Раздел 2. Чтение
Установите соответствие между заголовками A – G и текстами 1 – 8. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую букву только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.
5. A long journey
6. A great discoverer
7. History of Democracy
A new style of architecture
8. Learning from home
Howard Carter is one of the most famous archeologists of all times. Since his childhood he was in love with Ancient Egypt. Helping archeologists, he first became a good artist, and later a good excavator. Together with Theodore Davies he discovered the tombs of two great ancient kings, but his greatest discovery was yet to come. After 5 years of searching he found the tomb of king Tutankhamun, the only tomb so far which has not been robbed of its rich contents. Howard carter is now remembered as one of the greatest persons of the 20th century due to this discovery.
One of the most famous journeys of the ancient world is that of Odysseus, king of Ithaka. After the end of the Trojan war he started a voyage home with his 12 ships. He had to sail through storms, escape with his men from the evil Lotus Eaters, was cursed by the cyclope Polyphemus and was chased by the sea-god Poseidon. Odysseus lost 11 ships to a cannibal tribe, spent a year on the witch Circe’s island and further seven years in captivity on the nymph Calypso’s island and upon return to his home island he had to save his family and house from evil men. And the 10 years he spent on his voyage are more famous than his heroic deeds during the war.
The rule of people started in Ancient Greece, where citizens of Athens elected their own rulers. Similar elections were held in Ancient Rome for the king, and in Medieval Europe people elected Parliaments. In some countries, like Poland, supreme rulers were elected by the aristocracy. The French and the American revolutions made elections possible for all classes. And since late 19th century women started to get the right to vote. Now the majority of countries hold general elections for their executive and legislative power.
People could learn things by correspondence as early as in 1728. Since then modern technology has made education even more accessible for those who cannot or do not wish to leave their houses. In many countries you can study by correspondence, receive educational programs on radio and TV, take online courses and finally get your degree without having to travel far.
Computers changed the way we study. You can now get almost any information from the internet, you can have entire libraries on your hard drive and you can talk to your teachers online without having to leave your home. Special programs will check your work, correct your answers and help you study at a convenient pace. Teaching software helps students achieve higher results by making education more individual.
Liquid paper, windscreen wipers and chocolate chip cookies have more in common than you may imagine: they were all invented by women. We have to thank women for such very practical things as the dishwasher, invented by Josephine Cochran, the non-reflecting glass, invented by Katherine Blodgett, vacuum packed canning, invented by Amanda Jones, and many other things that make our lives comfortable every day.
When Modernism appeared in late 19th century, it changed, among other things, our ideas of architecture. Perhaps the brightest examples of this type of architecture were created by Antonio Gaudi. His works are highly original and are often described as an integration of materials, processes and poetry. His curving, almost surreal, sculptural buildings mark the height of Modernism, which brought new designs of buildings into everyday lives.