul – to borrow from one to give to another;

Tommy Atkins – a British soldier;

Uncle Sam – the U.S.; the U.S. government.

Idioms with the names of countries, cities, streets, and nationalities

be Greek to someone – to be completely unintelligible to someone;

the Big Apple – the nickname of New York City;

Black Russian – a cocktail made from coffee liqueur and vodka;

carry coals to Newcastle – to bring something to a place which has plenty of such things already;

double Dutch – completely unintelligible language, especially technical jargon;

French leave – departure without goodbye, notice, or permission;

go Dutch – to pay for oneself (in a restaurant, movie theater);

grin like a Cheshire cat – to smile or grin inscrutably;

Indian summer – a period of warm weather in autumn;

in plain English – in simple, understandable language;

in Queer Street – in financial instability, in difficulty or trouble;

Madison Avenue – the advertising industry of the United States;

meet one's Waterloo – to be defeated;

on Easy Street – in wealth, in financial security and comfort;

Pardon my French – used as an apology for vulgar or obscene language;

Silicon Valley – the world of computers and high technology;

Utopian dreams / schemes – beautiful but impracticable plans;

Wall Street – American money market; American financial oligarchy.

Idioms with the names of months and days

April fool – the victim of a joke played on April Fools' Day;

as mad as a March hare – a mad or peculiar person;

May queen – a girl crowned with flowers and honored as queen on May Day;

Blue Monday – Monday as a depressing workday after Sunday;

Black Friday – any Friday on which financial or other misfortunes happen;

girl Friday – a low-ranking office assistant with various duties;

man Friday – a true servant;

a month of Sundays – a very long time;

Sunday best / Sunday clothes – one's best clothes for special occasions;

Sunday driver – an inexperienced driver;

Sunday School – school for religious instruction on Sundays;

when two Sundays come together – never.

Idioms from mythology and ancient history

Achilles' heel – the most vulnerable spot;

Alpha and Omega – the beginning and the end;

as rich as Croesus – a very rich person;

as wise as Solomon – a very wise person;

between Scylla and Charybdis – between two equally disastrous alternatives (also: between two fires, between the hammer and the anvil);

cut the Gordian knot – to solve a difficult problem quickly and boldly;

Janus-faced – having two contrasting aspects or qualities;

Pandora's box – a source of various unforeseen troubles and evils;

Pyrrhic victory – a victory where the loss is bigger than the gain;

Trojan Horse – something that is designed to undermine or destroy from within;

work like a Trojan – to work very hard.

Proverbs with proper names

A few proverbs with proper names are listed below. Note that proverbs may exist in several variants: I fear the Greeks even when bringing gifts; I fear the Greeks bringing gifts; I fear the Greeks bearing gifts. Because proverbs are widely known, people often say just part of a proverb: Greek gifts; Greek gift (i.e., a gift from an enemy may be dangerous). Russian translation of the proverbs below is approximate; in some cases a corresponding Russian proverb is given instead.

All roads lead to Rome.

All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

An Englishman's home is his castle.

April showers bring forth May flowers.

Bacchus has drowned more men than Neptune.

Caesar's wife must be above suspicion.

East or West, home is best.

I fear the Greeks even when bringing gifts.

If the mountain will not come to Mahomet, Mahomet must go to the mountain.

Jack is no judge of Jill's beauty.

Jack of all trades is master of none.

March comes in like a lion and goes out like a lamb.

Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's.

Rome was not built in a day.

Too far East is West.

When in Rome, do as the Romans do.

Description and lists of idioms and proverbs containing proper names.


English idioms using colour

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A list of colourful English idioms…

Blue

feeling blue = feeling unhappy: "What's the matter with you? Feeling blue?"

out of the blue = completely unexpected: "I sent off my application to the company, but heard nothing. Then completely out of the blue they sent me a letter."

Red

see red = become extremely angry: "When people are cruel to animals, it really makes me see red."

a red letter day = a day of great importance: "It's a red letter day tomorrow in the company. It's our fiftieth birthday!"

paint the town red = celebrate: "They went out last night and really painted the town red – they didn't come home until 5 a.m."

in the red = overdrawn: "It's the end of the month and we're in the red again. We have to control our spending better."

like a red rag to a bull = likely to make someone angry: "Don't talk to him about politics – it's like a red rag to a bull."

red tape = bureaucratic paperwork: "You have to cut through a lot of red tape to get proposals accepted in this company."

red carpet treatment = treat someone with great respect: "When we visit our offices in Asia, we get the red carpet treatment."

Green

get the green light = get approval to start something: "We've finally got the green light to start research on the new product."

green fingers = be a good gardener: "Everything grows in her garden. She definitely has green fingers."

green-belt area = an area of protected land surrounding a town or city: "The green-belt area around London is disappearing fast."

green politics = environmental politics: "He's in green politics and often campaigns to fight pollution."

Black

black market = illegal trade: "You can change dollars for a much higher rate on the black market."

black economy = a part of the economy unregulated by the authorities: "He doesn't pay any taxes and thinks that the black economy will make him rich." (He's working on the black.)

give someone a black look = look at someone as if you are angry: "Why is he giving me such a black look?"

on the black list = be on a list of "undesirables": "We won't be invited to their party this year – we're on their black list."

blacklisted = be banned: "Many actors and writers were blacklisted in Hollywood in the 1950's because they were considered "un-American."

in black and white = be extremely clear: "This contract is in black and white: we aren't allowed to keep any pets in this house."

black spot = a dangerous spot: "his roundabout is a black spot for traffic accidents."

black and blue = be badly bruised: "When she fell off her bicycle, she was black and blue for days."

White

white Christmas = when it snows at Christmas: "There hasn't been a white Christmas here since 1983."

whitewash = cover up the truth: "I don't believe his story. I think it's all a whitewash."

Grey

a grey area = something which is not definite: "I think genetic engineering is a bit of a grey area."

grey matter = your brain: "Doing crossword puzzles tests your grey matter."

Let’s look through some proverbs and their meanings:

actions speak louder than words

- what you do is more important than what you say

The politician promised to do many things but he never did anything. However, actions speak louder than words and he lost the next election.

all good things must come to an end

- an enjoyable experience ends


All good things must come to an end and we soon had to return home from our holiday.

all's well that ends well

- if things are good at the end of some situation then we should be satisfied with these results (from Shakespeare's play All's Well That Ends Well)

All's well that ends well and although the storm was very bad the children arrived home safely.

all roads lead to Rome

- the same end or goal may be reached by many different ways

All roads lead to Rome and the two groups used two different methods to finish the project.

bad news travels fast

- people are quicker to pass on bad news than good news

Bad news travels fast and the man heard about the job layoffs a week before the official announcement.

a bad workman blames his tools

- someone blames his tools or the material that he is working with for his own bad work

The carpenter was angry that his saw did not cut well. As often happens, a bad workman blames his tools.

bird in hand is worth two in the bush

- do not risk losing something that you have by trying to get something that is not certain

"You should accept the job offer with the lower salary now rather than waiting for a better job. Remember, a bird in hand is worth two in the bush."

curiosity killed the cat

- asking questions or being curious about something that is not your business is often not a good thing

"Curiosity killed the cat," the mother said as the child asked questions about her birthday party.

do as I say, not as I do

- follow someone's advice and not their actions

The man always said to do as he says and not as he does because his advice was always better than his actions

early to bed, early to rise makes one healthy, wealthy and wise

- going to bed early is good for you

Early to bed, early to rise makes one healthy, wealthy and wise was the advice that my grandmother gave me.

every cloud has a silver lining

- there is always something good in every problem or bad event

Although the fire destroyed the small business, every cloud has a silver lining and the business owners were able to build a new building which was better than the original one.

every dog has his day

- every person will have his chance or moment of glory

My friend is very discouraged because of his recent bad luck. However, every dog has his day and he should soon overcome those problems and find success.

half a loaf is better than none

- having part of something is better than having nothing

Half a loaf is better than none and my friend should be happy to get part of the money back rather than nothing at all.

kill two birds with one stone

    • to accomplish two goals with one deed or action

We will kill two birds with one stone and go shopping and also go to the main library during our trip downtown.


it never rains but it pours

- problems often appear together in large numbers or quickly one after the other

It never rains but it pours and we have recently had many problems with our house.

money is the root of all evil

- money is the main cause of most wrongdoing and problems in the world

The woman stole some money from her company. It seems that money is the root of all evil, and can cause many problems.
never look a gift horse in the mouth

- do not complain when you receive a gift

You should never look a gift horse in the mouth and instead accept a gift even if you do not want or need it.

one good turn deserves another

- a good deed or doing a good thing should be repaid with another good deed or by doing another good thing

One good turn deserves another and I was quick to help my friend after he helped me.


a penny saved is a penny earned

- money saved through spending wisely is just as valuable as the money that you earn by working

A penny saved is a penny earned and it is just as important to be careful spending money as it is to earn money.

To consolidate our knowledge on proverbs we can do different kinds of quizzes:

Quizzes - Proverbs/Sayings

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Choose an idiom to replace the expression in the brackets:

  1. The supervisor told the man that (what he does is more important than what he says) and he must not be late for work again.

(a) all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy (b) a bad workman blames his tools (c) actions speak louder than words (d) there's no accounting for taste

  1. The man knew nothing abut repairing a car. He was (not able to teach someone else) when he tried to show his friend how to fix his car.

(a) between the devil and the deep blue sea (b) better safe than sorry (c) all fair in love and war (d) like the blind leading the blind

  1. (The decision has been made) and we will move next month. We cannot change our plans now.

(a) The die is cast (b) The customer is always right (c) A cat has nine lives (d) Crime doesn't pay

  1. The school board knew that (there was much money available) so they began to look for a good architect to design the new school.

    1. easy come, easy go (b) it is easier said than done (c) money was no object (d) the exception proves the rule



  1. The young men had come to the city to watch the football game and they planned (to enjoy themselves without care) during the weekend.

(a) that enough is as good as a feast (b) to eat, drink, and be merry (c) to shape up or ship out (d) that empty vessels make the most noise

  1. The supervisors want to control the workers and believe that (if they give them a small amount of freedom then they will soon ask for more).

(a) if at first they don't succeed they must try, try again (b) the exception proves the rule (c) they should put their money where their mouth is (d) if they give them an inch, they will take a mile

  1. The long holiday was (what he needed) and the man was able to return to work totally refreshed.

(a) just what the doctor ordered (b) more haste, less speed (c) what goes around comes around (d) a first time for everything

  1. The man had an attitude of (tolerance) toward other people and he was not bothered by the different lifestyles in his neighborhood.

(a) let the dead bury their dead (b) love is blind (c) let the buyer beware (d) live and let live

  1. The weather was sunny so the couple decided (to take advantage of it) and finish painting their house.



(a) that many hands make light work (b) that a miss is as good as a mile (c) to make hay while the sun shines (d) that money doesn't grow on trees

Strange Expressions

Do you know what these idioms mean?

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  1. What does the expression "If I do not get a job soon, I will be up a creek" mean?

a. I like to swim instead of work.
b. Tomorrow, I will go to the creek to see if there is work there.
c. I will be in trouble.
d. I will be angry.
e. I can not swim, and I can not get a job.

  1. What does the expression "out to lunch" mean when the person described is not literally having lunch?

a. The person is eating.
b. The person likes lunch and eats all day long.
c. The person is uneducated.
d. The person is not concentrating or focusing and seems weird.
e. The person has a great sense of humor.

  1. If someone said, "You are the bomb!" she or he probably would be telling you:

a. You have a bad temper.
b. You are a war weapon.
c. You are exceptional and/or wonderful.
d. You are happy.
e. You are dangerous.

  1. If I tell you my boss is "a snake in the grass," I most likely mean:

a. My boss is tall.
b. My boss is sneaky or deceitful.
c. My boss likes to be outdoors.
d. My boss eats mice.
e. My boss is a wonderful human being.

  1. If you were to tell me to "get a move on it," you probably would be saying:

a. Get a date for moving furniture.
b. Get a stamp of approval on something.
c. Jump up and down.
d. Hurry up or go quickly.
e. Mail a letter.

  1. When someone is described as being "flighty" that person described is probably:

a. Light.
b. Indecisive and unpredictable.
c. Someone who loves flyng.
d. Someone who flys kites.
e. An airline pilot.

  1. What does it mean "to take down" an enemy?

a. To take the enemy's pictures off the wall.
b. To kill the enemy.
c. To make friends with the enemy.
d. To ignore the enemy.
e. To unite with the enemy for a common goal.

  1. What does it mean when someone is described as being a "pill"?

a. The person is difficult or bad-tempered.
b. The person is sickly.
c. The person is a doctor.
d. The person is fun to work with.
e. The person is wealthy.

  1. What does it mean to "live and let live"?

a. To live forever.
b. To stay alive as long as you can.
c. To do what one wishes and let others do the same.
d. To save dying animals.
e. To resist aging.

  1. What does it mean to "ace a test"?

a. To earn an "A" or "100%" on an exam or assignment.
b. To skip the test.
c. To fail the test even after studying.
d. To play cards instead of taking the test.

Phrasal Verbs - Speaking

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  1. If you speak for a long time, you ___.

    a. get on
    b. go on
    c. edge on

  1. If you talk too long on one subject, you ___.

    a. run out
    b. run over
    c. run on

  1. Another way to say this is ___.

    a. tread on
    b. unwind
    c. ramble on

  1. If you say something you have learned quickly and without stopping, you ___.

    a. knock down
    b. rattle off
    c. rabbit on

  1. An informal word that means the same is to ___.

    a. reel off
    b. rope off
    c. tie off

  1. To say something while another person is talking is to ___.

    a. butt in
    b. figure out
    c. go over

  1. To say something suddenly and without thinking is to ___.

    a. ease up
    b. rub in
    c. blurt out

  1. To make someone stop talking is to ___.

    a. shut up
    b. shut out
    c. shut in

  1. To speak to someone without letting them answer is to ___.

    a. talk over
    b. talk at
    c. talk to

  1. To suddenly stop talking in the middle of a speech because you have forgotten what to say it to ___.

    a. wipe out
    b. dry up
    c. go over.

Idioms Beginning with A

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  1. "A bit" means ___.
    a. some thing to eat
    b. to help someone
    c. a small amount

  2. "About time" means ___.
    a. at the right time
    b. soon
    c. at last

  3. "Across the board" means ___.
    a. everyone or everything is included
    b. to travel between countries
    c. uninteresting

  4. To "act up" means ___.
    a. to share an idea
    b. to behave badly
    c. to pretend to be rich

  5. A man "after my own heart" means ___.
    a. liking the same things as me
    b. looks like me
    c. follows me

  6. "Against the clock" means ___.
    a. a new record
    b. a test of speed or time
    c. an impossible task

  7. "All along" means ___.
    a. all the time
    b. to agree
    c. altogether

  8. "All hours" means ___.
    a. at regular times
    b. at irregular times
    c. every hour

  9. "Along in years" means ___.
    a. getting old
    b. getting tired
    c. becoming successful

  10. "And then some" means ___.
    a. not many
    b. and only a few
    c. and a lot more

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Table 1


The phrase in question

An explaination (and/or discussion) of where or how the phrase originated.

The meaning of the phrase.

An example of how the phrase would be used.

The Letter A

Absence makes the heart grow fonder.

In 1604, Shakespeare echoed this sentiment in "Othello" (Act 1, scene ii), when Desdemona confessed, "I dote upon his very absence." James Howell, in "Familiar Letters" (1650) says that, "Distance sometimes endears friendship, and absence sweeteneth it."

There are other references to this proverb in literature, but it was originally the first line of an anonymous poem which appeared in Davison's "Poetical Rhapsody" in 1602.


Our feeling for those we love increases when we are apart from them.

"Cheer up Dude, everybody knows that absence makes the heart grow fonder."


Table 2

The Letter B

Back handed compliment

Back-handed is synonymous with left-handed. For example in tennis, a backhand stroke is a strike by a right-handed player from the left side of the body.

The left side of the body has always been deemed sinister. The Latin word for left is sinister. Hence, back-handed means round-about, indirect, or devious.


A compliment that also insults or puts down at the same time.

They gave me a backhanded compliment when they said I was smart for a girl.


Bleed like a stuck pig

The throat of a pig set for slaughter is cut or opened with a sharp spike or knife. Because the cut severs the jugular vein, the pig bleeds rapidly.


To bleed heavily.

Handle that straight razor carefully. If you cut yourself, you will bleed like a stuck pig.


Blow off some steam

Boilers are commonly used in steam heating systems and steam engines such as those used in a steam locomotive. The boilers contain water that is heated by burning some fuel such as oil. The heated water turns to steam, which is then sent through a system of radiators (in the case of heating systems) or harnessed by a steam engine.

The steam creates considerable pressure in the boiler. If the pressure becomes too great, there is a danger of the boiler exploding. Hence boilers are equipped with safety valves called blow off valves that open if the pressure becomes to great.

"Blowing off steam" prevents explosions by relieving the pressure in a boiler by venting excess steam and pressure.


To enjoy oneself by relaxing normal formalities.

He is a true workaholic who has misguided priorities, when he wants to blow off some steam he comes to work on Saturday wearing blue jeans.


Blowing smoke

Magicians often use smoke in their performance to obscure your view and conceal a bit of trickery.

A person who is "blowing smoke" is tricking you and attempting to cover it up.


To be boasting without being able to back it up, talking about action without intent to follow through.

Do you really want to buy this car or are you just blowing smoke?


Bouched up

Sir Thomas Bouch designed a bridge that was built at the Tay estuary at Dundee in Scotland. It was supposed to be the greatest structure built in Victorian England. The building of the Tay rail bridge culminated in him being knighted. The Tay bridge was nearly two miles long, consisting of 85 spans and at the time (1879) was the longest bridge in the world.

One stormy night, only 19 months after the bridge was declared safe by the Board of Trade and opened to traffic in the summer of 1878, the wind caused some of its spans to collapse. A train and 6 carriages and 75 souls were lost that night ranking it as the worst accident caused by structural failure in the history of England. Sir Thomas Bouch died only 10 months after the failure.


Substandard; messed up; make a shamble of

Man, you really bouched up that project. Now the company will have to start all over costing double and missing all of our deadlines.


Brand Spanking New

Doctors have traditionally spanked babies immediately after delivery to start them crying, and breathing.


New and unused.

What you really need is a brand spanking new Porsche turbo.


Break a leg

"Break a leg" is sourced in superstition. It is a wish of good luck, but the words wish just the opposite.

It was once common for people to believe in Sprites. Sprites are actually spirits or ghosts that were believed to enjoy wreaking havoc and causing trouble.

If the Sprites heard you ask for something, they were reputed to try to make the opposite happen. Telling someone to "break a leg" is an attempt to outsmart the Sprites and in fact make something good happen. Sort of a medieval reverse psychology.


A wish of good luck, do well.

Break a leg in your game today.


A Burnt Child Dreads the Fire

Very similar in meaning to another proverb, "Once bitten, twice shy," today's proverb is an old one. It appeared in English literature as early as 1320, in "The Proverbs of Hendyng." Another proverb, which is similar, comes from the French: "A scalded dog fears cold water" carries an even stronger message; that those who have experienced a great deal of difficulty or pain will not only avoid it in the future, but will be afraid even where there is no cause.

Other languages also have like proverbs, such as, "One bitten by a serpent is afraid of a rope's end" (Jewish), "A man who has received a beating with a firebrand runs away at the sight of a firefly" (Singhalese), and "A dog which has been beaten with a stick fears its own shadow" (Italian).


One does not repeat a painful lesson twice.

I've tried to get little Johnny to quit running and jumping on the furniture before he hurts himself, but only a burnt child dreads the fire.


Bust your balls

There is a way to castrate a calf, instead of cutting off the Testicles you break them. To "bust your balls" is to turn them from a bull into a steer. Properly directed harassment can have a similar effect on humans.


To harass with the intent to break one's spirit.

When I ask you if you settled that dispute with the IRS, I am not just trying to bust your balls. I am trying to help.


Busting your chops

At the turn of the century, wearing very long sideburns—called mutton chops or lamb chops -- was en vogue. Lamb chop side burns also made a comeback in the late 1960s. A bust in the chops was to get hit in the face. Since Mutton Chops are no longer considered high fashion, the term has come to be figurative rather than literal.


To say things intended to harass.

Don't get mad, I am just busting your chops.

Table 3

The Letter C

Can't hold a candle to

Before electric lights, someone performing a task in the dark needed a helper to hold a candle to provide light while the task was performed. Much as a helper might hold a flashlight today.

Holding the candle is of course the less challenging role. Someone who is not even qualified to hold the candle is much less competent than the person performing the actual task.


To be far less competent or have far less skills than someone else.

When it comes to performance, Corvette can't hold a candle to Porsche.


Cat bird seat

Mocking birds are sometimes referred to as cat birds. Mocking birds typically sit at the top of a tree. Hence the cat bird seat is at the top.


A highly advantaged position, to have it all.

Some might describe Bill Gates as sitting in the cat bird seat.


Chew the fat

The Inuit (different from Eskimos) used to chew on pieces of whale blubber almost like chewing gum. The blubber took quite a while to dissolve, so it just sort of helped pass the time while they were doing something else.

Some other cultures may have used bacon fat in a similar w

To talk about unimportant things.

Sit down, have a beer, and let's chew the fat.


Clean bill of health

This widely used term has its origins in the "Bill of Health", a document issued to a ship showing that the port it sailed from suffered from no epidemic or infection at the time of departure.


To be found healthy.

I visited the doctor today and was given a clean bill of health.


Clear as a bell

Bells such as the type used in churches are large and loud. Their sound can be heard from a great distance. Bells sound a single, clear note so their sound is distinctive and not easily confused.

Before electric sirens and amplification systems, bells were a valuable means of signaling people and alerting of important events like an impending attack. The bell and the message intended could be heard clearly over a large area.

Back in the 1910's, many companies were trying to get into the manufacturing and selling one the hottest items around, the phonograph. One of those companies was the Sonora Chime Company.

This company started the Sonora Phonograph Company and used "Clear as a Bell" as their slogan, touting the fidelity of their machine's sound reproduction.


Clearly understood.

You don't have to repeat yourself. Your message is clear as a bell.


Close, but no cigar

Carnival games of skill, particularly shooting games, once gave out cigars as a prize. A contestant that did not quite hit the target was close, but did not get a cigar.


Nearly achieving success, but not quite.

That free throw was close, but no cigar.


Cold turkey

The expression originates from the goose bumps and palor which accompany withdrawal from narcotics or tobacco. One's skin resembles that of a plucked, cold turkey....


To quit something abruptly.

You will not lose weight until you give up chocolate, and I suggest you go cold turkey.


Cooking with gas

Although common place today, gas stoves have not always been the norm. Gas stoves started to be available in the 1800's, and until that time wood stoves were the standard.

Now you're "cooking with gas" comes from an old advertisement for gas stoves. The phrase suggests that gas is faster, easier, cleaner, better than cooking with wood.


To be working fast, proceeding rapidly.

After working with those old hand tools, power tools will make you feel like you are really cooking with gas.


In the crapper

Thomas Crapper of England is credited for the design and implementation of modern indoor plumbing (including the flushable toilet). Although there is conciderable evidence to the contrary, restrooms/bathrooms are still often referred to as "The Crapper." This word (among others) was introduced to America by their World War I soldiers returning home from Europe.

For more information, check out Plumbing & Mechanical magazine


In the toilet, soiled; or hopelessly irretrievable.

Your relationship with Mary went right in the crapper the minute you told her to, "Rub that pie on her hips because that is where it's going to end up anyway".


Crocodile tears

It was often thought that crocodiles shed tears that slid down into their mouths, moistening their food and making it easier for them to swallow. Hence the tears appear to be an expression of emotion but are in fact a means to make it easier to swallow (possibly the observer).


Pretending to cry in an attempt to manipulate or exploit, phony tears.

OJ gave his testimony through crocodile tears.


Crossing the Rubicon

The actual Rubicon is a river in Northern Italy that flows into the Adriatic Sea. It is 15 miles (24 kilometers) long. The river is renowned because Julius Caesar prompted a three year civil war when he crossed this river in 49 B.C. to march against Pompey. Julius knew that "crossing the Rubicon" with his army in tact would be considered an act of aggression.

Using the word Rubicon as a figurative boundary, limiting action was first seen in the 1600s.


When a decisive and irrevocable step has been taken. To commit to a given course of action that permits no return is to cross the Rubicon.

Paul knew he had passed the Rubicon when he wrote the deposit check for the hall for the wedding reception.


Cut from the same cloth

If you're making a suit, the jacket and trousers should be cut from the same piece of cloth to ensure a perfect match, since there may be differences in color, weave etc. between batches of fabric. Only if the whole suite is cut from the same piece of cloth can we be sure of the match.


To be similar, usually in terms of behavior.

You and your father are cut from the same cloth; fat, drunk, and stupid is no way to go through life son.


























Conclusion


Region and environment for having different elements may have different influences on idioms and proverbs of the area in which they are applied. It means that each area uses the familiar concepts to convey a meaning in the form of idiomatic expressions; therefore concepts which are used in idioms and proverbs to express a meaning may vary from one region to another. For example when a region uses the name of an animal in a proverb, the other area with different regional or environmental features may use the name of a plant to convey the same meaning. It demonstrates that in first

region, that specific animal and in the other region, that specific plant is more familiar for the residents, and this leads people to use what is more tangible for them in their daily conversation.

In the field of the translation of such idioms and proverbs, based on Baker's strategies, it was clarified that the most applicable strategy was the second, i.e. using an idiom of similar meaning but dissimilar form. The first activity that a translator does when s/he faces with each kind of idiom or proverb in the text is to refer a bilingual dictionary to find an equivalent. Sometimes but rarely, s/he can find a single form in both source and target languages for a single meaning; therefore, the second strategy is preferred. And when the translator couldn't find any equivalent, s/he simply tries to convey the meaning by paraphrasing.

However, what is important is the reason that a translator chooses a strategy among all the existing strategies, and it seems that it depends directly on the type of contexts in which these kinds of idioms and proverbs are used. In this respect, texts may be classified into different categories such as historical texts, literary texts, journalistic texts, scientific texts and so on. For example, in scientific texts or some journalistic articles that have nothing to do with a regional idiom/proverb or if there is any, it is for support or completion of other materials within the text, their translation based on whatever strategy does not differ in understanding of the text for the target reader or it may even be omitted in translation; therefore the translator can easily choose the best strategy s/he thinks to translate it.

Thus, the problem is when the text is mainly about that specific region and it needs to get the reader familiar with that region. For example, in historical, literary or cultural texts in which such kinds of idioms or proverbs are used as a part of the text to introduce the characteristics of that specific region to readers, the translator needs to transfer the regional aspect to target language to make the text understandable as it has been in source language. Now what and to what extent, a translator should do to transfer this influence to target readers.

Although the author has tried to choose the nearest equivalent to source text, based on lexical patterns, among several equivalents that each idiom/proverb had, but it can be observed that the influence of region, environment and nature isn't reflected in second strategy, and if the translator only tries to translate those specific idioms/proverbs by these two strategies, s/he will fail in this intention to transfer the flavor of source regional characteristics to target readers in particular texts such as historical, literary or cultural texts. Therefore it seems that a further strategy other than the above mentioned strategies is needed.

To do with this problem, first it may be recommended that depending on the value of the idiom/proverb within the text, the translator tries to offer a combination of both literal translation and paraphrase in order to transfer the meaning. However, sometimes it may not be enough, and further explanation is needed. In this case, the translator may provide the extra information in the footnote. 

In some types of texts that the numbers and the position of the idiom/proverb may be important or may be because of aesthetic value, the translator may introduce a symbol at the beginning of the text meaning that where it is used, there has been an idiom or proverbs of a particular kind in source text, and it is for referring target reader's mind to what has existed in source text.















References:



Baker, M. (1992). In other Words: A Course book on Translation. London and New York: Routledge.


Lakoff, G. (1987). Women, fire and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.


Mollanazar, H. (2001). Principles and methodology of translation. Tehran: SAMT.


Moosavi, M. (2008). A Versified Dictionary of Farsi Proverbs and Their English Equivalents.Tehran: Computer World Publication.


Nazari Teimoori, E. (2004). A Dictionary of Proverbs and Colloquial idioms (Persian to English). Tehran: Yadvare Ketab Publication.


Parsa, A. (2003). A Evolution of Twelve Thousands Persian Proverbs and Thirty Thousands of Their Equivalents. A Book of Literary and Philosophy. Vol.65, Page 66.


Trudgill, P. (1974). Sociolinguistics: an introduction to language and society.4th edition. Penguin


Wardhaugh, R. (1986). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.


Yadollahpour, M. (2008). A Consideration on the Influence of Region on Mazandaran Proverbs. Unpublished.


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