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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Другие методич. материалы / Рабочая тетрадь для самостоятельной работы студентов технических специальностей

Рабочая тетрадь для самостоятельной работы студентов технических специальностей

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In the history of the theory of light we see that two very dif-

different models have vied * from the outset * as to which is the true

model to be u s e d. On the one hand2, light was pictured as a

wave motion of some sort3, and on the other as a flight ** of fast-

moving particles.

During the 19th century the former model gained* universal5

acceptance6 thanks to a remarkable7 series of developments on

both the experimental and theoretical basis.

The wave theory of light seemed to have defeated

the particle theory when it explained the approximately rectilinear

propagation. The theory was found by the physicists

to be adequate enough to explain all the experimental re-

results of the nineteenth century in terms of* the wave theory.

However, early in the twentieth century a series of observa-

observations on photo-electricity gave rise* to a really serious difficulty

for the wave theory. It was found that light could cause atoms

to em it electrons and that, when light released an electron from

an atom, the energy possessed by the electron very greatly exce-

exceeded 10 that which the atom could, according to electromagnetic-

wave theory, have received. It was at this point that the wave

theory failed" to suggest12 an explanation. It was this fact and

others associated13 with it that showed the wave hypo-

hypothesis to be incomplete.

A return14, at leasti5 to some extent, to the particle theory of

light appeared to be necessary. In 1905 Einstein sug-

suggested that in order to adequately" describe these observations,

it was necessary to assume17 that the energy of a light beam18 is

not evenly spread over the whole beam, but is concentrated in the

form of small particles proportional to the frequency of light.

These localized concentrations of energy he called "photons" or

"light quanta".

For the observation to be described in detail it

is necessary to assume that the photons corresponding19 to light

of the wavelength all have the same energy, those of blue light

having nearly20 twice21 the energy of the red. Photons are propa-

propagated like particles. It is assumed that there are usually a very

large number of them, the energy in any one photon being very

small. Thus in most ordinary22 experiments, the energy of a light

beam is evenly distributed M, just as M a gas exerts a very nearly

uniform25 pressure on the surface of an ordinary vessel, because

each molecule is very small and the number of molecules is very

large. When the movements of an ultra-microscopic particle are

observed the irregularities26 of the Brownian movements show the

discontinuous27 "structure" of the gas. In a similar way28, the

atom presents to the light' beam an area so small that it indi-

indicates the presence29 of "molecules of light" or photons.

Thus, on the one hand, stand all the phenomena of interference,

diffraction and polarization which are so well described by the

wave theory. On the other hand, modern experiment has greatly

increased the number and range of the experiments which are

readily30 described in terms of photons. The electromagnetic

picture has no place for the photons, and the particle theory has

no place for the wave. Yet, both are required to give a complete

description of the phenomena.

According to the present concept light has a dualS1 character

such that it may be represented equally well by waves or by

particles. The wave and particle properties of light are found

by modern scientists to be two different aspects

of the same thing. These two aspects are to be regarded as

complementary32 rather than antagonistic, each being correct

when dealing with the phenomena in its own domain 33: In macro-

macroscopic effects light can be treated as a continuous wave and in

microscopic ones the photon aspect begins to become important.

Though there seems to be no doubt34 as to the essential

correctness of this theory we still find it difficult to

understand how these two theories can both be true. Yet, we

are forced to do so by the mass of good evidence35 which can be

brought forward in support of each of them. The acceptance of

this concept required a fundamental w change in our ideas.


Грамматические упражнения

1. Переведите предложения, содержащие конструкцию «инфинитив как часть

сказуемого» .Укажите возможные способы перевода коиструкции.

Назовите глаголы — первые компоненты сказуемого, которые помогают

опознать данную конструкцию.


A body is said to be in motion...

Тело, как говорят, находится в движении...

Говорят, что тело находится в движении...

1. Light is thought to be...

2. The speed of these particles is found to be...

3. The rocket is known to be used...

4. These forces are believed to act...

5. The changes in the orbit are considered to be...

6. These charged particles are supposed to possess...

7. The planet is expected to have...

8. The direction of the current is assumed to be...

9. The diameter of this star is reported to be...

10. This cyclotron appears to develop...

11. The solid fuel rocket seems to be...

12. The speed of particles happens to change...

13. These conditions are likely to be found...

14. Uranium is unlikely to exist...

2. Переведите предложения, содержащие конструкцию «инфинитив как часть

сказуемого». Обратите внимание на форму инфинитива .


The results are known to be used...

Результаты, как известно, используются...

The results are known to have been used...

Результаты, как известно, были использованы..,

[. The rocket is found to develop speed...

2. The rocket is found to have developed speed.,.

3. The rocket was found to develop speed...

4. The rocket has been found to develop speed..,

5. The properties of the elements are known to vary...

6. The properties of the elements are known to have varied..,

7. This limitation appears to have been overcome,,.

8. This limitation appeared to be overcome...

3. Переведите предложения, содержащие в составе сказуемого инфинитив.

Укажите, к какому компоненту сказуемого следует отнести при переводе

отрицание. Обратите также внимание на перевод группы су-

существительного с предлогом, стоящей между первым компонентом сказуе-

сказуемого и инфинитивом.

1. The Sun is known to have a 11-year cycle of activity.

2. The proton is found to be 1840 times heavier than the


3. The speed of light in vacua is one of the fundamental physi-

physical constants and has been found to be very close to 3.00ХЮ10

centimetres per second.

4. Sputnik II is reported to have weighed about 1120 pounds.

5. The Sun of a certain galaxy is said to have a diameter more

than 16 times the distance from the Sun to the Earth.

6. The first Earth's satellites were expected to stay on their

orbits for a month or two.

7. Heat was thought to be a material substance.

8. The atmosphere of Saturn is believed to be about 16,000

miles deep.

9. Billions of stars are assumed to exist in the universe.

10. Some of the meteors are supposed to have formed when

comets that passed near the Earth broke up.

4. Переведите предложения, определив инфинитивные конструкции и функции


1. Advancement in electronic techniques appears to be endless.

2. All forms of radiant energy have been found to travel

through space with the same speed.

3. Temperatures on the surface of Mars, which seems to be

the most comfortable place for life to exist beyond our Earth with-

within the solar system, are also of some interest.

4. Most physicists believed in the latter half of the nineteenth

century cathode rays to be charged particles.

5. Satellites in Earth orbits of about 600 miles or greater can

normally be expected to remain in orbit for thousands of years.

6. The first satellite to be designed and developed in England

was Ariel 3 which was successfully put into orbit on May 5, 1967.

7. To say that an object is travelling at a speed of 20 ft/sec

(feet per second) does not describe the motion completely.

8. A day on Jupiter has been observed to be 9 Earth hours-

and 55 minutes long, the shortest of any of the planets.

9. When sound waves are directed on the diaphragm they

cause it to move backwards and forwards.

10. The choice of radioisotope to be used as the source is

determined by the thickness of the product to be measured.

Лексические упражнения

1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа то, что выделенные при.

лагательные имеют близкие значения.

1. The plane was provided with a conventional piston engine.

2. The measurement of the pressure distribution over the sur-

surface of a model is a common type of experiment in wind-tunnel


3. Ordinary liquids are bad conductors compared to metals.

2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод наречий hardly,

nearly A,20), readily A,30), necessarily @).

Помните, что значения этих наречий нельзя вывести иа основе значений

соответствующих прилагательных. Сравните значения прилагательных и


1. Nearly all the models which were tested proved successful.

2. Liquids are perfectly elastic, but they are so nearly incom-

incompressible that this property is not of much practical use.

3. The voltage will hardly remain the same during the ex-


4. In 1918 aeroballistics as a science hardly existed.

5. Cold neutrons are useful as they penetrate most solid

materials readily.

6. Radiation in the infrared region can be readily detected

by heat it produces.

7. For the application of the computer to the solution of

engineering problems a working knowledge of differential equa-

equations is necessarily assumed.

8. Plasmas need not necessarily be associated with high tem-


3. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа перевод существительного

evidence A,35).

1. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries chemists

slowly had been accumulating evidence that all matter was com-

composed of atoms.

2. The photographic evidence clearly indicates that approxi-

approximately 90 per cent of all visually observable meteors are of

cometary origin.

3. The 1956 close approach of Mars brought very little new

evidence concerning the origin of geometrical patterns on its


Краткое описание документа:

Данная методическая разработка представляет собой рабочую тетрадь,

предназначенную для обучения переводу научно-технической литературы с англий-

английского языка на русский.

Целью пособия является развитие навыков перевода на основе изучения

лексики и грамматических конструкций, характерных для этого вида литературы.

Тетрадь состоит из семи уроков, упражнений на отработку

отдельных переводческих задач.

Каждый урок содержит:

1. Основной текст для перевода с английского языка на русский.

2. Упражнения на решение грамматических и лексических задач, специальные упражнения на перевод.

Основные тексты уроков подобраны таким образом, чтобы каждый из них

отражал определенные грамматические н лексические явления.

Грамматические упражнения уроков преследуют цель создания грамматических навыков перевода.

Лексические упражнения служат для закрепления слов, предназначенных

для усвоения и выработки необходимых лексических навыков перевода

В качестве материала для грамматических и лексических упражнений

используются предложения и отрывки, взятые из оригинальной научно-технической литературы.

Независимо от того, ведется ли работа под руководством преподавателя

или учебник прорабатывается учащимися самостоятельно, изучение уроков

рекомендуется начинать с проработки грамматического материала.

К переводу основного текста следует приступать после первичного закре-

закрепления грамматического материала.


Лексические упражнения следует, как правило, выполнять устно. 

Дата добавления 29.11.2014
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
Номер материала 161535
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