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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Статьи / Программа элективного курса 9-11 класс

Программа элективного курса 9-11 класс

  • Иностранные языки

Поделитесь материалом с коллегами:







Программа элективного курса по английскому языку

на базе учебного пособия для старших классов общеобразовательных учреждений издательства «Макмиллан» - “Macmillan Literature Guide for Russia


Автор: Ларионова И.В.,
заведующая кабинетом иностранных языков СПб АППО.




КНИГА ДЛЯ УЧИТЕЛЯ


CONTENTS


SECTION ONE ___________________________________________________________


UNIT 1

ROOTS 7


UNIT 2

THE SWORD IN THE STONE 10


UNIT 3

THE NOVEL APPROACH 1 13


UNIT 4

THE NOVEL APPROACH 2 19


UNIT 5

THE NOVEL APPROACH 3 23


UNIT 6

MAN VERSUS NATURE 28


UNIT 7

LANGUAGE AND HUMOUR 32

___________________________________________________

SECTION TWO

___________________________________________________


UNIT 1

THE VICTORIAN PERIOD 37


UNIT 2

LEWIS CARROLL (1832–1898) 41


UNIT 3

OSCAR WILDE (1856–1900) 46


UNIT 4

KIPLING AND FORSTER 57


UNIT 5

JACK LONDON (1876–1916) 64



WRITERS’ PORTRAITS 69

___________________________________________________

SECTION THREE ___________________________________________________


UNIT 1

JANE AUSTEN (1775–1817) 73


UNIT 2

VIRGINIA WOOLF (1882–1941) 81


UNIT 3

DAVID HERBERT LAWRENCE (1885–1930) 86



WRITERS’ PORTRAITS 103

___________________________________________________

SECTION FOUR

___________________________________________________


UNIT 1

THOMAS HARDY (1840–1928) 106


UNIT 2

GEORGE ORWELL (1903–1950) 113


UNIT 3

THEATRE (from Shaw to Pinter via Beckett) 122


UNIT 4

ANGRY YOUNG MEN 132


UNIT 5

FRANCIS SCOTT FITZGERALD (1896–1940) 138



WRITERS’ PORTRAITS 143







Предисловие


Пособие Macmillan Literature Guide for Russia предназначено для использования в старших классах профильной школы в качестве дополнительного учебного пособия по английскому языку. Его появление вызвано тем, что учителя нуждаются в специально отобранных материалах по литературе для филологического/гуманитарного профилей обучения.

Основной целью учебного пособия Macmillan Literature Guide for Russia, является введение учащихся в мир литературно-художественной культуры Великобритании и Америки. Знакомство с классическими произведениями разных эпох и литературных направлений, их вкладом в национальные культуры англоговорящих стран, а также с основами практического анализа структурных и семантических особенностей художественного текста.

Задачами данного пособия является дальнейшее развитие у учащихся следующих умений:

  1. читать оригинальную художественную прозу, используя разные типы чтения - изучающее, ознакомительное, поисковое, а также чтение текста с детальным пониманием прочитанного;

  2. обсуждать тематику художественного произведения и поднятые в нем автором проблемы;

  3. высказать свое отношение к прочитанному и анализировать информацию, закодированную автором в тексте литературного произведения;

  4. совершенствовать языковые навыки учащихся;

  5. реализовывать межпредметные связи и повышать уровень общей культуры и образованности учащихся, расширять их кругозор;

  6. повышать мотивацию к овладению иностранным языком.

Материал Macmillan Literature Guide for Russia, также способствует дальнейшему развитию иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции (речевой, языковой, социокультурной, компенсаторной, учебно-познавательной).

Необходимость изучения зарубежной литературы объясняется, прежде всего, тем, что именно литература является тем видом искусства, который связан с языком непосредственно и вербально отражает культуру, историю и традиции народов.

Литературные тексты, многозначные и многослойные, дают возможность для интерактивных дискуссий, обменов мнениями и т.д. на иностранном языке. Это повышает языковую и социокультурную компетенцию учащихся, стимулирует мотивацию к высказываниям, развивает общую культуру дискуссий и групповых работ.

Литература стран изучаемого языка знакомит учащихся с различными стилями, жанрами, нестандартными приемами и языковыми конструкциями и одновременно повышает уровень владения нормами языка.

В ходе изучения курса зарубежной литературы предлагается проследить развитие языка, изменения в нем, взаимовлияние различных языков, то есть – ознакомить учащихся с таким аспектом как история языка.

Зарубежная литература непосредственно связана с историей, традициями и культурой изучаемого языка. Курс зарубежной литературы (от ранних периодов до настоящего времени) может быть интегрирован с такими предметами, как история, мировая художественная культура, русская литература.

Зарубежная литература может являться как средством, так и целью при изучении иностранного языка. Изучение зарубежной литературы повышает не только грамматическую и лексическую, но и стилистическую компетенцию учащихся. Именно поэтому, курс зарубежной литературы может стать не только основой для творческих, исследовательских работ учащихся, научных конференций и других видов внеклассной деятельности, но и способствовать воспитанию у учащихся толерантности к иноязычной культуре и искусству, чему, безусловно, может способствовать изучение данного курса.

Macmillan Literature Guide for Russia, включает материал по истории зарубежной (английской и американской) литературе и может быть использовано для создания курса в филологическом или гуманитарном профиле, а также для использования его отдельных частей на уроках домашнего чтения. Оно призвано помочь учителю добиться следующих целей, заявленных в федеральном компоненте государственного стандарта общего образования по иностранным языкам:

  • развивать понимание аутентичных иноязычных текстов (аудирование и чтение), в том числе ориентированных на филологический (гуманитарный) профиль;

  • дать возможность учащихся овладеть новыми языковыми средствами в соответствии с темами и сферами общения, отобранными для выбранного профиля, навыками оперирования этими средствами в коммуникативных целях; а также увеличить объем знаний за счет информации профильно-ориентированного характера (в частности, терминологии);

  • расширить объем знаний о социокультурной специфике стран изучаемого языка, совершенствовать умение строить свое речевое и неречевое поведение адекватно этой специфике с учетом профильно-ориентированных ситуаций общения, умение адекватно понимать и интерпретировать лингвокультурные факты.


Учебное пособие Macmillan Literature Guide for Russia, последовательно реализует коммуникативно-когнитивный и личностно-ориентированный подход в преподавании английского языка.

Тематика разделов, текстов, обсуждаемые проблемы, учебные задания соответствуют возрасту и интересам учащимся и студентов, изучающих зарубежную литературу, учитывают его интересы, возможности и потребности. Разнообразные задания и упражнения организованы таким образом, что учащиеся становятся активными участниками процесса обучения.

Процесс обсуждения различных тем и проблем способствует овладению учащимися и студентами навыками иноязычного общения в таких его функциях, как:

  • ценностно-ориентированной и эмоционально-оценочной (выражение мнений, желаний, оценок, уверенности, сомнений и др.);

  • познавательно-информационной (объем информацией, запрос, сообщение, обсуждение информации).

Следует заметить, что Macmillan Literature Guide for Russia, содержит аутентичный материал, который несет не только содержательную, но и познавательную информацию, что способствует решению проблемы межпредметных связей в обучении английскому языку.


Общая характеристика


Macmillan Literature Guide for Russia включает в себя отрывки из произведений английских и американских авторов, представленные не только в хронологическом порядке, но и в системе жанровых взаимодействий.


Учебное пособие ““Macmillan Literature Guide for Russia, состоит из трех частей. Первая часть, состоит из семи разделов, первый из которых Roots посвящен проблеме влияния латинских, греческих, кельтских и французских заимствований на историю развития английского языка. Разделы второй-седьмой пособия включают в себя описание различных подходов к анализу художественного текста, который включает описание:

  • основных действующих лиц произведения;

  • времени и места происходящих событий;

  • сюжета-последовательности происходящих в рассказе или романе событий;

  • основной мысли (идеи) произведения.

Особое внимание следует обратить на тот факт, что анализ речевого произведения проводится также и на языково-стилистическом уровне. Так, анализ характера героев и их поступков проводится на основе анализа лексических единиц, которые используются автором в описании как внешности, так и действий и поступков персонажей. Языково-стилистический анализ дает возможность не только максимально понять характер и на строение героев произведения, мотивации их поступков, истинное отношение к ним автора произведения.

Подобного рода анализ позволяет расширить объем языковых знаний учащихся. Развить умение адекватно понимать и интерпретировать лингвистические и лингвокультурные факты, сформировать учебно-познавательную компетенцию.

Вторая и третья части пособия Macmillan Literature Guide for Russia, включают отрывки из произведений Т. Мэлори, Р.Л.Стивенсона, Ч.Диккенса, Р. Хаггарта., Л. Кэррола, О.Уайльда. Р.Киплинга, Э Форстера. В. Ирвинга. Д.Лондона, Д. Остин, В.Вульф, Д. Лоурсена, Дж. Оруэлла, С.Беккета, Г.Принтера, Дж. Осборна, Ф Фицджеральда и др.

Учебное пособие Macmillan Literature Guide for Russia, построено по историко-литературному принципу подачи материал и составлено по классическому образцу. Каждый раздел начинается с обзора определенного периода в развитии литературного процесса, затем следует краткий литературно-критический материал об авторе и его творчестве, текст произведения или отрывки из него и, наконец, вопросы и задания к тексту.

Подобное представление материал способствует формированию у учащихся более полного представления о развитии литературы англоговорящих стран. Фотографии и иллюстрации помогают лучше понять культурные и исторические факторы той или иной эпохи, в которых творили писатели.

Использование материалов пособия направлено на совершенствование навыков чтения и понимания (с различной степенью точности и полноты) аутентичных художественных текстов различных жанров с использование различных стратегий/видов чтения:

  • ознакомительного чтения- с целью понимания основного содержания отрывков из произведений художественных произведений;

  • изучающее чтение- с целью полного понимания информации отрывков произведений художественной литературы;

До и после - текстовые упражнения способствуют развитию таких речевых умений, как умение обобщать описываемые факты, явления, определить замысел автора, оценивать важность/новизну/достоверность информации, понимать смысл текста и его проблематику, используя элементы анализа текста; отбирать значимую информацию в тексте/ряде текстов для решения задач проектно-исследовательской деятельности.

После - текстовые задания могут быть успешно использованы для развития таких умений, как: умение подробно/кратко излагать прочитанное/увиденное; давать характеристику литературных персонажей и исторических личностей, описывать события, излагать факты, высказывать и аргументировать свою точку зрения; делать выводы; оценивать факты/события прошлой и современной жизни.

Задания типа Describe an incident in a novel”, “Write a critical review of a novel”, “Write about a novel”, “Express and justifyyour opinion развивают у учащихся и студентов умение описывать факты, события и явления; выражать собственное мнение; кратко передавать содержание несложного текста, обобщать информацию, полученную из разных источников, писать эссе и т.д.

Материал учебного пособия Macmillan Literature Guide for Russia способствует также развитию таких умений и навыков диалогической речи: как участвовать в беседе, запрашивать и обмениваться информацией, высказывать и аргументировать свою точку зрения, способствует развитию у учащихся коммуникативно-познавательной активности, формированию умения работать с различными источниками информации.

Представленный в пособии материал может также дать возможность для творческих работ (проектов, докладов) о других произведениях названных писателей, собственных литературных произведений читателей (рассказов, эссе, стихотворений) в рассмотренных жанрах.

Учебное пособие по истории английской и американской литературе Macmillan Literature Guide for Russia, его использование в качестве элективного курса может в значительной степени совершенствовать не только литературное и языковое образование школьников, но и способствовать их дальнейшему духовному и художественно-эстетическому развитию.

Использование данного пособия реализует принцип межпредметных связей, который способствует формированию целостной картины мира, созданию условий для самообразования, творческого отношения к изучаемому материалу, реализует деятельностного подхода к процессу обучения английскому языку.



Методические рекомендации


Процесс работы над текстом включает следующие этапы:

  1. Знакомство с социокультурным и историческим контекстом эпохи. Обращение к различным областям знания нефилологического характера, необходимость включения их в систему анализа литературно-художественного текста объясняется тем, что декодирование информации, заложенной в тексте, понимание его смысла оказывается возможным лишь в случае использования всей совокупности факторов экономического, историко-социального, морально-этического и эстетического плана, характеризующих эпоху его создания.

  2. Прогнозирование содержания текста, его тематики, сюжета по заголовку, иллюстрациям, автору и т.д. Прогнозирование текста способствует снятию трудностей при первичном прочтении текста, повышает заинтересованность (мотивацию) учащихся в изучаемом материале. Поскольку данный вид работы рекомендуется выполнять парами или в группах, прогнозирование текста способствует дальнейшему развитию умений коллективному обсуждению, и комментированию прочитанного. Этот вид работы можно выполнить и в игровой форме.

  3. Снятие лексических и грамматических трудностей. Представленные в пособии тексты разных жанров содержат как знакомый, так и незнакомый языковой материал с эксплицитно и имплицитно выраженной информацией. К незнакомому языковому материалу можно отнести наличие в текстах устаревших лексических единиц. Именно поэтому на этом этапе необходимо провести подготовительную работу, направленную на снятие лексических трудностей.


Следует, однако, заметить, что не стоит уделять слишком много времени на анализ незнакомой лексики и выполнению дотекстовых упражнений. В противном случае, у учащихся может пропасть интерес к чтению самого текста. Работу с новой лексикой можно продолжить на этапе чтения текста с целью его детального понимания и анализа языка художественного произведения. Для этой цели составитель использует упражнения, направленные на развитие языковой догадки.

Результатом выполнения упражнений является увеличение объема потенциального словаря за счет расширения рядов антонимов и синонимов, оценочной лексики, единиц речевого этикета, а также лексических единиц, которые относятся к формальному и неформальному регистрам речи.

  1. Общее понимание прочитанного. На этом этапе осуществляется ознакомительное чтение текста с целью понять его общее содержание. На этом этапе рекомендуется читать текст без предварительных заданий. Такой подход к чтению текста позволяет создать атмосферу «реального чтения», дать учащимся возможность почувствовать красоту языка художественной литературы.

Проверка понимания просчитанного можно осуществлять путем выполнения упражнений типа: ответь на вопросы, заполни таблицу и др. На данном этапе рекомендуется обратить внимание учащихся на значение ключевых слов в тексте.

Проверку понимания прочитанного предлагается осуществлять в форме групповой или парной работы, что позволит учителю вовлечь в процесс об суждения максимальное количество учащихся, увеличив. При этом, время говорения каждого. Такая форма работы будет способствовать совершенствованию умений учащихся принимать участие в обсуждении и вести дискуссию.

  1. Анализ языка художественного текста. Характерной чертой современного этапа развития теории текста и лингвостилистики является многосторонний подход к анализу литературного произведения, основу которого составляет отношение к тексту как к продукту речевой деятельности, сложному коммуникативному событию, виду литературного дискурса.

Когда мы говорим о тексте как виде дискурса, мы имеем в виду, что процесс коммуникации между автором и читателем не ограничивается языковым уровнем сообщения. В этом случае происходит не только обмен информацией, заложенной в самом тексте. Коммуникация в этом случае осуществляется и на уровне сознания, идей, философских воззрений на различные проблемы мироздания, а текст перестает быть просто объектом исследования. Текст, таким образом, становится событием, в котором его понимание и интерпретация, является таким же активным процессом, как и его создание.

Данный этап анализа текста способствует развитию коммуникативно-познавательной деятельности, критического мышления учащегося, творческого отношения к прочитанному.

  1. Обсуждение прочитанного. Завершающий этап работы с текс том включает в себя такие формы работы, как:

  • обсуждение тематики и проблематики прочитанного текста;

  • описание характера основных действующих лиц художественного произведения и тех языковых средств, которые использует автор для их выражения;

  • драматизацию - ролевые игры между основными персонажами произведения;

  • аргументированное выражение личного отношения учащегося к прочитанному произведению;

  • написание различных типов эссе.

Вид работы на практических занятиях- коллективный или в группах. Приветствуется разночтения художественного текста, так как преподаватель лишь выносит на обсуждение определенную проблему и поощряет творческие поиски учащихся.

Тематика разделов позволяет учителю творчески подходить к подбору материал, увеличивая количество часов на тот или иной раздел с учетом практических приоритетов.

Материал учебного пособия может быть использован полностью или выборочно, что обеспечивает возможность гибкого подхода к выбору материала в зависимости от интересов учащихся. Он может быть использован выборочно и в том смысле, что учитель и ученики могут уделить больше времени и отдать предпочтение той или иной теме в зависимости от конкретной учебной ситуации.




Teacher’s Notes with keys


UNIT 1


ROOTS



Чтение



Ознакомительное, просмотровое/поисковое

Ответы на вопросы

Говорение


Диалогическая/монологическая речь

Передача и запрос информации, выражение отношения к прочитанному



  1. Возможны различные варианты ответа.

  2. Ознакомительное чтение. Альтернативный вид работы - поэтапное ознакомление с каждым параграфом.


  1. the Celts: they spoke Celtic; part of their language still survives in areas of Wales, Scotland and Ireland;

  2. the Romans: although there are thousand of Latin words in the English language, very few of them originates from this period;

  3. Angles, Saxons and Jutes: their language, which was called Anglo-Saxon or Old English, formed the basis of English. Essential words such as ‘mann’ (man), ‘wif’ (wife), ‘cild’ (child), ‘hus’ (house), ‘god’ (good) came from this period;

  4. The Vikings (Danes): brought everyday words such as ‘skill’, ‘skin’, ‘shirt’, ‘sky’, ‘birth’ and ‘window’ into the English language; The Normans: the language of the Normans was French, used in business and law courts. Schools and the church used Latin while the ordinary people spoke Old English. Gradually the English language gained supremacy, but the communication between the Normans and the English resulted in the two languages being joined together. For example, farm animals were called by Old English words; ‘sheep’, ‘calf’, ‘cow’, ‘pig’, but when they were served up on the Normans’ table they were called ‘mutton’, ‘veal’, ‘beef’, ‘pork’.

  5. Latin and Greek: thousand of scientific, mathematical, medical, legal, literary and religious words came from these languages during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Even today Latin and Greek words are entering the English language.

  6. Modern English: the borrowing of new words from the countries the English have conquered, settled in, traded with, explored or just travelled through is significant.


Check your understanding


Поисковое чтение. Обсуждение и ответы на вопросы в парах.


  1. very little. (thousands of Latin words in the English language came from a later period.);

  2. because they were having trouble with the barbarians at home in Italy;

  3. the most basic, essential words of the English language such as ‘man’, ‘wife’, ‘child’, ‘house’, ‘good’ came from the Angles, Saxons and Jutes;

  4. After nearly three hundred years of fighting, the English and the Danes drew up a treaty, the Danes were given a section of England to live in and adjusted to the English way of life;

  5. In 1066 William the Conqueror and his Normans defeated Harold at the Battle of Hastings and took control of all the important properties and positions in England;

  6. The ordinary people of England continued to speak Old English, and because they were in majority, English gradually became supreme again over French;

  7. During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance Latin was the language of the well educated, therefore words from science, arts and religion became widespread in the English language;

  8. New words came into the language due to the English conquering other countries, due to trading, exploration or travel.

  9. a) Spain

b) Italy

c) India

d) South America

e) Arabia

10. Обсуждение в парах. Наиболее интересные варианты могут быть предложены для общего обсуждения.







UNIT 2


THE SWORD IN THE STONE


Чтение



Ознакомительное, просмотровое/поисковое

Изучающее - с целью полного понимания отрывков из произведений художественного литературы

Ответы на вопросы

Говорение


Диалогическая/монологическая речь

Передача и запрос информации, выражение отношения к прочитанному


Reading for understanding




  1. He caused a great stone to appear in a London churchyard.

  2. Set in the stone was an anvil, and sticking out of the top of the anvil was a sword.

  3. Who (ever) pulls out this sword from this stone and anvil is the rightful king born ……………

  4. Gossip started

  5. Every knight in the kingdom would come for the tournament; one of them should be able to pull out the sword and therefore would prove to be the king.

  6. He was a hasty and ill-tempered youth.

  7. (Because when he reached the tournament field) he realised he had forgotten his sword.

  8. (He found just the thing he wanted) a sword sticking right through the anvil into a stone.

  9. He called his father, Sir Ector and said: ‘Here’s the sword from the stone, I am the rightful king of England’.

  10. He led his son back to the churchyard, took a Bible and asked his son to swear on the holy book that he himself removed the sword.

  11. He admitted that his squire, Arthur had brought it to him.

  12. The sword would not move.

  13. Arthur was a foundling child, brought to Sir Ector as a baby by the enchanter Merlin.

  14. Because Sir Ector was not his father, and Sir Kay was not his brother, and he was king of all England.

  15. The common folk.

  16. Restoring law and justice to the land.

  17. They wanted to fight wrong and help King Arthur rule justly and wisely.

  18. Возможны различные варианты ответов



UNIT 3

THE NOVEL APPROACH 1


Чтение



Ознакомительное, просмотровое/поисковое

Изучающее – с целью полного понимания отрывков из произведений художественного литературы

Ответы на вопросы

Письмо

Академический

Заполнение таблиц

Говорение


Диалогическая/монологическая речь

Передача и запрос информации, выражение отношения к прочитанному



  1. Getting to know the characters


Обсуждение в классе.

a) Scrooge is hard and sharp as flint; secret, self-contained and solitary as an oyster;

b) The cold within him;

c) A collection of deep yellow wrinkles;

d) Because of a pair of large black eyes, still full of fire and intelligence (which gleamed and played under the snow-white eyebrows, and the projecting parchment-coloured skull, like jewels in a charnel-house);

e) Because of the strong contrast of the dim charnel house and the sparkle of the jewels in an unlikely setting.*;

f) It showed in the economy of his movement, of his speech, of his expression;

g) Because there was something coiled, compressed in his immobility;

h) It was as if Goldfinger had been put together with bits of other people’s bodies; nothing seemed to belong;

i) By obtaining sunburn – a red-brown camouflage;

j) Because they grew up from childhood with an inferiority complex and because the short men caused all the trouble in the world (Napoleon, Hitler);

k) a misshapen short man with red hair and a bizarre face

l) Студенты выполняют данное задание в группах, сравнивая и обсуждая свои варианты.



WORD STRONG INNER FEELING CHARACTER

Craving badly longing/ blood lust Gagool

Compressed patient/prepared Goldfinger Covetous greedy Scrooge


  1. Appearances aren’t deceptive


Работа в парах.


1. eyes

2. body

3. skull

4. hair

5. eyes

6. mouth

7. legs

8. face

9. chin

10. voice

11. eyebrows

12. mouth

13. lips

14. forehead

15. skull

16. head

17. cheek

18. nose

19. nose

large and black

thick

wrinkled scalp

crew-cut carroty

red

sunken slit

blunt, peasant

moon-shaped

curved outwards to a point

grating

snow-white

thin and dead straight

blue

fine and high

projecting parchment-coloured

huge and exactly round

shrivelled

fleshily aquiline

pointed

Gagool

Goldfinger

Gagool

Goldfinger

Scrooge

Gagool

Goldfinger

Goldfinger

Gagool

Scrooge

Gagool

Goldfinger

Scrooge

Goldfinger

Gagool

Goldfinger

Scrooge

Goldfinger

Scrooge



3. Very Revealing

a) Scrooge

b) Goldfinger

c) Suggested answer (Gagool)


UNIT 4

THE NOVEL APPROACH 2


Чтение



Ознакомительное, просмотровое/поисковое,

Изучающее – с целью полного понимания отрывков из произведений художественного литературы

Ответы на вопросы

Письмо

Академический

Заполнение таблиц

Говорение


Диалогическая/монологическая речь

Передача и запрос информации, выражение отношения к прочитанному





1. Getting to know the settings


Комбинированная работа в парах и группе


a) “And though the hours could go by the scene would not change. Time and place, and only time altered here.” (The Shiralee);

b) The Cruel Sea;

c) 1. February Dragon: violence caused by fire

2. The Cruel Sea: the power of the sea

3. The Red Badge of Courage: bullets;

d) The Small Woman;

e) Возможны различные варианты ответов, например: A Fall of Moondust – stillness; February Dragon: movement);

f) Size – huge, whole; movement – sliding, flooding; danger – tormented, senseless violence;

g) Возможны различные варианты ответов, например: In the African Queen there is an atmosphere or feeling of darkness and savagery);

h) i) The African Queen, The Middle Toe of the Right Foot

ii) The Swiss Family Robinson

iii) The Shiralee, A Fall of Moondust.


2. Settings and characters

b) The Swiss Family Robinson

c) The African Queen

d) Middle Toe of the Right Foot

e) February Dragon

f) The Cruel Sea

g) The Shiralee

h) A Fall of Moondust

i) Last Horizon

j) The Small Woman


UNIT 5

THE NOVEL APPROACH 3

Чтение



Ознакомительное, просмотровое/поисковое

Изучающее – с целью полного понимания отрывков из произведений художественного литературы

Ответы на вопросы заполнение пропусков, заполнение таблицы

Письмо

Академический

Написание эссе

Говорение


Диалогическая/монологическая речь

Передача и запрос информации, выражение отношения к прочитанному, оценочное описание мест, событий, повествование о событиях, сопровождающееся их анализом с соответствующими выводами.


1.

a) Characters

i) the Scarlet Pimpernel

ii) Sir Percy Blakeney

iii) Leslie Howard

iv) English

v) rescuing French aristocrats from Madame Guillotine

vi) disguise

vii) he is excessively concerned about fashion and elegance

viii) Chauvelin

ix) snarling marvellously

b) возможны различные варианты ответов

c) возможны различные варианты ответов

d) i) story-line

ii) возможны различные варианты ответов, например: to maintain curiosity)

e) The much-imitated


2.

a) king

prisoners

beautiful lady

a youth

the king’s daughter (princess)

tiger

b) Возможны различные варианты ответов

c) возможны различные варианты ответов

d) возможны различные варианты ответов

e) возможны различные варианты ответов; могут быть даны следующие комментарии: the prisoners fate is decided by mere luck, i.e. which door they open


Anticlimax: did the princess deceive her lover? (speculation)


f) возможны различные варианты ответов


3.

a) i) a stranger

Rip Van Winkle

Rip’s wife

Wolf

ii) возможны различные варианты ответов

b) i) the years before the Revolution; a village on the Hudson

twenty years later; near the village then in the same village

ii) they play it silently

c) возможны различные варианты ответов

d) hunting, meets, carries, playing, drinking, asleep, awakes, returns, greeted, forgotten

e) возможны различные варианты ответов


4 - 13

возможны различные варианты ответов

UNIT 6


Man Versus Nature


Чтение



Ознакомительное, просмотровое/поисковое

Изучающее – с целью полного понимания отрывков из произведений художественного литературы

Ответы на вопросы заполнение пропусков,


Письмо

Академический

Написание эссе (описательный характер)

Говорение


Диалогическая/монологическая речь

Передача и запрос информации, выражение отношения к прочитанному






1. Check your understanding

a) возможны различные варианты ответов

b) very pale lavender

c) scythe blade

d) dark blue

e) purple stripes

f) pectoral fins: behind the head; dorsal fin: at the end of the spine

g) i) (drawing)

ii) sucking fish

iii) they swam fast, lashed their whole bodies like eels

h) Great

Beautiful (-looking)

Calm

Noble

i) ‘Fish,’ the old man said. ‘Fish, you are going to have to die anyway. Do you have to kill me too?’

2.

возможны различные варианты ответов


3.

Возможные варианты ответов: ‘the old man felt faint and sick and he could not see well.’

4.

a) ‘First it was dark as a shoal in the blue water that was more than two kilometres deep.’

b) a cloud

5.

The (nooses) and the (rope) to (lash) him

6.

a) bail her (the skiff) out

b) lash him (the skiff/person in skiff) well (i.e. tie him to something)



UNIT 7

LANGUAGE AND HUMOUR


Чтение



Ознакомительное

Ответы на вопросы

Говорение


Диалогическая/монологическая речь

Передача и запрос информации, выражение отношения к прочитанному



Check your understanding

a) A horse; ‘knock-kneed, broken-winded’;

b) возможные варианты ответов: the horse was in such a sorrow state that could hardly be called a horse at all;

c) возможны различные варианты ответов;

d) The speed of travelling; makes the reader laugh / smile;

e) ‘merry as a funeral bell’;

f) возможны различные варианты ответов.



UNIT 1

THE VICTORIAN PERIOD


Reading:

Чтение

Ознакомительное, просмотровое /поисковое

Ответы на вопросы, определение замысла автора, оценка информации, понимание смысла текста и его проблематики, использование элементов анализа текста.

Speaking:

Говорение

Диалогическая/монологическая

Достижение договоренности, выражение отношения к прочитанному, установление контакта при общении, построение высказывания.

Writing:

Письмо

Академический

Заполнение таблиц


1. Opinions

a) – j) возможны различные варианты ответов


2. Genres

Allegory,

Association

Blank verse

Epic

Free verse

Limerick

Lyric

Metaphor

Metre

Myth

Nonsense verse

Onomatopoeia

Rhyme

Rhythm

Sonnet

Stanza

verse

Autobiography,

Biography

Character

Detective story

Dialogue

Fable

Fairy tale

Fiction

Foreword

Myth

Novel

Plot

Short story

Story

Suspense

Tale

Theme

thriller

Act

Comedy

Dialogue

Farce

Interior monologue

Monologue

Satire

Scene

Sketch

Stage directions

tragedy

Impressionism

Modernism

Onomatopoeia

Personification

Post-modernism

Pseudonym

Pun

Realism

Romanticism

Style

Surrealism

Symbol

Symbolism

understatement


3. Writers and their books

E.M. Forster A Passage to India

Dylan Thomas Poems

Oscar Wilde The Picture of Dorian Gray

Rudyard Kipling The Jungle Book

Virginia Woolf To the Lighthouse

D.H. Lawrence Lady Chatterley’s Lover

George Orwell 1984

Roald Dahl Charlie and the Chocolate Factory

Salman Rushdie The Satanic Verses

George Bernard Shaw Pygmalion

James Joyce Dubliners

Samuel Beckett Waiting for Godot

Kingsley Amis Lucky Jim

Harold Pinter The Homecoming

Muriel Spark The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie

Philip Larkin Poems



UNIT 2


LEWIS CARROLL


Reading:

Чтение

Ознакомительное, просмотровое

поисковое

Ответы на вопросы, определение замысла автора, оценка информации, понимание смысла текста и его проблематики, использование элементов анализа текста.

Speaking:

Говорение

Диалогическая/монологическая

Передача и запрос информации, выражение отношения к прочитанному, обсуждение прочитанного, драматизация прочитанного

Writing:

Письмо

Академический

Заполнение таблиц



1.

a) Alice (‘s Adventures) in Wonderland

Through the Looking-Glass

b) Alice in Wonderland:

The elegant White Rabbit, the grinning Cheshire Cat, the conceited and monosyllabic Caterpillar, the King and Queen and Knave of Hearts, the March Hare, the Mad Hatter, the sleepy Dormouse.

Through the Looking-Glass:

The Mock Turtle, the Dodo, the White King and the Queens, the White Knight of chess, the Walrus, the Carpenter, Humpty Dumpty.

c) Alice


2. Check your comprehension


a) 6-7 years old

b) a nervous tone of voice, worry (at being late)

c) very – emphasise something; took a watch out of its waistcoat-pocket – paint a picture

d) Yes (it gives a feeling of her frustration)

e) elements of fantasy world: the White Rabbit talking

the White Rabbit taking a watch out of his waistcoat pocket

the walls of the well furnished with cupboards, shelves and maps

elements of reality: a white rabbit with pink eyes

rabbit-hole under the hedge

tunnel, well

f) last three lines of the extract when the author directly talks to the reader

g) 6400 kilometres

h) возможны различные варианты ответов


3. Puns


a) curiouser and curiouser

b) tale – tail

c) lesson – lessen


4.


возможны различные варианты ответов


5.

Twinkle, twinkle, little star.

How I wonder what you are?

Up above the world so high

Like a diamond in the sky.


6.

a) Tortoise – taught us

b) Reeling and Writhing – reading and writing

Ambition – addition

Distraction – subtraction

Uglification – multiplication

Derision – division

7.

Ответы даны в конце отрывка.



UNIT 3


OSCAR WILDE (1856-1900)


Reading:

Чтение

Ознакомительное, просмотровое/поисковое, изучающее- с целью полного понимания отрывков из произведений художественной литературы

Ответы на вопросы, определение замысла автора, оценка информации, понимание смысла текста и его проблематики, использование элементов анализа текста.

Speaking:

Говорение

Диалогическая/монологическая

Передача и запрос информации, выражение отношения к прочитанному.

Writing:

Письмо

Академический

Написание стихотворений



1. Wilde’s portrait

There is a lot you can deduce from someones portrait. This will be a free discussion based on the observation of and deduction from Oscar Wilde’s portrait Pay attention to details, too, and bear in mind that Wilde was in many respects a child of the fin de siècle (the end of the century atmosphere).

Notice for example his relaxed posture, self-confidence of a successful writer and a wit, an elegant, classy suit, the fact that he seems to be pleased with himself.


  1. Wilde’s values


To identify the topics with the books will naturally be based on students’ previous reading experience with Oscar Wilde’s books in translation. The students will most probably know the collection of fairy tales: “The Happy Prince”.


solution


  1. beauty (The Happy Prince)

  2. style, appearance, form – not content (The Importance of Being Earnest)

  3. youth (The Picture of Dorian Gray)

  4. intelligence (his epigram)


  1. Wilde’s life story


Работа в группах. Обсуждение результатов работы в группах.


a) possible adjectives: snobbish, arrogant, easy-going, eccentric, flamboyant…Notice his play on words with famous (a positive adjective) and notorious (a negative adjective), both meaning well-known.


possible nouns: dandy, playboy, wit, connoisseur, snob…..


b) other writers born in Ireland are William Congreve, George Farquar, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, George Bernard Shaw, Samuel Beckett, Sean O’Casey, John Millington Synge, Brian Friel, Seamus Heaney, Jonathan Swift, Lawrence Strene, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Oliver Goldsmith to mention the most well-known only.


All the writers from Congreve to Friel, wrote for the theatre, mostly comedies. A long oral tradition of story telling, poetic use of the language, the fact that the Irish are generally quite talkative, the Celtic element present ‘til today (musicality, drinking) all this played an important role in creating so many literary talents in such a small nation.


Объяснить разницу между словами “famousandnotorious”.

famous adjective ***

1 if someone or something is famous, a lot of people know their name or have heard about them:

He dreamed of becoming a famous footballer.

famous for: The town of Gouda is famous for its cheese.

Alexander Fleming, the Scot famous for discovering penicillin

famous as: She became famous as both a teacher and researcher.

(c) Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2002


notorious adjective *

famous for something bad: a notorious criminal

notorious for: The city is notorious for its traffic jams.

(c) Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2002



c) обсуждение в группе.


    1. Running dictation


Divide the class into pairs. Make sure each pair has got enough space around themselves to manoeuvre. Copy the dictation onto a larger piece of paper, placing it on the frontal board. When you indicate, one student of each pair should run towards the board, read a sentence and run back to dictate it to their partner. At one point indicate that the students should swap roles. A running dictation should be competitive, brisk and fun.


DURING THE WHOLE OF HIS MARRIED LIFE, WILDE LIVED IN A PART OF LONDON, IN CHELSEA. HIS ROOM WAS FILLED WITH CIGARETT SMOKE AND BOOKS. THEY WERE MOSTLY FRENCH AND CONTEMPORARY EUROPEAN WRITERS, BUT ALSO GREEK AND LATIN CLASSICS. HE MANAGED TO ASSEMBLE SOME OF THE FINEST EXAMPLES OF ARTISTIC OBJECTS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD. WHEN IN PRISON, WILDE COULD PROTECT NEITHER HIS BOOKS NOR HIS SOUVENIRS. UNFORTUNATELY, MOST OF THE PRECIOUS ITEMS WERE STOLEN OR SOLD IN PUBLIC AUCTIONS.


5. ‘The Happy Prince’


a) Обсуждение в классе.

A fairy tale has got a happy-ending, there are fairy tale elements such as its heroes (prince, princess, witch, magician, dwarf, fairy) or magic objects (carpet, broom, mirror). There is a standard opening (Once upon a time there was a king who had three sons/daughters) and a closing phrase (And they all lived happily ever after.).


Возможный вариант ответ


b) The Prince was called Happy because he was rich, beautiful, important …


reading


    1. Для чтения второго отрывка, учащимся рекомендуется воспользоваться словарем.

When the students read Extract Two, they should use a dictionary:

Reading the extract. Open discussion on the tie sequences should follow. (Past Perfect goes deeper into the past than Past Tense. Thus we know that e.g. the other swallows went to Egypt and the Swallow decided to stay in the City BEFORE the actual night when the Swallow was the Prince for the first time).


d) SHALL as an expression of hesitation, offer or future activities? “Shall I love you?” is perhaps more of an offer than a hesitation at this initial stage of the courtship, but this can be open to discussion.


reading


Extract Three


  1. In pairs students will read or perform a dialogue based on the extract, with their own conclusion added


Extract Four


The students will discuss in groups of three, then report back to the class.


g) Characters: Prince, Swallow (a bird with a human voice, an element from fables). The distinctive rhythm of the sentences reminds us of the oral tradition of story telling. Notice the pattern of sentence structures and the word order (“When I last heard of them they were quarrelling still”);

h) No happy end, social problems (similar to Andersen’s fairy tales), untypical fairy tale characters: Town Councillor, Mathematical Master, Mayor, Art Professor. Wilde is ironical whenever he talks of the town authorities;

i) A possible moral: “All that glitters is not gold” or “There is visible and invisible beauty”;

j) Open discussion

The activities above deal with some extracts of the tale. The students will have a possibility to read the whole tale, too, but should not do so before the teacher tells them to (in order to keep them interested in the activites and the story itself). The full version can be assigned as ho,e reading or optional reading. Ask the students to give their comments on anything unclear – vocabulary, grammar structures, whatever puzzled them.


6. The Importance of Being Earnest (1895)


the first reading


a) Algernon a young gentleman from an upper class family


Lane the family butler


    1. возможны различные варианты ответов


the second reading


c) Algernon speaks in an easy-going manner while Lane’s use of language and his tone of voice are those of a proper servant. Algernon addresses Lane by his surname only, a sign of his lower social status;

d) Lane, as the perfect servant, knows when to listen and when to be “deaf”;

e) With disdain. He would never think of being critical of his own class, let alone of himself;

f) “Class distinction” (Wilde is ironical in ridiculing Victorian values) if not “cucumber sandwiches”.



UNIT 4


RUDYARD KIPLING (1865-1936)

EDWARD MORGAN FORSTER (1879-1970)


Reading:

Чтение

Ознакомительное, просмотровое/поисковое изучающее- с целью полного понимания отрывков из произведений художественной литературы

Ответы на вопросы, определение замысла автора, оценка информации, понимание смысла текста и его проблематики, использование элементов анализа текста.

Speaking:

Говорение

Диалогическая/монологическая

Передача и запрос информации, выражение отношения к прочитанному.

Writing:

Письмо

Академический

Написание эссе



  1. The woodcut of Queen Victoria by William Nicholson. Generally, the Victorian Period differed in many aspects from the Edwardian Period: the former stressed strict morality and family values, while the latter brought more individual freedom and the possibility of choice.


2. Queen Victoria (1819-1901)


Возможные варианты ответов


a) She was a homely, friendly person, a grandmotherly type…


возможные варианты ответов


b) The shape reminds us of a pyramid, a triangle, a tea cosy (the handmade cover of a teapot with the function to keep the tea warm. The device that the English invariably associate with their home; tea drinking, being warm, keeping the house cosy and pleasant). The overall impression is gently humorous, affectionate, even loving;

c) Open to discussion. Perhaps they would normally be more formally posed in more formal surroundings;

d) Open to discussion. This portrait was printed in the newspaper and became very popular; The Victorian morality, Puritanism and hypocrisy have become less strict. The Edwardian Period was a less formal reaction to the Victorian conventions. Now it became accepted for an artist to be free and unconventional – too late for Oscar Wilde, though;

e) The Pre-Victorian and the Victorian topics were mostly dogs, horses, hunting scenes, portraits of the gentry, landscapes…


The Edwardian art reflects more freedom for the individual and an opening to the artistic ideas of Europe (impressionism). The traditional topics would be expanded with scenes from Bohemian life, music-halls and theatres.

King Edward ruled the country in the years 1901-1910.


  1. Kipling’s life in a historical context


CHART


Ask the students to work in groups of three. When the chart is filled in, they can compare, discuss and further complete the result with another group. The task may be assigned as written homework, too. One group can be chosen to produce the table in the form of a poster, preferably in colour.


Возможное решение


Britain’s role in the world, the size of the Empire and its economic and political importance gave the British a feeling of self-confidence. The British Empire was a wealthy structure, important in every aspect. What followed, though, was a decline of Britain as a leading power.

In science it was Charles Darwin with his study “The Origin of Species” that demonstrated the conflict of faith with reason. The British saw themselves as the advanced race, as opposed to the natives, who were seen as the inferior races.


Kipling’[s biography: He was born in India, but educated in Britain. When back in India, he wrote for newspapers and travelled widely about the Empire. In 1907 he was the first English writer to be awarded the Nobel Prize for literature.


Kipling’s prose was in many respects connected with India. “The Jungle Books” are stories about Mowgli, who was brought up by wolves with human personalities, “Kim” was the story of a boy, set in India, “Plain Tales form the Hills” were dramatised stories with an Indian atmosphere.


Kipling’s poetry became compulsory reading for every school pupil. He was something like the national bard. The collection “The Barrack Room Ballads” (1892) was the most widely read poetry of the time. One of the poems is “If”. There a father is talking to his son,m giving him advice on how to live. “The Barrack Room Ballads” have become a kind of “official poetry”.


4. ‘Mandalay’


The extract has been shortened and adapted: it is a modernised spelling.


возможные варианты ответов


The poem is melodious, like a song, contains exotic words.


reading


a) A young man, a British soldier, when serving in Burma, fell in love with a local girl. Now he is back in London, thinking nostalgically of the hot colourful, exotic East;

b) By the old Moulmein Pagoda, Burma;

c) The Bank of England is a symbol of the grey, sober London of western civilisation as opposed to the palm trees and temple bells of bright Burma.

d) Archaic expressions are: a- sitting, the temple bells they say, come you back (inversion);

Cockney expressions are: ain’t (aren’t), ain’t no (double negative – aren’t any).

e) See also 6a). Kipling certainly loved the exotic: colours, smells, food but nevertheless saw Burma as one of Britain’s colonies;

f) возможны различные варианты ответов

g) Open discussion – students should give reasons for their answers if possible. This can also be given as homework.


5. Quotations


a) The two cultures, civilisations are miles apart. They can never be equal, can never understand each other. He feels this although he admires the wonders of the exotic;

b) by “East” Kipling obviously meant the British colonies in Asia (most probably India). By “West” he meant all of civilised Europe, Britain in particular;

c) Open to discussion;

d) The “burden” means the responsibility for “educating” the natives;

e) To bring the “light of civilisation” to the colonies is a typically missionary way of thinking, but, ultimately it means looking down upon the natives;

f) open to discussion;


As a consequence, Kipling is regarded as the poet of Greater Britain and the defender of the imperialist policy of the British Empire.


6. ‘If’


Ask the students to read the poem in pairs. In the group of three the students will discuss their choice of values, then exchange their list for shorter discussion with another group. Finally they will report back to the class whatever they found interesting or disturbing in the choice of values.


a) It was written as the monologue of a father who is giving advice to his son. He is telling him how he should live;

b) open to discussion;

c) open to discussion, perhaps not crying, but being sentimental;

d) open to discussion;

e) open, perhaps energetic, flexible, efficient;

f) The values themselves are eternal, but the context of the poem strongly suggests the 19th century way of thinking. It praises power, strength, and the typical feelings of the 20th century, doubt or alienation, are absent;

g) It is the conditional claued. If necessary, make a short revision of the structure and work with the grammar side of the poem (which type of conditional clause is used?). Set a few tasks; e.g. to complete the second part of the conditional clause. (The climax of the poem is in the last line which is the only line where Kipling finishes the clause.).

Another task might be to ask the students to set up a list of ideal rules of how to behave at a particular place (e.g. school rules, swimming pool rules, school canteen rules). They can use their imagination and practice the grammar structure at the same time.


7. The Jungle Book (1894)


a) In the extract the following animals appear: Mother Wolf, brown bear, black panther, wild buffalo, wounded elephant, young wolves, fat newly killed bull, naked frong (here figurative), dead bull, Father Wolf.


reading


b) возможные варианты ответов : Akela could symbolise wisdom, Mother Wolf – motherly care, Shere Khan – greediness, Baloo – kindness, goodness, Bagheera – practicality;

c) to ask somebody’s leave – to ask for the permission

to make better sport – to be more fun

to make somebody roar to another tune – to make somebody behave differently


8. E.M. FORSTER


A Passage To India (1924)


a) The man referred to as Dr. Aziz, an Indian, who is the main character of the novel, and his two Indian friends. They are all educated people from a young generation (this is reflected in their use of language, e.g. the use of gentle irony – “you are always late”, they like a gentle way of joking;

b) See the reference to tobacco – hookah is a pipe used especially in Arab countries for smoking tobacco. It is a long tube passing through a container of water which cools the smoke. Here, the three friends are Muslims, not Hindu Indians;

c) The main question of the extract, and in fact of the whole novel, is whether or not it is possible for them, as native and therefore “lower positioned” subjects, “to be friends with Englishmen”. The bitterness of racial division in colonial India much have been felt especially strongly among the educated Indians;

d) The three men have slightly different opinions on the matter – based on their personal experience. Which? Ask for details;

e) open to discussion


Talk about the differences in behaviour, culture, customs, habits,: first in India then in your own country. Are there any ethnic minorities where you live? Do you have any personal experience with a person from another ethnic group than you own?


UNIT 5

JACK LONDON


Reading:

Чтение

Ознакомительное, просмотровое/поисковое изучающее- с целью полного понимания отрывков из произведений художественной литературы

Ответы на вопросы, определение замысла автора, оценка информации, понимание смысла текста и его проблематики, использование элементов анализа текста.

Speaking:

Говорение

Диалогическая/монологическая

Передача и запрос информации, выражение отношения к прочитанному, оценочное описание мест, событий, повествование о событиях, сопровождающееся их анализом с соответствующими выводами.

Writing:

Письмо

Академический

Заполнение таблиц, написание эссе



2. ‘To Build a Fire

a) - c) возможны различные варианты ответов



Check your comprehension


a) He stepped knee-high in a treacherous spring hidden under ice cover;

b) An hour delay to get to the camp;

c) Under a spruce tree, because it was easier to pull the twigs from the brush and drop them directly on the fire;

d) *He has to be able to build a fire for the first attempt because the circulation of the wet and freezing feet has to be restored and running will not help.

* No man must travel alone in the Klondike after fifty below;

e) возможные вариант ответа: proud, level-headed, …;

f) The snow falling from the tree like avalanche put the fire out and covered it completely;

g) Building the fire under the tree.


Check your comprehension


a) Because he realised that failing to maintain the fire meant not only losing his hands and feet, but it was a matter of life and death;

b) He stopped shivering and he hoped that he would be able to reach the camp;

c) The distance to the camp, the fact that freezing has started long ago and that he soon would be dead.


Check your comprehension


a) It angered him and he cursed it;

b) He decided to accept death with dignity as sleeping off to death seemed to be a good idea;

c) That the old man was right;

d) It abandoned the dead man and trotted up the trail in the direction of the camp to find the food-providers and fire-providers.



UNIT 1


JANE AUSTEN (1775-1817)


Reading:

Чтение

Ознакомительное, просмотровое/поисковое, изучающее- с целью полного понимания отрывков из произведений художественной литературы.

Ответы на вопросы, заполнение пропусков, выбор заголовков

Speaking:

Говорение

Диалогическая/монологическая

Достижение договоренности, выражение отношения к прочитанному, установление контакта при общении, построение высказывания.

Writing:

Письмо

Академический

Краткое изложение прочитанного, написание эссе



  1. Janeites


Open discussion and answer at end of unit


  1. George Saintsbury’s. A history of 19th Century Literature


a) - c) Open discussion and individual answers


3.

a) возможны различные варианты ответов


b) возможные варианты ответов:


Gothic romances

Sentimental novels

Women writers

Realistic novelists

Ann Radcliffe

Oliver Goldsmith

Samuel Richardson

Ann Radcliffe

Fanny Burney

Maria Edgeworth



4.

возможны различные варианты ответов



5.

possible groupings


a) marriage, family life: husband hunting, on the marriage market, to be left on the shelf, elopement, fidelity, spinsterhood, sibling, wet nurse, outmoded institution;

b) women’s hobby: to embroider samplers, scraps of fabric;

c) literary expressions: scene-setting, to be reread, well-thumbed, gentle mockery;

d) medical connotations: leeches, malnutrition;

e) virtues: reverence, fidelity

возможны различные варианты ответов



6.

a) The theme of husband hunting – eligibility on the basis of wealth;

b) Mrs Bennet is curious by nature, ready to listen to gossips and use the information for her benefit. She wants her husband on her side therefore not only sharing what she has heard but influencing her husband at the same time;

Mr Bennet comes across as a rather passive, well-respected character, who wants to please his wife but ready to come up with mild objections as well;

c) ‘design’ – intention, plan on the young man’s part to marry; it is Mrs Bennet’s design;

d) No, he does not. (would be against the etiquette) It is flattery;

e) the Bennet’s daughter; Mrs Bennet’s favourite;

f) light-hearted, slightly mocking but respectful. They seem to have a good marriage based on love and mutual respect;

g) возможны различные варианты ответов


h) ‘quick parts’ – wit; ‘three and twenty years’ – twenty-three years; ‘little information’ – not clever, not educated.


UNIT 2


VIRGINIA WOOLF (1882-1941)


Reading:

Чтение

Ознакомительное, просмотровое/поисковое, изучающее- с целью полного понимания отрывков из произведений художественной литературы.

Ответы на вопросы

Speaking:

Говорение

Диалогическая/монологическая

Передача и запрос информации, выражение отношения к прочитанному, оценочное описание мест, событий, повествование о событиях, сопровождающееся их анализом с соответствующими выводами.

Writing:

Письмо

Академический

Краткое изложение прочитанного, написание эссе



  1. The map of London


Divide the class into groups of three. Tell the students they are going to trace some of the places where Virginia Woolf lived in London. The search can be organised in a competitive way, too. Give the students some feel of the area first. They should find the orientation points such as:


a) the University of London

the British Museum

Dickens’ House

Then they should search for the names of the places;

Gordon Square

Brunswick Square

Tavistock Square

Mecklenburgh Square


b) Bloomsbury

c) Bloomsbury is the name of an area in London but also the name of the group of intellectuals known as The Bloomsbury Group.


  1. The Bloomsbury Group


After reading the article on The Bloomsbury Group, the students should be able to understand the nature of such a circle whose members did not publish any programme nor were confined by any written or unwritten rules.


Let the students discuss the major political, social and cultural issues of the time in small groups. Then the answer to the question should come out naturally from their discussions.


Возможные варианты ответов


They represented the intellectual elite of the day in Britain and as such they were concerned with freedom in its broadest sense (including sexual freedom), socialism, anti-imperialism, pacifism (strong opposition to WWI), feminism (see the following paragraph on “A Room of One’s Own”), the value of personal relationships and the cultivation of sensibility.


3. Virginia Woolf – a feminist writer


a) Brainstorming – ask the students to write the names on the board themselves. They might come up with the names such as Emily Brontë, Charlotte Brontë, Jane Austen, Mary Shelley, George Eliot, Elizabeth Barret Browning…Notice the man’s name George ( a pseudonym of Mary Ann Evans: let the students discuss why she chose to write under a man’s name – the same applied to the Brontë sisters. WE can certainly observe the gradual emergence of women writer towards the end of the 19th century in accordance with the changing economic situation. (With all the changes, the 20th century means a new situation for women and that’s why there are a great number of women writers.)


b) Virginia Woolf’s idea of her life is as follows: She would feel the urge to leave Stratford for London to use her creative talents. There she, a woman, would not be accepted into the world of theatre, inhabited solely by men, and she would end up as a mistress or a prostitute in the street. Abused, with an illegitimate child, she would eventually kill herself.


4. Portraits of Virginia Woolf


Open discussion


5. Mrs Dalloway (1925)


The students can work in pairs and exchange their ideas in larger groups. Finally the teacher should ask them to report back and summarise the opinions.


a) The time is right after the war. There are allusions to WWI, see the omnibuses in London, people killed in the War. The time is the middle of June (1918) – in fact the whole story takes place within one day: on 23rd June, in the morning (see lines 24, 25, 30). Virginia Woolf was continuously fascinated with the element of time passing – notice Big Ben striking. The place is London (again Big Ben), one of its parts – Westminster – in particular. By the Park she might mean St. James’s Park (see line 48), she crosses Victoria Street, one of the major streets of the area;

Again it is good to refer to the map of London, it can be done in a competitive way to see who is the quickest in finding a particular place.


b) King Edward VII, but Georges are also mentioned – see line 46 – the succession of the Hannoverian dynasty, kings from George I to George IV throughout the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries;

c) We feel she is a mature woman from the way she is looking around her. She has been living in Westminster for twenty years, she is over fifty now. We are given some of her characteristics; she is charming, vivacious, fragile, pale looking after having influenza, she loves London and she enjoys living (we feel it intensely in every line throughout the extract). She loves living in London in particular (walking about the streets, among the traffic, breathing the polluted air, though at the time it was relatively unpolluted, it is even “better than walking in the country” which would be one of the favourite pastimes for the English);

d) She is walking in Westminster, watching the people, traffic, listening to the sounds around her. In her mind she is thinking of some well-known upper class Londoners in connection with the War. She mentions Ascot, the place of horse races, she perceives all the optimistic atmosphere in the air, the joy of being alive. Then she meets her old-time friend Hugh Whitbread;

e) What she feels before and when Big Ben strikes (see lines 11, 12), her thoughts when crossing Victoria Street (see lines 13, 14, 15…), it is not only she who loves London, but even the down-and-outers. She openly admits that she loves the place (see lies 55,56) and has been a part of it since “the Georges”;

f) How does Mrs Dalloway see London? Is it an idyllic, sleepy place or a busy town?


It is a busy modern town (we can almost hear the noise made by carriages, motor cars, omnibuses, vans, an aeroplane “singing” overhead, “the triumph and jingle”, we can almost see Victoria Street full of motion).

How does she manage to create the atmosphere of a busy, modern, vibrating city?

By enumerations ad the repetitive use of –ing­ forms: beating, stirring, tapping, whirling, laughing, dancing, taking… (See lines 33, 35, 37, 38…);

g) Open to discussion;

h) veriest (line 16) – superlative of very.


6. To the Lighthouse (1927)


a), b) a warm-up, open to discussion.



UNIT 3


DAVID HERBERT LAWRENCE (1885-1930)


Reading:

Чтение

Ознакомительное, просмотровое/поисковое, изучающее- с целью полного понимания отрывков из произведений художественной литературы.

Ответы на вопросы

Speaking:

Говорение

Диалогическая/монологическая

Передача и запрос информации, выражение отношения к прочитанному, оценочное описание мест, событий, повествование о событиях, сопровождающееся их анализом с соответствующими выводами.

Writing:

Письмо

Академический

Краткое изложение прочитанного, написание эссе



1. Portrait


The photograph should serve as a starting point for eliciting both the information on his life and the basic principles of D. H. Lawrence’s philosophy. The discussion can be done in smaller groups.


a) Lawrence was tall, thin, ascetic looking. He was of poor physical health (died at the age of 44 of tuberculosis). Frieda looks like a maternal type. She was heavy, big, six years older than Lawrence, a mother of three children when she left her family to live with him. She was a strong woman, a model of life forces, vitality and fertility for Lawrence.

From their portraits we might deduce that he was the soul and she was the body (D.H.L.: “modern men and women had broken the true pact between the body and the soul”), he coming from the family of a minor in Nottinghamshire, she from an aristocratic German family. (It is one of his dominant themes: a woman froma higher class is strongly physically attracted to a lower class man – e.g. “Lady Chatterley’s Lover”, “Sons and Lovers”, “The Virgin and the Gypsy”.);

b) It was taken near Florence in 1928, on one of their many trips to Italy. They travelled a lot. D. H. Lawrence, feeling restless and dissatisfied, made himself into self-exile (e.g. Mexico, USA, Italy, France).


2. Quotations


  1. Make groups and ask each to read all the quotations in order to decide about their placing under headings; D. H. L’s life philosophy, D. H. L’s ideas on art, D. H. L’s life. Note that some quotations may belong to more than one category.


Возможные варианты ответов


life philosophy: 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12

ideas on art: 3, 10

life: 5, 7, 8, 10, 11


Divide the class into three different groups. Each of them will deal with one of the categories. They will discuss the meaning of the quotations and later present their topics in a clear picture to the others. The students will obviously need the additional assistance of the teacher.


Ad 2: compare No. 2 and No. 12. Lawrence never trusted intellect, knowledge or science, but advocated instinct (see No. 4 – “blood” as the ultimate sign of being alive;

Ad 3: a paraphrase of the motto of the aesthetic movement (see the chapter on O. Wilde)

Art for Art’s Sake. Lawrence stresses his strong individuality. He always did what he believed in;

Ad 5: travelling meant a source of inspiration, a possibility to compare, to meet new people, to get a fresh stimulus. Compare with No. 7 where “move” equals travelling, changing places;

Ad 6: Refers to different roles of men (destroyers) and women (keepers of life) in society;

Ad 9: “retreat” means stepping back, giving up, as opposed to fighting for ones’ ideas. We sometimes get the impression that Lawrence became a writier because he wanted to preach his ideas. Even his best novel can be labelled “novels of ideas”: “Sons and Lovers” (1913), “The Rainbow” (1915), “Women in Love” (1921);

Ad 10: Refers to his short teaching career interrupted by his frequent illnesses. He soon decided to abandon it since he did not like the job. He is speaking about students, probably from his own experience.


3. A poem by D. H. Lawrence


The Last Lesson in the Afternoon


An extract from a poem by D. H. Lawrence.


For the purpose of the activity, at first, the students are not given either the text or the title of the poem. Divide the students into the groups of three.


Copy the single words from the poem (the left column only) on the strip of paper so that each group gets the whole set. The aim is to guess the meaning of the words. This will be done first in small groups, the frontally.


As the vocabulary is rather difficult, you can use the words in sentences instead of using them separately. The students can guess the meaning from the context. Underline the respective word for them.


weariness: I feel terrible weariness today. I worked too much last night.

to tug, to strain apart, to haul: The dogs tugged, strained apart and hauled to let themselves free.

leash: When travelling on a bus, dogs have to be kept on a leash.

pack: There was a pack of wolves in the forest.

hound: The most famous hound is that of the Baskerville.

unruly: These boys do not know about manners, they are so unruly.

quarry: The stone is dug out from a quarry.

amiss: I never do anything right, it all goes amiss!

might: He has got a lot of might. He is very strong.

abyss: Be careful, there is an abyss, do not fall into it! – in the poem the word is used in an idiomatic phrase, not literally.


solution


weariness: tiredness

to tug: to pull strongly

leash: a strap used to control a dog

to strain apart: to pull sideways

pack: group

hound: hunting dog

unruly: undisciplined

quarry: a place where stone is dug

to haul: to pull with difficulty

amiss: wrong, senseless

might: strength

abyss: a deep hole


After the students have discussed and explained the vocabulary (with the teacher’s help), they should come up with an idea of what the poem might be about – based on the given words. They will present their ideas to the class in an open discussion.


The students will read the extract from the poem and will have a chance to correct their ideas.


The students will read the extract again while following the text. The teacher will make copies of the text or write the poem on an OHP transparency.


it all goes down the same abyss”


What does it mean? (I do not care, it is all the same in the end).


In the poem find another idiom with a similar meaning (“it is all my aunt”).


Who is the narrator? (a teacher)

Who is he talking about? (his students)

How does he feel about his job? Why?

Discuss the question and choose from the list of adjectives the one you think is the most appropriate:

Impatient, irrelevant, bored, indifferent, angry, despairing, - or any other?


The teacher will have to write the list of the adjectives on the board.

What can be the title of the poem? (open to discussion)


The poem, actually, can express some of Lawrence’s thoughts from the time of his teaching career, but can also speak about the feelings of any teacher, tired at the end of the day, perhaps a young, less experienced teacher, or an old, already resigned teacher.


Read the poem again


  1. Sons and Lovers (1913)


This is an extract from a largely autobiographical novel.


a) Open to discussion


reading


b) The age is not explicitly given, but we are given some hints (he goes to school, a child’s paper is mentioned, he is a schoolboy);

c) He might feel lonely or sad;

d) He might find it difficult to adjust to the two worlds he is living in – the one above (at home) and the one under the ground (in the mines);

e) Father speaks the local dialect while mother speaks standard English. They come form different social backgrounds. He is a miner coming home form the mines (associations with black colour), uneducated, rough in his behaviour, drunk. (Later Lawrence realised his father’s portrait was far too one-sidedly negative and appreciated the vitality and the love of life in him). Lawrence’s mother was a former teacher. She tried to keep up the family standards above the local level, kept the house clean and tidy (associations with white colour);

f) Father speaks the basic language, the local dialect. If we simplify the matter, he represents the body, the primitive, the vital, the basic forces of life. Mother is an educated person, she represents the soul, the spirit;

g) When he works at home, mending things. This is the natural world. The work in the mines makes him a stranger;

h) She could have married him because she was attracted by his spontaneity, by his ability to be merry, to enjoy life to the full. Now she is bitter, tired of looking after the children. Judging from the extract, there is not much communication between father and mother.


5. The Rocking Horse Winner (1926)


The story is far too long to be read entirely by the class. The teacher has to decide which parts can be assigned as home reading.


listening


a) The first two paragraphs are done as listening for general atmosphere. A teacher can read the first two paragraphs to students. Discuss the way Lawrence opens the story. The opening reminds us of a classical fairy tale)”there was once a…” repeated later as “there were…”), a specific rhythm, especially in the sentences based on contrasts (“She married form love, and the love turned to dust”.).


reading


b) The next part is read. “There must be more money”. This sentence gives the false impression that the lack of money is going to be the theme of the story. The parents have expensive tastes – though they obviously cannot afford them, they will not give them up either;

c) The sentence is: “There must be more money”. The parents want to keep up appearances, not to let on to anyone what the real situation is like. They find it embarrassing to speak about money. The children are very sensitive, especially Paul, and perceive the reality as strange whispers that haunt the house (here the supernatural element is stepping in).


listening


d) Let the students listen (once should be sufficient) for the three key words. These can differ.


Возможные варианты ответов


luck, lucky, unlucky, or rich, money … In any case, the key words certainly signify that for the family happiness is synonymous with having a lot of money.


reading


e) Reading part. He looks for his luck by riding his toy, a rocking-horse. In his search for luck he gets into a state of ecstasy, a trance, out of reality;

f) Open to discussion.


reading


g) young, fine sport a good fellow (not common today, felt as

old-fashioned)

honour bright on my word of honour

I don’t want to give him away I don’t want to betray him

You won’t let it go any further You won’t tell anybody

By addressing him so, Uncle Oscar wants to show that he considers him equal, does not see a child in him.


Read the text and discuss it.

h) Open to discussion


reading


i) Listen for the content. The students should be able to retell the basic outline of this extract;

j) Reading part. He may understand there is something strange in the way his luck came to him. Is there any evidence in the text, in the way Paul looks? E. G. “with big blue eyes that had an uncanny cold fire in them.” Paul always talks about strange whispers, strange sounds. He seems to possess the power that the ordinary people do not have;

k) He decides it should be saved to be paid out slowly over the years;

l) Reading part. The discrepancy between the presence of money in the house and the existence of the strange voices. Instead of disappearing they are getting louder. Paul’s solitary life did not change either, his mother has no more time or affection for him;

m) Read and discuss (the adjectives “cold, hardened, expressionless, absent” are explicit enough to show that mother did not try to understand her son too much);

n) Paul knows the winning horse;

o) Open discussion;

p) Read the extract for the language. The students work in pairs and try to match the expressions from the extract with the given equivalents. Having read the text, they should be able to guess a lot from the context.


решение


shabby worn startled frightened

uncanny strange intruded upon disrupted

seizure attack anxiety fear

quaint strange might and main as hard as possible

as right as a trivit all right anguish pain


q) Open to discussion

  • Paul’s father is hardly ever there. He is disinterested (“Said the father stonily”), even when the situation is critical.

  • Open to discussion

  • Open to discussion (to be lucky does not mean to be happy, what is happiness then?, money cannot buy love – there is the Beatles’ song, too, to illustrate the maxim, it would be appropriate to listen to it at this point….);

r) The students should have heard the extract enough to tell it in their own words. The teacher may help with vocabulary if necessary.


UNIT 1


THOMAS HARDY (1840-1928)


Reading:

Чтение

Ознакомительное, просмотровое/поисковое, изучающее- с целью полного понимания отрывков из произведений художественной литературы.

Ответы на вопросы

Speaking:

Говорение

Диалогическая/монологическая

Передача и запрос информации, выражение отношения к прочитанному, оценочное описание мест, событий, повествование о событиях, сопровождающееся их анализом с соответствующими выводами.

Writing:

Письмо

Академический

Краткое изложение прочитанного, написание эссе



1.

a) The geographical location where they lived

2.

возможны различные варианты ответов



3.

Open discussion


4.

a) The tree, its maturity, long-rooted existence, perseverance;

b) Bathsheba: strong-willed, outspoken, honest, independent

Gabriel Oak: traditional in his views and expectations, hard-working, forward-planning, solid etc.


The difference in their views is expressed not only in their conversation but in the body language as well;

c) as above;

d) yes, the surname (Oak) reflects the character;

e) возможны различные варианты ответов

.


6. Tess of the D’Urbervilles (1891)


a) Close relationship, a love affair;

b) Farm work starts early, all year round, to tend the animals and do the milking;

c) Alarm clock wakes Tess (3 o’clock) – she wakes the rest: the dairyman, Angel and finally the fellow milkmaids. Angel Clair is the first out, while Tess dresses, then the others appear at quarter past 3;

d) Angel;

e) It strengthen the isolation of the pair and at the same time emphasises their bond. It is inferred that Tess has got dark hais as ‘Fair women are usually asleep at midsummer dawns.’ The last line underlines their solitude;

f) Angel is educated (classical references) while Tess is not schooled;

g) возможны различные варианты ответов


h) возможны различные варианты ответов


i) ‘The meadows lay like a white sea; scattered trees rose like dangerous rocks; wet rails…shone like glass rods; the mist hung … like seed pearls;


8. The Convergence of the Twain


a) It refers to the disaster of the Titanic;

b) The first five verses depict the Titanic lying at the bottom of the sea while the rest of the poem tells us how the iceberg grew in greatness to match the ship (retrospective approach);

d) возможны различные варианты ответов

(e.g. vaingloriousness, fashioning);

e) возможны различные варианты ответов

(possible: twin fate?)/


UNIT 2


GEORGE ORWELL (1903-1950)


Reading:

Чтение

Ознакомительное, просмотровое/поисковое, изучающее- с целью полного понимания отрывков из произведений художественной литературы.


Ответы на вопросы

Speaking:

Говорение

Диалогическая/монологическая

Передача и запрос информации, выражение отношения к прочитанному, оценочное описание мест, событий, повествование о событиях, сопровождающееся их анализом с соответствующими выводами.

Writing:

Письмо

Академический

Краткое изложение прочитанного, написание эссе



1. Important Historical and Political Dates and Events.


Copy the dates in a sheet of paper, make enough copies for each student. Write the events on separate strips of paper and place them around the classroom. The students will walk around with their lists of dates and try to find the relevant matching events for each year (can be done as a competition too). When ready, they will check with those standing nearby to see whether they have got the same solutions. Whatever is unclear, will be discussed and commented.


Возможные варианты ответов


1929 the Great Depression

1930s show trials in the Soviet Union

1936 the beginning of the Spanish Civil War

1938 the Munich Treaty

1939 the beginning of the Second World War

1940 Winston Churchill made Prime Minister

1941 the Soviet Union attacked by Germany

1941 the USA entered the Second World War

1945 the end of the Second World War

1950s the Cold War


  1. Henry Moore


This drawing (Second Shelter Sketchbook, 1941 – Study for ‘Tube Shelter Perspective’) is one of the many that Henry Moore made during WWII. Though he has become world famous for his statues of reclining figures, mothers with their children, kings and queens or many abstract sculptures, these wartime sketches still evoke a touching documentary memory of this hard war period. The London Underground platforms, passages and corridors were used as shelters for the Londoners during the air-raids – the Blitz – of 1940.


a) open to discussion;

b) The London Underground called the Tube;

c) a brief description: a tunnel, people (rather anonymous bodies) placed in rows on the ground;

d) possibly: anxiety, fear, loneliness in a crowd, hardship, poverty, dirt, shabbiness;

e) There are no individual features, we cannot see the detail of their faces or bodies, it looks like a mass of bodies, they might be sleeping but the sketch gives a faint impression of dead bodies placed in rows, too;

f) It might be seen as a kind of light filling the entire space as a symbol of the sun, optimism, hope or life. The light looks supernatural, almost extraterrestrial.

3. Quotation


The quotation suggests that Orwell was a highly individualistic solitary figure who was not afraid to stand out to express his opinions. He never joined a political party though his views were highly political. He was honest in his objective way of describing the situation. Most of his life was poor. The disappointment he felt about the political situation and his bad health influenced the way his last works (“Animal Farm” and “1984”) were written.


4. Orwell’s Life Story

The gap filling exercise is devised to practise the language and at the same time supply some facts important from understanding Orwell’s work.


The students work in pairs. When checking, the teacher should encourage the students to elicit all the possible gap-fillers.


solution


1 as 17 under, using

2 to 18 wrote, published

3 small, little, young 19 articles

4 educated 20 was

5 school 21 things

6 his 22 both

7 at 23 the

8 go 24 on

9 he 25 of

10 but 26 to

11 to 27 in, during

12 lived 28 worked

13 in 29 for

14 get, gain 30 last, best, short, important,

significant

15 book, novel, collection, work 31 of

16 in


5. Eric Blair versus George Orwell


An all-class discussion mostly.


a) A person decides to change himself/herself, to acquire a new identity;

b) The choice of first names is made by the parents who might have different reasons for their choices;

c) Orwell felt a kind of class guilt for studying at such a prestigious private college such as Eton, though he himself did not come from a particularly rich family. He did not like his name. The Etonian Blair had to disappear in favour of the problematic Orwell;

d) The same applies to Orwell’s first name. He chose the most English name – that of the patron saint of England.


6. Animal Farm


This extract should be given as home-reading: to fulfil the tasks.


a) open to discussion

b) open to discussion

c) open to discussion

d) Fables have always been popular (see Esop’s fables). Animals are both given human features (represent human beings in allegory) and still remain animals. Here, in the beginning animals stand for the proletariat and humans for the ruling classes.


reading


As the extract is rather large, do not feel obliged to ask your students to read it all. Select appropriate parts and read the rest for enjoyment.


e) Let the students work in pairs or individually to create a list of the clichés:

A general example can be a construction “it was said” suggesting something inconcrete, anonymous, an accusation difficult to fight against.


Note that the numbers indicate respective lines:


8: Snowball has sold himself – implies that he was paid to do something bad against the Farm.

9: plotting – scheming, making secret plans

15: secret agent – note the frequent use of the word “secret”

34: secret documents – “secret” associates with the feeling of fear, crime, something forbidden

35: to lure us to our doom – to plot so that he achieves his plans

43: our heroic Leader – the aim is to create a dark picture of the enemy and offer a new hero as a solution

59: stated categorically – he has decided, Napoleon never makes mistakes

68: Snowball’s secret agents are lurking – a threat to the animals in case they want to have their own opinions

157: the overthrow of the human race – to fight and win over Mr. Jones

192: the enemy both external and internal has to be defeated – the people and some treacherous animals

194: our longing for a better society – the goal has been fulfilled


f) see above;

g) A comrade is somebody who shares the same views, a close friend in pursuing the same goal, here it has become an empty formal expression to address the masses;

h) A scapegoat – here is a good example of how Napoleon can manipulate the animals, making Snowball a useful scapegoat. Another example is the Jews who have been used throughout history as easy victims;

i) soldiers in general;

j) He is a horse: he is physically string (note the scene where he opposed Napoleon’s dogs), honest but naïve, believes in the ideals and is willing to bring even more sacrifices;

l) Clover’s reflections: lines 153-176;

m) Yes, horses are said to be clever (though we can hardly say that about Boxer), sheep are said to be passive and obeying (see their endless bleating);

n) Jones is one of the most frequent surnames in Britain, Orwell wanted to make him a representative of the humans, a kind of Everyman, just as Smith in the novel “1984”. There is a paradox; Minimus, the official poet with a Latin name which suggests his ambitions, composes verses that have little to do with his aspirations.


7. Quotation


a) Orwell’s animals will gradually acquire more and more human traits. The dream is over. The Revolution has failed completely as the leaders have become the tyrants manipulating the animals just as the humans used to do. In the final scene it is not possible to distinguish the pigs from the people, they even look the same;

b) Predictably, at the end of the story we can hear sheep repeating endlessly; “Four legs good, two legs better.


8. Nineteen Eighty-Four (1948)


Terms and Slogans

Let the students discuss the meaning of the terms in smaller groups.


HATE WEEK a week of organised mass hysteria against the

enemies”

BIG BROTHER IS

WATCHING YOU

An omnipresent slogan to keep the people in

constant anxiety and fear of being followed (even literally)

INGSOC English Socialism

THOUGHT POLICE police forces that follow people’s way of

thinking and behaving

NEWSPEAK official language of Oceania, artificially

constructed language based on the invention of

new words and the elimination of undesirable

ones. All official press articles were written in

Newspeak. The choice of words was limited so

as to correspond to the only accepted way of

thinking. In Newspeak no individual ways of

expression were possible

OLDSPEAK what we know today as Standard English, in

Oceania was supposed to be replaced by

Newspeak by the year 2050

MINISTRY OF TRUTH Ministry for news, entertainment, education and

fine arts, Minitrue in Newspeak

MINISTRY OF LOVE or Miniluv in Newspeak, maintained law and

order in Oceania

MINISTRY OF PEACE or Minipax in Newspeak, dealt with war

MINISTRY OF PLENTY or Miniplenty in Newspeak, was responsible for

economic affairs the three slogans were the official slogans of the Party


9. 1984


This is the opening page of the novel. In an explicit way Orwell explores smells, sounds and visual images in order to create the scene immediately.


a) If we stick to adjectives, the possible solution is: cold, vile, gritty, old and harsh.

If we are more concerned with images and the impact they have on a reader, we might mention e.g. dull, poor neighbourhood, dirty, smelly slum-like houses, bleak, grey and grimy atmosphere, smells of boiled cabbage and old rag mats, cold windy and dusty streets, colourless and frightening atmosphere;

b) Clocks striking thirteen (an unlucky number), a vivid picture of a bright cold day, Winston feels uneasy even inside his own house. The lift does no work, there is no electricity but there is a frighteningly enormous picture of Big Brother looming above him. Grey is a pervading colour. There are posters ith political slogans, a telescreen to watch and follow whatever Winston does in his room;

c) Stalin;

d) Big Brother, telescreen, helicopters, police patrol, the Thought Police allowing no individual freedom. All in all these are the mechanisms that serve the totalitarian state;

e) open discussion.



UNIT 3


THEATRE (From Shaw to Pinter via Beckett)


Reading:

Чтение

Ознакомительное, просмотровое/поисковое, изучающее- с целью полного понимания отрывков из произведений художественной литературы.

Ответы на вопросы, выбор правильного ответа

Speaking:

Говорение

Диалогическая/монологическая

Передача и запрос информации, выражение отношения к прочитанному, драматизация прочитанного.

Writing:

Письмо

Академический

Написание эссе

(описательного характера)

c

The time period of the 1910s-1960s


  1. Sculpture in Britain


a) His expression is pagan-like. It resembles a Satyr from Greek mythology. It wants to capture his free, individualistic, almost wild spirit. Epstein works with exaggerated, slightly distorted, expressive features.


Возможные варианты


b) tenderness, subtlety, control, mastership, perfectionism, beauty


возможные варианты (if negative)


c) it reminds us of a nightmare – a Kafkaesque world, his Metamorphosis, the experience of war horrors, absurdity of the world


adjectives: disturbing, disquieting, provoking, misshapen, unpleasant, unclear, confusing, animal-like, man-like


pagan formerly not Christian, pre-Christian reminding

Kafkaesque of the characters and atmosphere of Kafka’s

novels, full of anxiety, fear, misunderstanding, misplacement

  1. Timeline


Draw a timeline on the board, vertically so that there is enough space for names next to it. The students will work in pairs. When finished, they will write their results on the timeline on the board. A similar timeline can be drawn, as team work, on a larger sheet of paper to be displayed in the classroom. Then, the project can contain more details as the students consult and study respective materials.


a)


15th century – Shakespeare

16th century –

17th century – comedy of manners

18th century –

19th century – O. Wilde

20th century – 10s-20s – G. B. Shaw

30s-40s – T. S. Elliot

40s-50s – S. Beckett – the Theatre of the Absurd

50s-60s – J. Osborne – Angry Young Men

60s-70s – H. Pinter – the Theatre of the Absurd


b) Shakespeare was a versatile and prolific writer. He wrote about 37 tragedies, comedies and historical plays. Then, there is a line of comedies starting with the comedies of manners (Restoration comedies) which were bawdy and full of hints at the sexual life of their heroes. The line goes on via O. Wilde’s comedies (variations of comedy of manners set in the Victorian period), towards G. B. Shaw, who was even more openly critical of the British class society and attacked social and moral problems;

c) Some of the possible answers can be: Irishness – the same background, Wilde, Shaw and Beckett were born in Dublin with a strong oral tradition, wit, use of words;

d) Open to discussion, from the contemporary dramatists we should mention an Irishman Brian Friel (Dancing at Lughnasa, Translations) or Ronald Harwood (The Dresser, Poison Pen), Timberlake Wertenbaker (Our Country’s Good) and already a classic Tom Stoppard.


  1. Pygmalion

Stage Instructions – Act Two


Pre-reading introduction


  1. A possible answer can be: yes, it is important – a future play-write will get practical experience of the stage, its size, the effect the movement on the stage creates, the sense of timing for humorous effects;

  2. Pygmalion was a king from Greek mythology. He fell in love with a statue he had made and through his prayers the statue eventually became live. Here the connecting idea is that of the transformation of a woman into an idol (and vice versa);

  3. c) You will probably have to explain the following terms:


phonology

(fƏ’nolƏdži) science concerned with distinguishing sounds in the language (phonetics)

Cockney a strong London accent special rhyming slang, dropping the “h”s

bachelor

(‘bæčƏlƏ) an unmarried man

Covent Garden a famous London theatre and a market place


Some possible answers can be: Higgins shows his superiority, he is firmly set in his bachelor style of life. He is a well-known scientist, deeply interested in studying speech accents. He takes an interest in Liza not as a woman, but an object of his experiments. Pickering admires Higgins professionally. He seems to be more friendly to Liza than Higgins. Liza worships Higgins at first. She is aware that he has the key to a better life for her. Liza is eager to learn, later she becomes an independent woman who knows her value;

  1. open to discussion;

  2. One possible solution can be: the way people speak certainly tells us a lot about them, but did even more so in Shaw’s time. Speakers were classified according to their regions, but more importantly into a certain social class;


Shaw himself was much concerned with the connection between language and class. He also ardently fought for the simplification of written English, bringing it closer to its spoken form;

  1. The students try to visualize Higgins’s phonetic laboratory, his sacred place and draw its picture – a simple outline will do. They will work in pairs and discuss the effect of his bachelorhood on the way Higgins might have furnished his room. Finally they will compare their pictures with those of their neighbours;

  2. Appetizing (‘æpƏtaiziŋ) now used only about food, meaning stimulating

the appetite


The additional questions could start up a discussion on Higgins as the prototype of somebody who, living alone, has learnt how to be selfish. How do you imagine an appetizing person? Do you thing this is an appropriate adjective to characterize Higgins?

  1. Now they should compare their drawings with the text of the stage instructions (see the text below). Notice that Shaw uses a different spelling of “shew”. Tell the students that when reading, they should not get disrupted by the details of the furniture, but follow the basic terms only. We are concerned with the atmosphere;

  2. Technical terms are: phonograph, laryngoscope, organ pipes, bellows. The students should discuss the meaning of these words and how they are used today, in modern science. In which fields? Has their meaning changed or do the words still represent the same items? Eg a phonograph (a word from Edison’s times) has since been replaced by a gramophone, later a record player and now the term stereo is used. Bellows were used to blow into a fire in order to make it burn better.


  1. Pygmalion


Act Two


listening, reading


Whenever you read a scene from a play, always divide the roles and ask the students to read aloud. Only then will the words of the text become alive through the intonation and personal expression of their readers.


  1. notice: whats, youll, ive not, youll, don’t, lets, shew, I’ll shew


возможные варианты ответов


  1. she came to see him and asked him to be taught to speak like a lady;

  2. As a bachelor he is not interested in her as a woman, or in her as a social case, but in her as a mere object of his scientific studies and experimenting;

  3. My Fair Lady (USA 1964, directed by George Cukor);


Find out how many students have seen the film or know the story. Divide the class into smaller groups so that each group will have at least one student who knows the story. They should reconstruct it then.


If nobody knows it, here is a short description: After a series of funny scenes in which Higgins and Liza do their best, the transformation of Liza becomes a success. Higgins wins the bet from Colonel Pickering. The final test, the ball, shows Liza as the most charming young lady in the room. However, after the three months of staying in the Professor’s house, she has to face the problem of where she belongs now. No longer a Cockney girl, she cannot be accepted by the upper classes either. She is also confused about her personal feelings towards Higgins. While he is still able to see only interesting study material in her, she falls in love with him. The happy-end occurs only in the film version. In the play, she leaves Higgins for her young admirer Freddie.


  1. The Period: 1930s – 1940s


Thomas Stearns Eliot


If the students have no clue, help them by pointing out the historical period in the 12th century – the assassination of the Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket, the conflict between the Church and the King, pilgrimages to Canterbury and ultimately the Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer (‘džefri ‘čo:sƏ).


  1. as for the style: the Church and the person of Saint Becket represented the “high” theme which required an equally “high” form – Eliot chose to write his play in verse, in blank verse, with a chorus commenting on the plot like in ancient Greek tragedies. “Murder in the Cathedral” was one of the examples of what British theatre in that period was like. This play was aimed at intellectuals and was more concerned with the past than the present.

It should be mentioned that to divide writers according to their countries of their birth can sometimes be misleading. Where should eg Henry James (born in the USA, lived and wrote mostly in Britain), Thomas Stearns Eliot (born in the USA, lived and worked in England or Samuel Beckett (born in Britain, lived and worked in France) belong?

  1. The Period of the 1950s


Samuel Beckett – waiting for Godot


listening


  1. The difference between them is that Vladimir is interested in finding out about Godot, he is calmer, more gentle to the boy. Estragon is more violent, impulsive, firing questions at the boy, talking fast;

  2. Estragon is even physically violent (shaking the boy by the arm, intimidating him). One student will act out a gesture, the others will guess its meaning.


reading


  1. In most productions there is an empty stage, sometimes with a tree or a small hill (mound). No props;

  2. They are tramps, it means people without traditional family or home ties, the 20th century nomads, lost, without roots, past or future. They might be dressed in black, in tattered clothes, torn, with holes …;

  3. The language is simple, with easy vocabulary, quick, short words, colloquial, grammatically easy. The exchanges are fast, however, and the audience might get confused;

  4. It is an abrupt interrogation though the dialogues sound like real dialogues. They make no sense, there are many questions but the answers to them are not really satisfactory. In fact the questions seem to be more important than the answers, the characters in fact do NOT want to find the answers. The communication as such is not important. Vladimir’s way of “talking” to the boy reminds us of that of an inquisitor. The boy is like a robot, mechanically alternating the answers from “Yes, sir” to “I don’t know, sir”;

  5. Vladimir and Estragon make questions and give answers without getting anywhere. The play is NOT about solving the problem, about finding Godot, whoever he is, or about having a motive to do anything. It is rather about killing the time of waiting, of being bored and feeling playful without any further explanation. There is no reality, everything is relative and seen from an absurd perspective. The absurdity of existing corresponds to the absurdity of human relationships in the middle of the 20th century;

  6. We cannot see much sense in their existence. They resemble clowns in a circus, falling over each other and again helping each other to get up. We might feel affection, pity and caring towards them.


  1. Most 20th century artistic trends originated in Paris. Make the students see the connections between the art scene and literature (with the relevant isms – dadaism, surrealism …);

j) open to discussion


7. Harold Pinter

The Homecoming


  1. The students should fire their associations quickly, without giving them a second thought. Brainstorming should be fast and spontaneous.


Возможные варианты ответов


safety, warmth, meeting a familiar world, welcome, returning, good memories (possible idealization), bad memories, false memories, back to roots, self-knowledge, places frozen in time, realising change, sense of belonging, relaxation, place you do not have to put on a show …


  1. A familiar setting, a living room in a family house, conventional furniture …


reading


  1. The students work in pairs. They should study the text carefully to see which of the two characters dominates which. Pinter’s characters show their dominance by:


  • changing the subject of the conversation

  • talking more than their partner (notice the big discrepancy here)

  • who is sitting and who is standing

  • how and what the character is saying


Lenny uses very rude language, but Ruth does not seem to be shocked. They get close to each other quickly. They understand each other, they speak the same language – where is the explanation? Lenny wants to impress her, talks a lot, manipulates her step by step: eg


Lenny: “shall I take this ashtray out of your way?”

Ruth: “it’s not in my way.”


Lenny wants to decide for her.


He will soon recognize that Ruth is the same kind of a person as he is, from the underworld of prostitutes and pimps (a pimp is a man who controls prostitutes and lives on the money they earn).


Extract Two


listening, reading


  1. There is a rivalry between them, perhaps going on since their childhood. Now it is a sexual rivalry, too (Lenny versus Teddy fighting for the power over Ruth). Teddy deliberately eats Lenny’s roll. Lenny is showing off, mixes French phrases into his lengthy monologue, wants to look like a strong personality but is in fact infantile and immature;

  2. Open to discussion;

  3. You have to go to America if you want to be successful. It is a new, open, clean place while the old world (Britain) has got dirty and small. For Lenny it is a country for simpletons, a materialistic paradise. Teddy has come back home – this fact shows that something was missing in his new successful life. He has come back to the old world where Ruth feels at home. Does Lenny believe in what he is saying or is he being ironical?;

  4. Most of the associations with the word “homecoming” are positive. Perhaps for Teddy, who came home after a number of years, the initial feeling was positive. Ruth was brought to see Teddy’s home, but feels thee more “at home” than Teddy. She is the one who stays there at the end, while Teddy goes back to the States;

  5. The characters wear masks but during the play they show their cruel, animal-like features. Words are used not to reveal but on the contrary to hide. Pinter’s characters hide behind their words. In fact all dialogues are battles for dominance;

  6. Open to discussion



UNIT 4


ANGRY YOUNG MEN”


Reading:

Чтение

Ознакомительное, просмотровое/поисковое, изучающее- с целью полного понимания отрывков из произведений художественной литературы.

Ответы на вопросы, выбор правильного ответа

Speaking:

Говорение

Диалогическая/монологическая

Передача и запрос информации, выражение отношения к прочитанному, оценочное описание мест, событий, повествование о событиях, сопровождающееся их анализом с соответствующими выводами.

Writing:

Письмо

Академический

Краткое изложение прочитанного, написание эссе



  1. England and the Class System


  1. The students should guess from the context – “classridden” could suggest something like “plagued by class distinction” or “cursed, haunted by class distinction”;

  2. The list of jobs can be done orally with the names written down on the board by the students so that everybody can work with the same list of job names, or individually so that the students will have different lists;

Lower

Class


Middle

class


Upper

Class


Lower middle

Class


Upper middle

class



  1. the students should write the jobs underneath the names of the classes. When finished, they should check with their neighbours. Most likely they will have placed a great number of jobs under the middle class heading, eg the picture of the English society of the 1940s:


Lower

Class

Lower middle

Class

Middle

Class

Upper middle

Class

Upper class

Worker

miner

Electrician

carpenter

Teacher

doctor

Lawyer

banker

Nobleman


(Upper classes consist entirely of country nobility – gentry (‘džentri). Being upper class can only be inherited.);

  1. Open to discussion. Yes, it is changing. For example today’s policy for the BBC is to accept different kinds of Englishes;

f) Open to discussion.


  1. Chart


  1. WWII levelled the traditional class distinctions;

  2. Chart to copy;

  3. In pairs the students will discuss the possible differences, then they will report back and exchange the ideas;

  4. Open to discussion.

NB: the North has traditionally been poor with a large population of working and lower middle class. By “the North” we refer to what used to be called the “Black Country”. There was heavy industry, which is no longer there, but its disappearance has resulted in today’s high unemployment.


The South has traditionally been rich with a large population of upper and middle class, intellectuals, a rich cultural life and inevitably more snobbery, selfishness and less readiness to share.


  1. L. S. Lowry


  1. Lowry uses grim colours, shades of grey, black, beige or yellowish, white with occasional red to describe the bleak atmosphere of the industrial city landscape. This is Manchester 1935. note the period fashion, smoke rising from the chimneys (not any longer, as the Clean Air Act banned the use of coal for heating in 1945), the shape of the pram, etc.;

  2. Lowry’s Street Scene creates the impression of a friendly place where people know each other, children play safely in the street, people stop to have a chat or comment on the latest news. Is the scene familiar to you? Does it resemble a scene from the street you live in?


4. John Osborne

Look Back in Anger


listening


  1. Jimmy and Alison are husband and wife. Cliff is a lodger and a friend of Jimmy’s, although he seems to be closer to Alison (addresses her as “lovely”). He is nice and gentle to her, while Jimmy is rough and unpleasant. Alison is a victim;

  2. It is Sunday. An English Sunday of the 50s was a day of non-activity. Here we get the lazy atmosphere of a terribly boring provincial Sunday;

  3. Alison is ironing (as she does for most of the play), Cliff is sitting on a couch reading a paper, Jimmy is also reading, possibly in an armchair. The room (living room?) is small.


Jimmy dominates the play, in his endless verbal outbursts against English life and society he expresses his anger and frustration. He enjoys listening to himself. Alison is socially his superior and in his campaign against the upper classes she and her family are his target.


reading


  1. The groups of three will read at the same time so that ideally everybody will have a change to speak out. The students should arrive at the conclusion that Jimmy is angry;

  2. Jimmy is angry. The group of writers is called the Angry Young Men (though this is not in fact a correct label. Many of the new writers were women, eg Iris Murdoch, Shelagh Delaney, Muriel Spark, were not young, nor were they really angry). Most of them wrote realistic novels, but there were also some who experimented or whose novels were deeply philosophical or even religious (Muriel Spark, Iris Murdoch or William Golding);


Jimmy is not really a hero, he is an anti-hero. His anger springs from his disillusionment: he comes from the working-class, but was given a chance to study at university. Now he does not know where he belongs. He is standing between the two worlds. A dropout from university, he is running a sweet stall. Why? Is it a sign of protest or uncertainty? Why did he marry Alison? To obtain revenge through her? Or to get to a better position? She, for him, is a symbol of everything he hates because he cannot be one of them;

  1. Everything is attached to an “everyday” – language, life, problems. The play has brought the familiar to the stage, something that on-one has done before in England. Simple names, working-class background, the North of England. Simple names, working-class background, the North of England and not the South, common people as heroes – all this makes a sharp contrast with the plays of 10 years ago. This is no intellectual drama. This is easy to understand, easy to read and it is easy to identify with the heroes.


5. Kingsley Amis

Lucky Jim


reading


  1. The words such as college, library, professor, donnish, students, Oxford, Cambridge, Professor of History, teaching tell us that the scene takes place at a university. “Even at a place like this” suggests the low quality of the university or at least this is what Jim thinks about its standard. Jim Dixon is entering his first job after graduating from university;

  2. The setting is at a university campus: such novels, with the heroes attached to the academic world, are called “campus novels”. Ask the student to try to remember some more … for example David Lodge (Changing Places, Nice Work, Small World) or Malcolm Bradbury (Eating People is Wrong). There could follow a discussion about the possible plots of campus novels. Which characters would appear and which would be the most likely plot of the campus novels? The term “campus” (‘kæmpƏs) refers to the grounds and buildings of a university or college. It is a world of its own with everything that a student needs – the term applies to all US universities and colleges and those in Britain that were built in the 60s;

c) Open discussion – their appearance.


  1. Alan Sillitoe


The loneliness of the Long Distance Runner


reading


  1. A Borstal is a young delinquents’ institution, which is clear from the extract. The boy is saying that his family has always been good at running away from the police. He has apparently had a good training because now he is a good runner;

  2. He is placed there for something vaguely described as a “bakery job”. The students can decide what that might mean – most possibly breaking into a bakery shop and stealing money;

  3. The family seems to be used to such a way of life – living on the ;"> Open to discussion: the students should discuss the differences in the language of the heroes of Sillitoe’s and Amis’s books. There is a clear difference in vocabulary, level of formality, correct usage of grammar.

    1. In fact, if you read on, you will discover that the narrator is a 17-year-old boy; Cops (infml) police (fml)

    Daft (infml) silly, idiotic (fml)

    Cunning (fml) sly, clever like a fox (fml)

    Bloke (infml) man (fml)

    To get on like a house on fire to get on very, very well

    To see eye to eye with somebody to agree with somebody


    UNIT 5


    FRANCIS SCOTT FITZGERALD(1896-1940)


    Reading:

    Чтение

    Ознакомительное, просмотровое/поисковое, изучающее- с целью полного понимания отрывков из произведений художественной литературы.

    Ответы на вопросы, выбор правильного ответа

    Speaking:

    Говорение

    Диалогическая/монологическая

    Передача и запрос информации, выражение отношения к прочитанному, оценочное описание мест, событий, повествование о событиях, сопровождающееся их анализом с соответствующими выводами.

    Writing:

    Письмо

    Академический

    Краткое изложение прочитанного, написание эссе





    2. Flapper


    a) flapper : a popular young girl with a distinctive lifestyle – drinking, changing partners, smoking.


    3. The Great Gatsby (1925)


    b) The family have been prominent, well-to-do people in the Middle Western city for three generations, with family tradition of noble origin (myth). In reality the founder was the grandfather’s brother, with a wholesale hardware business, that is carried on by Nick’s father. Participating in the Great War has changed Nick’s view on the Middle Western so he moved East and took up a different career (studying bond);

    c) возможны различные варианты ответов

    .


    6.


    a) her financial (social) status;

    b) Daisy uses and enjoys the advantages / privileges her money gives her.

    He : Gatsby; I : Nick.


    7.


    They didn’t care about the consequences of their actions; did not respect people or objects.


    8.


    He feels the emptiness, the hollowness – the house reflects this loss, the grass shows the sign of neglect.


    the party was over’ – Gatsby’s life ended.



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