ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ
CРЕДНЯЯ ОБЩЕОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНАЯ ШКОЛА №1420
Адрес: 109444, Москва, мкр. Выхино - Жулебино, Ташкентская ул., д.21, корп. 2.
Адрес электронной почты: firstname.lastname@example.org
по английскому языку
«Лучший друг мира - это ТЫ»
The World’s Best Friend Is You
Антоникова Ольга, 8 «В» класс
Девришова Мерьям, 8 «В» класс
Филимонова Елена Вячеславовна
Бусленко Татьяна Геннадьевна,
Москва, 2014 год
Ecology as a branch
What is it?
Types of ecology.
We live on a very beautiful planet – on the Earth. Our planet has very rich resources: the bright blue of the sky, fresh, crystal-clear mountain lake water, the rich green of the mountains slopes, wild flower, picturesque views – all these sceneries of nature fill us with admiration.
That’s why those who live in cities prefer spending their days off and their holidays far from the noise of the city, to be closer to nature. Perhaps they like to breathe fresh air or to swim in clear water because the ecology is not so poor as in the cities.
Since ancient times Nature has served man, being the source of his life. For thousands of years people lived in harmony with environment and it seemed to them that natural riches were unlimited. But with the development of civilization man’s interference in nature began to increase.
The purpose of my work is to collect information about different types of ecology and motivate people to protect the environment.
1. Ecology as a branch
What is it?
Ecology is a branch of biology. Ecology is the study of the ways in which organisms (plants and animals) depend upon each other and upon their surroundings. Each organism requires conditions in order to be able to live and breed. These conditions are its environment by changing the ecological conditions.
Ecologists look at how organisms interact with the environment and each other, and they study the complex and interconnected systems which influence life on Earth. Ecology is also sometimes known as environmental biology, and there are a number of subdisciplines within this branch of the sciences which deal with specific topics of interest, such as the relationship between humans and the natural environment.
Types of ecology.
It deals with studies of structure and dynamics of populations. That is; factors that affect population and how and why a population varies over time. A population ecologist studies the interelations of organisms with their environments by gauging properties of populations rather than the behavior of the individual organisms. Among the properties of population studied is population size, population density, patterns of dispersion, demographics, dynamics, population growth and restraints on growth of This ecology is vital in upkeep of biology, particularly in the dprogress of PVA (population viability analysis) which allows the forecasting of long-term possibilty of a species persevering in a particular locale such as a national park.
This deals with the interactions between organisms that is, the feeding relationships among species, or who helps who, who competes with whom and for what resources and how those interactions affect community structure (the organization of a biological community with respect to ecological interactions). Community ecologist investigates the factors influencing community structure, biodiversity, and the distribution and abundance of species. These factors include theinterelations with the non living world and different collections of interelations that take between species. The primary focus of community ecology is on predation, herbivory, competition and parasitism and mutualism.
Ecosystem is a community of living organism that is, animals, plants and microbes together with abiotic components of their environment (such components include things like water, air and mineral soil) interelating g as a system. The studies of ecosystem includes the study of certain processes that link the living (biotic components) to the non-living (abiotic components). These components are said to be joined together via nutrient sequences and energy flows.
2. Ecological problems
2.1. Global deforestation.
Deforestation is clearing Earth's forests on a massive scale, often resulting in damage to the quality of the land. Forests still cover about 30 percent of the world’s land area, but swaths the sizes of Panama are lost each and every year.
The world’s rain forests could completely vanish in a hundred years at the current rate of deforestation.
Forests are cut down for many reasons, but most of them are related to money or to people’s need to provide for their families. The biggest driver of deforestation is agriculture. Farmers cut forests to provide more room for planting crops or grazing livestock. Often many small farmers will each clear a few acres to feed their families by cutting down trees and burning them in a process known as “slash and burn” agriculture.
Logging operations, which provide the world’s wood and paper products, also cut countless trees each year. Loggers, some of them acting illegally, also build roads to access more and more remote forests—which lead to further deforestation. Forests are also cut as a result of growing urban sprawl.
Not all deforestation is intentional. Some is caused by a combination of human and natural factors like wildfires and subsequent overgrazing, which may prevent the growth of young trees.
Deforestation has many negative effects on the environment. The most dramatic impact is a loss of habitat for millions of species. Seventy percent of Earth’s land animals and plants live in forests, and many cannot survive the deforestation that destroys their homes.
Deforestation also drives climate change. Forest soils are moist, but without protection from sun-blocking tree cover they quickly dry out. Trees also help perpetuate the water cycle by returning water vapor back into the atmosphere. Without trees to fill these roles, many former forest lands can quickly become barren deserts.
Removing trees deprives the forest of portions of its canopy, which blocks the sun’s rays during the day and holds in heat at night. This disruption leads to more extreme temperatures swings that can be harmful to plants and animals.
Trees also play a critical role in absorbing the greenhouse gases that fuel global warming. Fewer forests means larger amounts of greenhouse gases entering the atmosphere—and increased speed and severity of global warming.
The quickest solution to deforestation would be to simply stop cutting down trees. Though deforestation rates have slowed a bit in recent years, financial realities make this unlikely to occur.A more workable solution is to carefully manage forest resources by eliminating clear-cutting to make sure that forest environments remain intact. The cutting that does occur should be balanced by the planting of enough young trees to replace the older ones felled in any given forest. The number of new tree plantations is growing each year, but their total still equals a tiny fraction of the Earth’s forested land.
2.2. Water pollution.
Water recourses is one of the main factor of existing life in our planet. People use fresh water for their needs. It is more than 2% of hydrosphere volume. First of all water pollution is the result of industrial, agricultural and everyday necessities discharge of wastes into rivers, lakes and seas. The main part of water pollution plays a large number of oil industry wastes. The main cause of water pollution is the human activity. It is divided into 3 main categories: industrial pollution, agricultural pollution and household pollution. But the greatest impact on water resources does it industrial pollution, such as industrial wastewater. They contain a great number of complex composition of pollutants that are difficult to clean even the special methods. The second position resulting from damage worth agricultural pollution. In recent years, the number applied to the soil pesticides and chemical fertilizers increases every day. Due to rain, erosion of the banks of streams of water, these substances fall into the water, forming pollution. And, finally, household pollution. The population of the modern world is concentrated in the cities. And as a consequence, waste of city life: domestic waste water, garbage, exhaust gases , as well turn into water pollution. The volume of industrial and domestic sewage, annually poured into water, only urban areas, reaching 500 cubic kilometers. And one drop of wastewater can cause pollution several times, and in dozens of times larger volume of clean water.
2.3. Air pollution.
Air pollution is a huge problem—and not just for people living in smog-choked cities.Forest fires, erupting volcanoes, and gases released from radioactive decay of rocks inside Earth are just three examples of natural air pollution that can have hugely disruptive effects on people and the planet. Forest fires, erupting volcanoes, and gases released from radioactive decay of rocks inside Earth are just three examples of natural air pollution that can have hugely disruptive effects on people and the planet. any undesired change in the composition of the earth's atmosphere as a result of different gases, water vapor and particulate matter (under the influence of natural processes or by human activities). About 10% of pollutants into the atmosphere as a consequence of these natural processes such as volcanic eruptions, which are accompanied by emission of ash into the atmosphere sputtered acids, including sulfuric acid, and a variety of toxic gases. In addition, the main sources of sulphur in the atmosphere are splashes of sea water and decaying vegetation residues. It should also be noted forest fires that produce thick clouds of smoke enveloping the large areas, and dust storms. Trees and shrubs emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs), forming the blue haze that covers most of the mountains of blue ridge in the United States (translated as "blue ridge"). Present in the air microorganisms (pollen, mold fungi, bacteria, viruses) cause many people bouts of Allergy and infectious diseases. The remaining 90% of the pollutants are of anthropogenic origin. Their main sources are: burning fossil fuels in power plants (emission of smoke) and in car engines; production processes not associated with the combustion of fuel, but cause dust formation of the atmosphere, for example through erosion of soils, opencast mining, blasting and leakage LOS through the valves, joints of pipes for oil-refining and chemical plants and reactors storage of solid waste; and a variety of mixed sources. Pollutants getting into the atmosphere, transported long distances from the source, and then return to the earth surface in the form of solid particles, drops, or chemical compounds dissolved in precipitation. Chemical compounds, the source of which is at the level of the ground, quickly mix with the air of the lower layers of the atmosphere (troposphere). They are called primary pollutants. Some of them enter into chemical reactions with other pollutants or with the basic components of air (oxygen, nitrogen and water vapor)to form secondary pollutants. As a result of observed phenomena such as photochemical smog, acid rain and the formation of ozone in the atmospheric surface layer. The energy source for these reactions is solar radiation. Secondary pollutants is contained in the atmosphere of photochemical oxidants and acid - pose a major hazard to human health and global environmental change.
2.4. Soil pollution.
The main component of the Earth biosphere represents topsoil. Soil is polluted by: litter, wastes, heavy metals, pesticides, radioactive elements. Sinking aerosol may contain heavy poisonous metals and it may lead to plants’ ruin.
Third of all animals and plants on Earth are under Experts believe that the damage already caused to the person ecosystem of the Earth, much higher than previously thought. The rate of disappearance of animals and plants of the earth today is a thousand times the natural extinction natural resources, constant expansion of the «consumer society» and extreme pollution of the environment in most corners of the Earth.threat of total destruction Land resources of the planet allow to provide food for more the population than are currently available. However, in connection with the growth of the population, especially in developing countries, the degradation of soil cover, pollution, erosion, etc; as well as due to the allotment of land for construction cities, settlements and industrial enterprises in the amount of arable land per capita the population is dramatically reduced. Human impact on soil - part of the overall impact of human society on the earth's crust and the top layer, the whole nature, especially increased in the age of scientific and technical revolution. Not only increasing the human interaction with the earth, but also change the basic features of the interaction. The problem «soil - human» is complicated by urbanization, all a great use of lands, their resources for industrial and housing construction, growing food demands. By the will of man changes the nature of the soil, change factors of soil formation - relief, microclimate, new river etc. Under the influence of industrial and agricultural pollution modify the properties of the soil and soil formation processes, the potential fertility, reduced technological and nutritional value of agricultural products and etc.
Scientists now predict that by the year 2050 the population will be doubled what is today. The fact remains that the rate of food production fell behind population growth in many of developing countries. The annual fish catch already exceeds what the world ‘s oceans can successfully sustain. If we go on using our natural recourses at today’s rates, we will have used up the intire reserves of cooper, natural gas and oil by the year 2054.
But the problem ahead lie not so much in what we use but in what we waste. What faces us is not so much a recourse crisis as a pollution crisis. The only solution is to try to change the areas of consumption, technology and population. Changes in technology must be baked by slower population growth. And it can be achieved by education in health and women’s rights. And there is a little hope of reducing consumption over the next half century.
SAVE OUR PLANET
There’s so much pollution
Poisoning the 1)……………..
There is so much 2)…………..
We can see it everywhere
While everyone stands by
The world we love is dying
And we’re the
Why are we killing our world
Why aren’t we doing our share
We can save our planet
We can help it survive
All it needs is a little care
If we all work together
Something can be done
We need a 5)……………….. campaign
Which involves everyone
We can slow down global 6)……………
We can stop the acid rain
We can heal our 7)………………………
We can help it alive again.
We must stop killing our world…
If we don’t act quickly
Our world will soon be dead
We must leave our 8)……………. at home
And use our bicycles instead
We must stop using chemicals
And 9)……………………. fossil fuels
We must recycle all our 10)……………..
It is easing to do.
We must stop killing our world…
The study of ecology is not limited to the terrestrial environment; marine environments, lakes, and streams can also provide a great deal of food for thought and inspiration for study. The marine environment in particular is not very well understood, with researchers constantly finding that there is more to learn about the ocean, the creatures which live there, and its underlying geography and geology. For example, for centuries people assumed that the bottom of the ocean was inactive and bleak, but in the 20th century, researchers discovered areas of biological activity around hydrothermal vents, with organisms which had adapted to the dark, high pressure, low oxygen environment of the deep sea.
So, pollution is one of the most burning problems of nowadays. Now millions of chimneys, cars, buses, trucks all over the world exhaust fumes and harmful substances into the atmosphere. These poisoned substances pollute everything: air, land, water, birds and animals people. So, it is usually hard to breathe in the large cities where there are lots plants. Everything there is covered with soot and dirt. All these affect harmfully.
Water pollution is very serious, too. Ugly rivers of dirty water polluted with factory waste, poisoned fish are all-round us. And polluted air and poisoned water lead to the end of the civilization. So, nowadays a lot of dead lands and lifeless areas have appeared. Because our actions and dealings can turn the land to a desert.
So, we see that our environment offers an abundance of subject matter for discussion. The problems and prospects of the blue planet interest not only scientist and futurologists, but also politicians, industry, the public – and above all, young people! There is hardly a young person who is not conserved with the preservation of our natural habitat. To recognize environmental problems and master them, to reduce and avoid environmental pollution, to discover and develop ecologically sound technologies – there are the essential building blocks for our future.
Whether scientist or politicians, bankers or student, whether Greek, Norwegian, Hungarian or Finn … all are encouraged to make a contribution towards protecting the environment. Dedication and the courage to change one’s way of thinking are called for.
We are to stop pollution. So, we can grow plants and trees, to purify waste, to start urgent campaigns in order to preserve environment.
1. Биболетова М.З, Трубанева Н.Н. учебник «Английский с удовольствием», 8 класс.
2.Федорова М.З, Кучменко В.С, Воронина Г.А. «Экология человека 8 класс».
3. Е.С. Андрюшина, О.А. Плющева "Воспитание экологической культуры школьников", м:, ЦАДЖ, 1997, статья Э.Н. Фоменко "Исследование окружающей среды".
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