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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Рабочие программы / Рабочая программа по профессиональному английскому языку для специальностей Архитектура и Дизайн 2-3 курс

Рабочая программа по профессиональному английскому языку для специальностей Архитектура и Дизайн 2-3 курс

  • Иностранные языки

Поделитесь материалом с коллегами:


МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РЕСПУБЛИКИ КАЗАХСТАН

КОММУНАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ КАЗЕННОЕ ПРЕДПРИЯТИЕ

«КОСТАНАЙСКИЙ СТРОИТЕЛЬНЫЙ КОЛЛЕДЖ»

УПРАВЛЕНИЯ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ АКИМАТА КОСТАНАЙСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ




УТВЕРЖДАЮ

Директор колледжа

______________Ю. Когай

«____» ____________2014г.






РАБОЧАЯ УЧЕБНАЯ ПРОГРАММА





По дисциплине: профессиональный английский язык

Для специальности: 1418000 Архитектура

Квалификации: 1418023 техник-проектировщик

ПЦК языков и литературы

























Костанай, 2014 г.



Учебную программу составили: Ерденова Л.Н.,Туркестанова Т.А.

Преподаватели общеобразовательных дисциплин

Программа одобрена на заседании ПЦК языков и литературы

Протокол №1 от «28»августа 2014 г.

Председатель ПЦК _______ А. Кушегалина





























Сведения о ежегодном переутверждении:


п/п

учебный год

сведения о рабочей учебной программе

дата

переутверждения,

протокола

подпись рук. ПЦК

1


2014-2015


Профессиональный английский язык



2









3







4






5












ҚАЗАҚСТАН РЕСПУБЛИКАСЫ БІЛІМ ЖӘНЕ ҒЫЛЫМ МИНИСТРЛІГІ

ҚОСТАНАЙ ОБЛЫСЫ ӘКІМДІГІ БІЛІМ БАСҚАРМАСЫНЫҢ

«ҚОСТАНАЙ ҚҰРЫЛЫС КОЛЛЕДЖІ»

КОММУНАЛДЫҚ МЕМЛЕКЕТТІК ҚАЗЫНАЛЫҚ КӘСІПОРНЫ





Бекітемін

Колледж директоры

­­­­­­_________ Ю.Когай

«_____»______2014ж






ОҚУ ЖҰМЫС БАҒДАРЛАМАСЫ





Пән бойынша: кәсіби ағылшын тілі

Мамандық бойынша: 1418000 Сәулет

Біліктілік: 1418023 Техник – жобалаушы

Тілдер және әдебиет ПЦК

























Қостанай, 2014 ж


Оқу бағдарламасын құрастырушылар: Ерденова Л.Н.,Туркестанова Т.А.

ағылшын тілі пәндерінің оқытушылары

Тілдер және әдебиет

ПЦК отырысында мақұлданған

1 хаттама «28» тамыз 2014 ж

ПЦК төрайымы ______ А.Кушегалина


































Жыл сайынғы қайта бекіту туралы мәліметтер:


Оқу жылы

Оқу жұмыс бағдарламасы туралы мәліметер

Қайта бекіту, күні

ПЦК төрайымының қолы

1


2014-2015


кәсіби ағылшын тілі



2









3







4






5









Пояснительная записка


1. Настоящая рабочая учебная программа по предмету«профессиональный иностранный язык» разработана в соответствии с Государственным общеобязательным стандартом Республики Казахстан по специальности 1418000 Архитектура, специализация 1418023 техник-проектировщик и типовой учебной программы.

2. Общий объем – 84 часов:

  • практических занятий- 84ч

3. При реализации настоящей рабочей учебной программы в соответствии с Государственным общеобязательным стандартом Республики Казахстан по специальности 1418000 Архитектура, предусмотрено проведение :

  • Зачет

Контрольные работы и зачеты (зачет) проводятся за счет общего бюджета времени, отводимого на изучение предмета, экзамены – в сроки, отведенные на промежуточную аттестацию.

4. Резервное время составляет 5-7% от общего количества часов, отводимого на изучение предмета.

5. Перечень разделов и тем является обязательным для изучения и не может быть изменен в сторону уменьшения.

6. Перечень разделов и тем может быть изменен (в том числе за счет резервного времени) в сторону углубления и (или) расширения изучаемых тем (разделов), в том числе, за счет введения регионального компонента.

7. Формы организации познавательной деятельности носят рекомендательный характер.

Количество часов на изучение разделов носит рекомендательный характер и может быть изменено при сохранении минимума содержания образования по дисциплине

8.Настоящая рабочая учебная программа предусматривает обучение практическому владению разговорно-бытовой речью и языком специальности для активного применения иностранного языка как в повседневном, так и в профессиональном общении.

Приобщая одновременно к знаниям и информации, как профессионального характера, так и этнокультурного и общечеловеческого характера. Обеспечить будущих специалистов владением английским языком, как средством межкультурного и профессионального общения путем формирования коммуникативной и профессиональной компетентности.

9. Настоящая рабочая учебная программа базируется на знаниях, умениях и навыках обучающихся по предмету «профессиональный иностранный язык»

10. При изучении предмета «профессиональный иностранный язык» необходимо проводить интеграцию с предметами: казахский , русский языки, история, технические специальности и архитектуру.

11. Изучение материала следует излагать грамотно и профессионально , уметь читать и переводить профессинальные тексты со словарем и без словаря, вести диалог по заданой теме, оперируя профессинальными терминами.

12. При реализации настоящей рабочей учебной программы рекомендуется использовать дидактические и наглядные пособия: плакаты, учебные видеофильмы, электронные учебники, учебные и учебно-методические пособия.

13. Настоящая рабочая учебная программа предусматривает проведение :

- аудиторные групповые занятия студентов под руководством преподавателя;

- обязательную самостоятельную работу учащихся по заданию преподавателя, контролируемую во время аудиторных групповых занятий (СРС)

- индивидуальную самостоятельную работу отдельных учащихся под руководством преподавателя, контролируемую во время дополнительных занятий (СРСП)

- внеаудиторную работу учащихся под руководством преподавателя, проводимую по желанию учащихся в различных формах (клубы, художественная самодеятельность, конкурсы, олимпиады и т.п.), согласно интересам учащихся.




ПЛАНИРУЕМЫЕ РЕЗУЛЬТАТЫ ОБУЧЕНИЯ ДИСЦИПЛИНЫ


Результаты обучения, запланированные в стандарте и образовательной программе

Результаты, запланированные в типовой учебной программе

Обучающиеся должны обладать следующими компетенциями:

базовыми:

усвоение фонетического, лексического и основных грамматических структур.

Умение работать с текстами со словарем и без словаря, выделить основную мысль, вести диалогическую и монологическую речь.




















В результате изучения дисциплины обучающиеся

знать:

  • лексику: словообразовательные модели, контекстуальные значения многозначных слов, термины, и лексические конструкции, соответствующего профилю изучаемой специальности;

  • грамматику: грамматические явления базового и технического языка.

уметь:

  • чтение: читать тексты со словарём и без словаря, находить заданную информацию, помнить содержание прочитанного;

  • письмо: заполнить бланк, написать небольшое письмо личного или делового характера;

  • перевод: переводить профессионально-ориентированные тексты с иностранного языка на русский с использованием словаря в соответствии с нормами языка перевода.

  • аудирование: понимать высказывания на иностранном языке;

  • говорение: излагать свои мысли и высказываться на иностранном языке соответственно речевым нормам языка, задавать вопросы и отвечать на них, поддерживать беседу на иностранном языке в объёме изученной тематике, адекватно употребляя коммуникационные реплики, пересказывать содержание прочитанного, услышанного.

компетентны:

уметь рассказать на английском языке о строительных профессиях, о видах и деятельности их работы и о архитектурных сооружениях.


профессиональными:

ПК 9.3 Дать профессиональные термины по координации архитектурных работ, дизайна и проектирования;


знают:

- названия строительных профессии, строительных материалов,о различных архитектурных зданий и сооружений на английском языке;

умеют:

- переводить профессиональные тексты со словарем и без словаря;

приобрели навыки:

- практического овладения разговорно-бытовой речью и языком специальности для активного применения иностранного языка как в повседневном, так и в профессиональном общении.

компетентны:

-переводить технические тексты









































Распределение по семестрам


Номер семестра

Учебные занятия

Число контрольных работ

Форма контроля

аудиторные

Общий объем часов

Всего

Теор.

Семинар.

Лабор.

Практич.

1

30

30




30



2

54

54




54


зачет

ИТОГО

84

84




84


зачет













































Тематический план.



 Наименование разделов и тем


Количество часов


Всего


Теории


практика

1

Architecture and design Архитектура и дизайн

Architecture and the architect.The art of architecture.

Design and build

Architectural planning.

Forms and functions of architecture

Emergence of design professionals

A contract between the client and the contractor

The architectural engineering

Building construction

Architectural design of a building

Architecture and ecology

Structural design Design criteria

22



22


2

History of ancient architecture .История древней архитектуры

Egyptian architecture

Great Sphinx

Ancient Greek architecture

The Athenian acropolis

Orders of architecture

Roman architecture

Coliseum

14


14

3

Early Christian and Byzantine architecture. Ранняя христианская и Византийская архитектура

Early Christian and Byzantine architecture.

Church of the Holly wisdom

Romanesque architecture

Lancet architecture Gothic Cathedrals

Neo Gothic

The rebirth of classical art The renaissance

Baroque

Rococo

Development of baroque in England

Neoclassicism

Neoclassicism In England

22





22


4

The architecture of turn of the centuries and our days.Архитектура начала веков и наших дней

The architecture of turn of the centuries and our days

Art nouveau

The architecture of the 20 th century

British architecture

8


8

5

Famous Architects Знаменитые архитекторы

The Great English Architects

English Neoclassical Architects

The famous Russian architects

The famous Kazakhstan architects

8


4

6

Architecture and design in Kazakhstan Архитектура и дизайн в Казахстане

Kazakhstan architecture and design today.

Аstаnа.

Baiterec

Ak – Orda

Khan Shatyr

10


10


Барлығы: Итого:

84


84






































Содержание дисциплины

1Architecture and design

1.1Architecture and the architect. The art of architecture.

Architecture

Architecture is the temple of life. G.K. Muennig Architecture is the art and science of designing and building structures, or ensembles according to aesthetic and functional criteria. Structures built in accordance with such principles are also architecture.

Architecture is employed to fulfil the practical and expressive requirements of civilized people. Almost every settled society that possesses techniques for building produces architecture. It is necessary in all but the simpliest cultures; without it, man is confined to a primitive struggle with the elements; with it, he has not only a defense against the natural environment but also the benefits of a human environment, a prerequisite for and a symbol of the development of civilized institutions.

1.2 Design and build

The characteristics that distinguish a work of architecture from other man-made structures are (1) the suitability of the work to use by human beings in general and the adaptability of it to particular human activities; (2) the stability and permanence of the work's construction; and (3) the communication of experience and ideas through its forms.

All these conditions must be met in architecture. The second is a constant, while the first and the third vary in relative importance according to the social function of buildings. If the function is chiefly utilitarian, as in a factory, communication is of less importance. If the function of buildings. If the function is chiefly expressive, as in a monumental tomb, utility is a minor concern. In some buildings such as churches and city halls, utility and communication may be of equal importance.

1.3Architectural planning.

Architectural Planning

The architect usually begins to work when the site type and cost of a building have been determined.

Planning the environment. The natural environment is at once hindrance and a help, and the architect seeks both to invite its aid and to repel its attacks. To make building habitable and comfortable, he must control the effects of heat, cold, light, air, moisture, and dryness and foresee destructive potentialities such as fire, earthquake, flood, and disease.

The placement and form of buildings in relation to their sites, the distribution of spaces within buildings, and other planning devices discussed below are fundamental elements in the aesthetics of architecture.

Orientation. The arrangement of the axes of buildings and their parts is a device for controlling the effects of sun, wind, and rainfall.

1.4Forms and functions of architecture

Materials and techniques. The choice of materials is conditioned by their own ability to withstand the environment as well as by properties that make them useful to human being. One of the architect's jobs is to find a successful solution to both conditions; to balance the physical and economic advantages of wood against the possibility of fire, termites, and mold, the weather resistance of glass and light metals against their high thermal conductivity, and many similar conflicts.

Interior control. The control of the environment through the design of the plan and the outer shell of a building cannot be complete since extremes of heat and cold, light, and sounds penetrate into the interior, where they can be further modified by the planning of spaces and by conditioning devices.

Temperature, light and sound are all subject to control by the size and shape of interior spaces, the way in which the spaces are connected, and the materials employed for floors, walls, ceilings, and furnishings.

1.5Emergence of design professionals

Architecture is an art. Its nowadays expression should be cre­ative and consequently new. The heritage of the past cannot be ig­nored, but it must be expressed in modern terms. There exists an evident paradox in the coexistence of change and survival in every period of human civilisation. This paradox of change and repetition is clearly illustrated in any architectural style.

Architecture is also the style or manner of building in a particu­lar country or period of history. There are widely known examples of Gothic architecture all round the globe. During many centuries mankind admires the architecture of ancient Greece or Roman Em­pire as well.

Nearly two thousand years ago the Roman architect Vitruvius listed three basic factors in architecture. They are convenience, strength and beauty. These three factors have been present and are always interrelated in the best constructions till the 21st century. *No true architect could think of any of them3 without almost auto­matically considering the other two as well. Thus, architectural de­sign entails not only the necessity to study various solutions for con­venience, structure, and appearance as three separate processes. Architectural design also includes the necessity to keep in mind the constant interaction of these factors. It's impossible for an architect first plan a building from the point of view of convenience, and then make the design of a strong construction around his plan to shelter it.

1.6 A contract between the client and the contractor

This triple nature of architectural design is one of the reasons why architecture is a difficult art. *It needs some unique type of imagination4 as well as long years of training and experience to make a designer capable of getting requite in the light of these three factors—use, construction, and aesthetic effect—simultaneously. The designer must have a good knowledge as of engineering so of building materials. This knowledge will enable him to create eco­nomically strong and practical construction. The designer, in addi­tion, must possess the creative imagination, which will enable him to integrate the plan and the construction into the harmonious whole. The architect's feeling of satisfaction in achieving such integration is one of his/her (their) greatest rewards.

1.7The architectural engineering

What Is Meant by "Bioclimatic Architecture"

Bioclimatic architecture is a way of designing buildings and manipulating the environment within buildings by working with nat­ural forces around the building rather than against them. Thus it concerns itself with climate as a major contextual generator, and with benign environments using minimal energy as its target. Biocli­matic architecture aims to protect and enhance the environment and life. It is developing on many different levels from rethinking basic concepts about our need for shelter and the function of the "city" in our lives to developing recycled or sustainable building materials.

1.8Building construction

Many thousands of years ago there were no houses such as peo­ple live in today. In hot countries people sometimes made their homes in the trees and used leaves to protect themselves from rain or sun. In colder countries they dwelt in caves. Later people left their caves and trees and began to build houses out of different materials such as mud, wood or stones.

Later people found out that bricks made of mud and dried in the hot sunshine became almost as hard as stones. In ancient Egypt espe­cially, people learned to use these sun-dried mud bricks. Some of their buildings are still standing after several thousands of years.

The ancient Egyptians discovered how to cut stone for building purposes. They erected temples, palaces and huge tombs. The great­est tomb is the stone *pyramid of Khufu1, king of Egypt. The ancient Egyptians often erected their huge constructions to conmemorate their kings or pharaons.

The ancient Greeks also understood the art of building with cut stone, and their buildings were beautiful as well as useful. They often used pillars, partly for supporting the roofs and partly for de­coration. Parts of these ancient buildings can still be seen today in Greece.

1.9Architectural design of a building

Nowadays when it is necessary to have a very tall building, the frame of it is first built in steel and then the building is completed in concrete. Concrete is an artificial kind of stone, much cheaper than brick or natural stone and much stronger than they are. The earliest findings of concrete building fragments belonging to prehistoric times were discovered in Mexico and Peru. The Egyptians in the construc­tion of bridges, roads and town walls employed it. There are evi­dences that ancient Greeks also used concrete in the building pur­poses. The use of concrete by the ancient Romans can be traced back as far as 500 B.C.

1.10Architecture and ecology

Ecology is the study of the relationship of plants and animals to their environment. The flow of material and energy between things within their environment is their spatial context their community. It is the study of that spatial connectivity between organism and environment that makes ecology an excellent model for sustainable design. Conceptually, sustainable design expands the role of the design program, moving the design goal from object to community, and then designs the connections, illustrating the relationship between available energy and the natural place.

The flow of renewable energy, which powers all the essential processes needed for life, dwarfs the power and use of nonrenewable energy sources. These energies power functions at no cost and without pollution-loading the environment.


1.11Structural designDesign criteria

Planning and architecture must work together to be sustainable. Sustainable design challenges the designer to design connections to the site and to the site’s resident energy—to design holistically and connectedly and address the needs of the building and the environment and community of which it is a part. Sustainable design and planning make use of the regional climate and local resources. To design sustainably is to integrate the design into the ecology of the place—the flows of materials and energy residing in the community.

2.History of ancient architecture

2.1Egyptian architecture

During the Old Kingdom, the period when Egypt was ruled by the Kings of the 3rd to 6th Dynasties, artists and craftsmen were drawn to the court to work under the patronage of the king and his great nobles. Techniques of working in stone, wood, and metal made tremendous progress, demonstrat» ed by surviving large scale monuments, such as the pyramids of the 4th Dynasty and the sun temples built by the 5th-Dynasty kings. The pyramids of the 4th Dynasty are the most spectacular of all funerary works and the only remained wonder of the world. These monuments celebrated the di­vinity of the kings of Egypt, linking the people with the great gods of earth and sky.

2.2Great Sphinx

The concept of the king as a powerful lion goes back into prehistoric times, and several ceremonial objects have survived which depict him in this guise, overthrowing his enemies. The sphinx was, therefore, a natural de­velopment, personifying the divine power of the king as a force protecting his land and repelling the power of evil.

The Great Sphinx is one of the most distinctive and dominant of all the images of ancient Egypt, which is perhaps the source of the misconception that sphinxes are of central importance in Egyptian culture. However, those that have survived are among the most impressive as well as intriguing ex­amples of Egyptian sculpture.

2.3Ancient Greek architecture

As one of the world's oldest cities Athens boasts a wealth of splendid relics of Hellenic art, some of which are more than 3,000 years old. The Acropolis, the Greek for upper town, the gem of world architecture, stands on a low rocky hill and contains the ruins of several ancient Greek archi­tectural monuments.

The Parthenon, a stately building with an eight-column facade, was built by Ictinus and Calibrates in 447—38 BC. The temple was designed to serve as an exquisite, imposing architectural frame for a stupendous gold and ivo­ry statue of Athena, the goddess in the Greek pantheon watching over the city. This no longer extant statue, which stood in the anterior of the shrine, was held in deep reverence.

2.4The Athenian acropolis

Next to the Parthenon is another shrine, an Ionic temple of Athena, the Erechtheum, built by an anonymous architect in 421—06 BC. Its refined loveliness and proportions are a very bit as enchanting as the monumental grandeur of the Parthenon. It has the unparalleled portrayal of a contem­porary event on the frieze of the building: the procession of citizens in the yearly festival in honour of Athena built on an awkward site, it also had to serve different cults, which meant that its architect had to design a build­ing with three porches and three different floor levels. Its Caryatid porch, with figures of women for columns, makes use of an old Oriental motif that had appeared earlier, in Archaic treasuries at Delphi. The monumental gateway to the Acropolis, the Propylaea was designed by Mnesicles, who had to adapt the rigid conventions of colonnade construction to a steeply rising site. In the precision and finish of their execution, which comple­ments the brilliant innovation of their design, these three buildings had no rival in the Greek world.

2.5Orders of architecture

In Roman architecture there were three types of houses: the domus, the insula, and the villa.

The domus, or town house, consisted of suites of rooms grouped around a central hall, or atrium, to which were often added further suites at the rear, grouped around a colonnaded court, or peristyle. The atrium, a rect­angular room with an opening in the roof to the sky, and its adjoining rooms were peculiarly Roman elements; the peristyle was Greek or Middle East­ern. There were few windows on the street, light being obtained from the atrium or peristyle.


2.6Roman architecture

Modern knowledge of Roman architecture derives primarily from ex­tant remains scattered throughout the area of the empire. Some are well preserved, and other are known only in fragments and by theoretical res­toration. Another source of information is a vast store of records. Especially important is a book on architecture by the architect Vitruvius. His De Ar-chitectura (c.27 BC) is the only treatise survived from ancient times. It con­sists often books and covers almost every aspect on architecture.

Pervasive Roman predilection was for spatial composition -— the orga­nization of lines, surfaces, masses, and volumes in space. In this the Ro­mans differed from their predecessors in the ancient Mediterranean world, and, however freely they used the elements of earlier styles, in Rome or in the provinces they recast them according to their own taste.

2.7Coliseum

The largest and most important amphitheatre of Rome was the Colos­seum, built by the emperors Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian in about AD 70/75 —82. Covering six acres (2.4 hectares), it had seating for about 50,000 spectators, and its 80 entrances were so arranged that the building could be cleared quickly. The whole is built of concrete, the exterior faced with travertine and the interior with precious marbles.

Other important amphitheatres are those at Verona, Italy; Pula, Yugo­slavia; and Aries, France.

Imperial thermae were more than baths. They were immense establish­ments of great magnificence, with facilities for every gymnastic exercise and halls in which philosophers, poets, rhetoricians, and those who wished to hear them gathered.

The best preserved are the Baths of Caracalla (begun c. AD 217), which covered an area about 1,000 feet square, and those of Diocletian (c. AD 298—306), with accommodation for 3,200 bathers.

3.Early Christian and Byzantine architecture

3.1Early Christian and Byzantine architecture.

The art characteristic of the developed Byzantine Empire can be traced back to the period just before the reign of Justinian, c. AD 500. The style had enormous influence on both the East and the West. Early Byzantine art may to some extent be regarded as Roman art transformed under influ­ence of the East. It reached a high point in the 6th century, rose again for a short time to new heights during the 11th and 12th centuries and still sur­vives among Greek or orthodox communities.

The dominant Byzantine art was architecture. As in Early Christian times, the two chief types of church were basilican with a long colonnaded nave covered by a wooden roof and terminating in a semicircular apse and the vaulted centralized church with its separate components gathered un­der a central dome. Of the latter type, the chief examples are SS Sergius and Bachus (526, Constantinople), San Vitaly (526-547, Ravenna).

3.2Church of the Holly wisdom

Though Justinian's domed basilicas are the models from which Byzan­tine architecture developed, Hagia Sophia remained unique, and no attempt was thereafter made by Byzantine builders to emulate it. In plan it is al­most square, but looked at from within, it appears to be rectangular, for there is a great semidome at east and west above that prolongs the effect of the roof, while on the ground there are three aisles, separated by columns with galleries above. At either end, however, great piers rise up through the galleries to support the dome. Above the galleries are curtain walls (non-load-bearing exterior walls) at either side, pierced by windows, and there are more windows at the base of the dome. The columns are of finest mar­ble, selected for their colour and variety, while the lower parts of the walls are covered with marble slabs. Like the elaborately carved cornices and capitals, these survive, but the rest of the original decoration, including most of the mosaics that adorned the upper parts of the walls and the roof, have perished.

3.3Romanesque architecture

The generic term Romanesque is sometimes applied to embrace all the styles of architecture which, in most European countries, followed the Early Christian style and preceded the introduction of the Gothic style, c. 1200. It is often subdivided into pre-Romanesque, which includes the Lombardic, Carolingian, and Ottonian or Rhenish styles as well as Saxon and Ro­manesque proper, which is taken to have begun c. AD 1000.

From the ancient Roman tradition, the pre-Romanesque architects adopted characteristic features: the semicircular arch, the groined cross vault, and a modified and simplified form of the Corinthian column with its capital of acanthus leaves. Occasionally, at an early period, they used carved fragments of antique buildings. They made important advances upon Roman structural methods in balancing the thrust of heavy vaults and domes by means of buttresses, and in substituting thinner webs supported on the curved stone ribs for the thick vaults used by the Romans.

The Romanesque period lasted two centuries, and was the great age of European monasticism.

3.4Lancet architectureGothic Cathedrals

The proportions are not large, but the skills and precision with which the vaulting is managed and the subjective effect of the undulating chain windows around the perimeter have given the abbey its traditional claim to the title "first Gothic building".

It should be said that in France and Germany this style is subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Gothic.The French middle phase is called Rayonnant, the late — Flamboyant.

In English architecture the usual divisions are Early English, Decora­tive, and Perpendicular.

Early English Gothic developed from c. 1180 to c.1280. The most in­fluential building in the new fashion was the choir of Canterbury cathedral (1175—1184), which has many of the features of Laon cathedral.

3.5Neo Gothic

One of the earliest buildings in which these techniques were introduced in a highly sophisticated architectural plan was the abbey of Saint-Denis, Paris.

English architects for a long time retained a liking for heavy surface dec­oration: thus, when Rayonnant tracery designs were imported, they were combined with the existing repertoire of colonettes, attached shafts, and vault ribs. The result which could be extraordinarily dense — for instance, in the east (or Angel) choir (begun 1256) at Lincoln cathedral and at Ex­eter cathedral (begun before 1280) — has been called the English Deco­rated style (1280-1350).

3.6The rebirth of classical art The renaissance

On the authority of Vitruvius, the Renaissance architects found a har­mony between the proportions of the human body and those of their ar­chitecture. There was even a relationship between architectural proportions and the Renaissance pictorial device of perspective.

The concern of these architects for proportion caused that clear, mea­sured expression and definition of architectural space and mass that dif- ferentiates the Renaissance style from the Gothic and encourages in the spectator an immediate and full comprehension of the building.

In the early 15th century an Italian architect Filippo Brunelleschi for­mulated linear perspective, which was to become a basic element of Re­naissance art. At the same time, Brunelleschi investigated ancient Roman architecture and acquired the knowledge of classical architecture and or­nament that he used as a foundation for Renaissance architecture.

3.7Baroque

Baroque and late Baroque, or Rococo, are terms applied to European art of the period from the early 17th century to the mid-18th century.

"Baroque" was probably derived from the Italian word barocco. This term was used by philosophers during the Middle Ages to describe an ob­stacle in schematic logic. This word also described an irregular or imper­fectly shaped pearl.

During the Baroque period (c. 1600-1750), architecture, painting, and sculpture were integrated into decorative ensembles. Architecture and sculpture became pictorial, and painting became illusionistic. Baroque art was essentially concerned with vivid colours, hidden light sources, luxuri­ous materials, and elaborate, contrasting surface textures.

3.8Rococo

During the period of the Enlightenment (about 1700 to 1780), various currents of post-Baroque art and architecture evolved. A principal current, generally known as Rococo, refined the robust architecture of the 17th cen­tury to suit elegant 18th-century tastes. Vivid colours were replaced by pas­tel shades; diffuse light flooded the building volume; violent surface relief was replaced by smooth flowing masses with emphasis only at isolated points. Churches and palaces still exhibited an integration of the three arts, but the building structure was lightened to render interiors graceful and ethereal. Interior and exterior space retained none of the bravado and dom­inance of the Baroque but entertained and captured the imagination by intri­cacy and subtlety.

3.9Development of baroque in England

The Baroque rapidly developed into two separate forms: the strongly Roman Catholic countries (Italy, Spain, Portugal, Flanders, Bohemia, southern Germany, Austria, and Poland) tended toward freer and more active architectural forms and surfaces; in Protestant regions (England, the Netherlands, and the remainder of northern Europe) architecture was more restrained and developed a sober quiet monumentally impressive in its re­finement. In the Protestant countries and France, which sought the spirit through the mind, architecture was more geometric, formal, and precise — an appeal to the intellect.

3.10Neoclassicism

The classicism that flourished in the period of 1750-1830 is often known as Neoclassicism, in order to distinguish it from the classical architecture of ancient Rome or of the Renaissance.

The search for the intellectual and architectural truth characterized the period. Stylistically this began with an onslaught on Baroque architecture, which — with its emphasis on illusion and applied ornament — was felt to be manifestly untruthful.

Essentially representing a new taste for classical serenity and archaeo-logically correct forms, 18th-century classicism manifested itself in all the arts.

The discovery, exploration, and archaeological investigation of classical sites in Italy, Greece, and Asia Minor were crucial to the emergence of Neoclassicism.

3.11Neoclassicism In England

The centre of international Neoclassicism was Rome. The cradle of Ital­ian antiquities, it provided the stage, but the leading actors in the Neoclas­sical drama were French, German, or English; very little was contributed by Italians to this new movement. The centre of activity was the French Academy. The winners of the Academy's Prix de Rome went to Italy to study the monuments firsthand. The projects produced by the French Prix de Rome winners are characterized by their grandeur of scale; strict geo­metric organization; simplicity of geometric forms; Greek or Roman de­tail; dramatic use of columns, particularly to articulate interior spaces and create urban landscapes; and a preference for blank walls and the contrast of formal volumes and textures. The same qualities describe Neoclassical architecture as it was to emerge throughout Europe and in America.

4.The architecture of turn of the centuries and our days.

4.1The architecture of turn of the centuries and our days

An individual and highly romantic reaction to the currents of eclecti­cism and academic classicism (Ecole des Beaux-Arts in late 19th century architecture) Art Nouveau was a diverse phenomenon which affected most of Europe and, some historians argue, even North America between 1890 and 1910. It was known at the time under a variety of rubrics — for instance, in England it was the "modern style", in Germany it was called the Ju-gendstil, in France it was known variously as the "style nouille" (noodle style), "style Guimard" (after Henry Guimard, who designed the decora­tive entrance to the Paris Metro Stations in 1899), or Art Nouveau. The Austrians named it Secessionsstil; in Italy it was the "stile Liberty" or "stile floreale", and in Spain "modernisme".

4.2Art nouveau

Often referred to simply as the style 1900, Art Nouveau expresses an essentially decorative trend that aims to highlight the ornamental value of the curved line, which may be floral in origin (Belgium, France) or geo­metric (Scotland, Austria). This line gives rise to two-dimensional, slender, undulating and invariably asymmetrical forms. The applied arts were the first to be affected (textiles by William Morris, 1880; wood-engraved title page to Wren's City Churches by Arthur H. Mackmurdo, 1883; vases by Emile Galle, 1884; ornamental lettering by Fernand Khnopff and Georges Lem- men, 1890-1; mural tapestry The Angels' Vigil by Henry van deVelde; 1893; furniture by de Gustave Serrurier-Bovy, 1891).

Among the most characteristic architectural products of Art Nouveau, widely differing in purpose and plastic expression, were: the houses built by Paul Hankar in Brussels (1893—1900); works of Willem Kromhout (1864-1940), Th. Sluyterman (1863-1931) and L. A. H. Wolf in the Netherlands; Guimard's Castel Beranger (1897—1898), entrances to Metro stations and the auditorium of the Humbert de Romans building (1902, destroyed) in Paris; Horta's Maison du Peuple (1896—1899, destroyed) and the former Hotel Solvay (1895—1900) in Brussels.

4.3The architecture of the 20 th century

Le Corbusier was the dominant figure internationally in modern archi­tecture from 1920 to 1960.

He proposed the "Modulor", a system of proportions grounded on the golden section or the Fibonacci series using the human figures as its basis, formulated the famous definition of architecture as 'the masterly correct and magnificent play of masses brought together in light'. His comparisons with engineering constructions and with modern forms of transportation were formulated into such oft-misunderstood postulates as 4he house is a machine for living in' and that it should be as practically constructed as a typewriter. By this he meant not a mechanistic 'machine aesthetic1 but rath­er complete rationality in plan, capacity for serial-production and function.

4.4British architecture

Buildings: first impressions

What makes the look of British towns and cities distinctive? The most striking feature is the lack of blocks of flats. People prefer to live in individual houses — units with their own front doors and sometimes gardens. Perhaps this says something about the national character; a love of privacy and a lack of interest in the wider community. There is a proverb: "An Englishman's home is his castle."

Whatever the deeper reasons for it, the result is that British towns and cities are full of two or three-storey houses. Only in the 1950s and 60s did councils start building tall blocks of flats in the American style; but these have been very unpopular, and the cheaper ones are now being demolished.

Another distinctive feature of British buildings is the use of brick. Some of the oldest monuments, like Hampton Court Palace or Queens' College, Cambridge, are made of brick. It remains the favourite material for new houses today. While the rest of the world prefers concrete, for some reason the British taste is for brick, at least in smaller buildings.

5.Famous Architects

5.1The Great English Architects

British architecture is going through a dynamic period, with several big international names such as James Stirling and Norman Foster. Perhaps the architect best known in Britain is the designer of the Millennium Dome, Richard Rogers. He too, has carried out many major projects abroad. He was responsible for the airport in Marseille, numerous office complexes in Japan and the USA, and (with an Italian, Renzo Piano) for the great Centre Pompidou in Paris. In his own country he has worked on many smaller projects, such as the flats shown in the photograph on the right. But he is best known for the most spectacular modern building in the financial centre of London - the Lloyd's Building. Although it contains a very conservative insurance business, and is in the oldest part of London, it is an extraordinary and daring piece of modern architecture - all steel and glass, with pipes and lifts on the outside.

5.2 English Neoclassical Architects

Richard Rogers is also modern in his philosophy. He is extremely concerned about the environmental aspects of design: can a building use solar power, can it make the most of natural light, and can it function without wasteful air conditioning? He is keen to make London a better place to live in, with less traffic and more spaces in which people can enjoy city life. Talking about famous parts of the city like Oxford Circus, Parliament Square and Marble Arch, he says: "They are dangerous, degrading, inhuman and unnecessary spaces where vehicles have replaced people, and the servant has become the master. ... clean, live-work cities based upon the bicycle and upon walking, are absolutely possible." Happily, the government is beginning to follow Rogers' advice and the future of London is looking brighter; there are, for example, plans for a car-free Trafalgar Square.

5.3The famous Russian architects

An important part in this process was played by the Institute of Architecture, founded by M. F. Kazakov. The five million roubles allocated by the government were insufficient to rebuild the city, and so the expense of reconstruction was mostly borne by the inhabitants. Some buildings in the centre of the city were rebuilt according to the Commission's plan, in particular, the Petrovsky (now the Bolshoi) Theatre (architects O. I. Beauvais and A. Kavos), Moscow University (architect D. Gilliardi) and others. In the 18205 and 18305 Teat-ralnaya Square and the squares at the Triumfalny, Krasny and Arbatsky gates were laid out. During re­building of the houses, some streets were straightened, and the Zemlyanoi Wall (Zemlyanoi Gorod) was pulled down and replaced by a wide circular thoroughfare, the Sadovoye Koltso (the Garden Ring Road). The river Neglinnaya, which flowed through the very centre of the city, was channelled underground (1823).

In the first half of the nineteenth century there ap­peared several splendid creations by outstanding archi­tects : the Manege (riding-school-architect O. I. Beauvais, 1817), the town house of tibe Khrushchevs on Kropotkin Street (architect A. Grigoriev, 1814), the building of the Opekunsky Soviet (Board of Guardians) on Solyanka (architect D. Gilliardi, 1826), the Nieskuchnoye house on Leninsky Prospekt (architect E. Tyurin, 1830s), ani many others.

5.4The famous Kazakhstan architects

The Emblem of the sovereign Kazakhstan was officially adopted in 1992. The authors of the State Emblem are Kazakhstan’s famous architects Zhandarbek Malibekov and Shot-Aman Ualikhanov.  

The State Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan has the shape of a circle (wheel). It is a symbol of life and eternity that was especially valued among the nomads of the Great Steppes.

The central heraldic element of the State Emblem is the image of shanyrak (an arched cross-shaped top of the Kazakh yurt) against a sky blue background which irradiates uyks (supports or bearings of the yurt) in the form of sunrays to all sides. On both right and left of shanyrak there are images of mythical winged quarter horses. At the top of Emblem there is a volumetric five-pointed star. There is also the inscription “Kazakhstan” at the bottom of the Emblem. The images of shanyrak, uyks, and mythical horses, as well as the inscriptions “Kazakhstan”, have the colour of gold.

Shanyrak is a main backbone part of the yurt that resembles a blue sky. It is also one of the key elements of Kazakh family dwelling in the traditional culture of Eurasian nomads. The image of shanyrak on the State Emblem of the republic is a symbol of common home and common homeland of all people living in Kazakhstan. The stable development of Kazakhstan depends on welfare of each citizen just like the strength and stability of shanyrak depends on reliability of all its uyks.        

6. Architecture and design in Kazakhstan

6.1Kazakhstan architecture and design today.

Development of ecological architecture in Kazakhstan is especially topical nowadays, due to deterioration of natural environment condition. Kazakhstan is among the leading triplet of CIS countries for releasing of noxious substances into the atmosphere. Along with that, 60% of air pollution is produced by vehicles.

Following the results of the seminar, recommendations for the state authorities will be worked out regarding further intensification  of ecological transport and architecture development”, - report the organizers.

6.2Аstаnа.

The design of the National Library combines four universal archetypes across space and time into a new national symbol: the circle, the rotunda, the arch and the yurt are merged into the form of a Mobius strip. The clarity of the circle, the courtyard of the rotunda, the gateway of the arch and the soft silhouette of the yurt are combined to create a new national monument appearing local and universal, contemporary and timeless, unique and archetypal at the same time.

6.3Baiterec


The Baiterek is rather a whimsical object in itself, being neither a monument nor a functional building. It’s more like a high-tech 21st century version of the Georgian follies that sprang up around the English countryside in the 18th century. The tangle of lattice steelwork that towers up from the water-green boulevard and flares symmetrically at the apex represents the Baiterek (or poplar) tree and the golden ball plunked in the flared latticework at the apex represents the golden egg laid by the mythical Samruk bird. The word “Samruk” crops up quite often in modern Kazakh such as the Samruk-Kazyna national welfare fund. The old Kazakh legend describes the Samruk bird that lays the golden egg of opportunity in its nest in a poplar tree – a legend that of course begs to be extrapolated into modern culture.

6.4Ak – Orda

Akorda is one of the visible images of the country’s new philosophy of development. The symbolical and functional designation of the residence was fully reflected in the design of front facades and interiors, in their stylistic and a colour scheme. The building’s design that is traditional for the European architecture has been given new features. By its concept and realization Akorda embodies the image of Kazakhstan’s independence. Kazakh and eastern motifs in the palace’s architectural decoration are expressed by a theme of circles and ornamental decor. The project’s distinctive feature and its exclusive is a unique collection of Kazakh fine arts works that contributes to the residence’s stylistic wholeness. Metaphorically it reflects a steppe civilization in the mirror of the European culture, a synthesis of arts of the planet’s largest continent - Eurasia. The aesthetic system of the building’s external shape and interiors harmoniously goes back to best samples of the traditional European architecture. The works of the Kazakhstani artists exhibited at the residence make up the very balance of the western and eastern cultures Kazakhstan is proud of while positioning itself as a state that unites cultures of great civilizations.

6.5.Khan Shatyr

Enclosing an area in excess of 100,000 square metres it comprises an urban-scaled park, with a 450-metre jogging track, along with a wide variety of shopping and leisure facilities, including restaurants, cinemas and entertainment spaces that can accommodate a varied programme of events and exhibitions. The park steps up the height of the building in undulating terraces and a water park, with wave pools and slides, weaves its way through the landscape.

The tubular-steel tripod structure supports a suspended net of steel radial and circumferential cables, which is clad with a three-layer ETFE envelope, formed as 3.5 x 30-metre cushions - a very light, economical and thermally efficient solution. The translucent material allows daylight to wash the interiors while sheltering them from weather extremes.

Specific enclosures within the envelope are air conditioned, but the open circulation areas are environmentally tempered, with target temperatures of +14 degrees Celsius in winter and +29 degrees in summer. Low-level jets direct cool air across the space, while vents at the apex induce natural stack-effect ventilation. The challenge in winter is to prevent ice forming on the inside of the envelope. This is achieved by a combination of temperature control and directing warm air currents up the inner fabric surface, a strategy that also prevents downdraughts.





































Вопросы для итогового контроля


1.Architecture and design

2.Architecture and the architect.

3.The art of architecture.

4.Design and build

5.Architectural planning.

6.Forms and functions of architecture

7.Emergence of design professionals

8.A contract between the client and the contractor

9.The architectural engineering

10.Building construction

11.Architectural design of a building

12.Architecture and ecology

13.Structural design

14. Design criteria

15.History of ancient architecture .

16.Egyptian architecture

17.Great Sphinx

18.Ancient Greek architecture

19.The Athenian acropolis

20.Orders of architecture

21.Ionic Order

22.Doric Order

23. Corinthian Order

24.Roman architecture

25.Coliseum

26. Early Christian architecture.

27.Byzantine architecture.

28.Church of the Holly wisdom

29. Hadga Sophia

30.Romanesque architecture

31.Lancet architecture

32.Gothic Cathedrals

33.Neo Gothic

34The rebirth of classical art

35.The renaissance

36.Baroque

37.Rococo

38.Development of baroque in England

39.Neoclassicism

40.Neoclassicism In England

41The architecture of turn of the centuries and our days

42.Art nouveau

43.The architecture of the 20 th century

44.British architecture

45.Famous Architects

46.The Great English Architects

47.English Neoclassical Architects

48.The famous Russian architects

49.The famous Kazakhstan architects

50. Architecture and design in Kazakhstan

51Kazakhstan architecture and design today.

52.Аstаnа.

53.Baiterec

54.Ak – Orda

55.Khan Shatyr


















































Список рекомендуемой литературы


Основная литература

1 . Ажищев Н.И., Суэта Ф.С. «Профессия строитель» Сборник текстов на английском языке с упражнениями. М.1997

2..Г. Выборов К. Махмурян «Easy reading». Книга для чтения. Москва «АСТ – пресс» 1998

3 Г. Выборов..«Easy English» М. «Посвящение». 1997

4.А.Парахина «Учебник английского языка» М. «Просвещение». 1987

5. А.Парахина пособие по переводу технических текстов с английского языка на русский…1982

6.А.Миролюбова. А..В.Парахина «Общая методика преподавания иностранных языков в средних специальных учебных заведениях» под редакцией М.1984



Дополнительная литература

1 . Ажищев Н.И., Суэта Ф.С. «Профессия строитель» Сборник текстов на английском языке с упражнениями. М.1997

2. Бонк Н.А., Лукьянова Н.А., Памухина Л.Г. «Учебник английского языка» Фирма «Фора», Иваново, 1995. 2 тома

3. Буренина Л.К. Консон С.В. Учебник английского языка для средних специальных учебных заведений. М.1982

4. Вавилова М.Г. «Самоучитель английского языка» Издательство «Вече» М.2001

5. Ванина Е.П. Тестовые задания по английскому языку. «Лист» Москва.1998

6. Васильевич В.Г. «Познакомьтесь с Великобританией и США». М.1988

7. C.E. Eskersley and Margaret Macaulay Easy English «Brighter Grammar»

М. «Посвящение» 1997

8. Клементьева. Т. «Happy English» 2. Издательство Титул. 2000

9. Маметова С.С. Сборник тестов по английскому языку. Астана-2005

10.Некрасова С.В. «Популярная грамматика английского языка». Москва ЗАО Славянский дом книги 1999* Конституция Республики Казахстан 1995г.

11. Конвенция по техническому и профессиональному образованию. Париж 10.11.1989г.

12.'"Конституционный закон РК «О государственных символах РК» от 4 июля 2007 года№ 258.

13.'"Закон РК «О государственной молодежной политике» от 7 июля 2004 года № 581 с '/изменениями от 5.07.2011 г.

14.*3акон РК «Об образовании» от 27 июля 2007 года № 319-111 (измененный).

15.'"Закон «О языках в РК» от 11 июля 1997 года №151 с изменениями от 18.01.2012г.

16. '"Закон РК «О правах ребенка в РК» от 8 августа 2002 г. №. 345

17.Закон РК «О борьбе с коррупцией» от 2 июля 1 998 года № 267-1

18.Закон РК «О профилактике и ограничении табакокурения:» от 10 июля 2002 года №340-2

19. Закон РК «О науке» от 1 8 февраля 2011 года №> 407- IV.

20.Закон РК «О религиозной деятельности и религиозных объединениях» от 18.10.11 г.

21.'"Постановление Правительства РК «О концепции поддержки и развития
конкурентоспособности молодежи на 2008-201 5гг.» от 20 июля 2007 года № 516.

22.'"Концепция воспитания в системе непрерывного образования РК.

23.'"Концепция развития образования РК до 2015 года от 24 февраля 2004 года протокол №3.

24.Приказ Министра образования и пауки «Об утверждении Правил организации
учебного процесса по дистанционным образовательным технологиям» от 13 апреля
2010г. № 169.

25.'"Государственная программа развития образования РК на 2011-2020 гг.

26.'"Устав Костанайского строительного колледжа.

27.'"План развития Костанайского строительного колледжа на 2012-2017гг.

28.'"Концепция Костанайского строительного колледж".


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3. При реализации настоящей рабочей учебной программы в соответствии с Государственным общеобязательным стандартом Республики Казахстан по специальности 1418000 Архитектура, предусмотрено проведение :

·                   Зачет

Контрольные работы и зачеты (зачет) проводятся за счет общего бюджета времени, отводимого на изучение предмета, экзамены – в сроки, отведенные на промежуточную аттестацию.

4. Резервное время составляет 5-7%  от общего количества часов, отводимого на изучение предмета.

5. Перечень разделов и тем является обязательным для изучения и не может быть изменен в сторону уменьшения.

6. Перечень разделов и тем может быть изменен (в том числе за счет резервного времени) в сторону углубления и (или) расширения изучаемых тем (разделов), в том числе, за счет введения регионального компонента.

7. Формы организации познавательной деятельности носят рекомендательный характер.

Количество часов на изучение разделов носит рекомендательный характер и может быть изменено при сохранении минимума содержания образования по дисциплине

 8.Настоящая рабочая учебная программа предусматриваетобучение практическому владению разговорно-бытовой речью и языком специальности для активного применения иностранного языка как в повседневном, так и в профессиональном общении. 

Приобщая одновременно к знаниям и информации, как профессионального характера, так и этнокультурного и  общечеловеческого характера. Обеспечить будущих специалистов  владением английским языком, как средством межкультурного и профессионального общения путем формирования коммуникативной и профессиональной компетентности.

9. Настоящая рабочая учебная программа базируется на знаниях, умениях и навыках обучающихся по предмету «профессиональный иностранный язык»

 

10. При изучении предмета «профессиональный иностранный язык» необходимо  проводить интеграцию с предметами: казахский , русский языки, история,  архитектуру.

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Дата добавления 07.05.2015
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Рабочие программы
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