The great inventions and inventors.
a fellow – villager – односельчанин
literate - грамотный
to leave (left) – покидать, уезжать
to enter – поступать
educational - образовательное
a grade – ступень
to complete - закончить
to transfer – переводить
mining – горное дело
to suggest – предлагать
to make the way – отправиться
Прочитайте текст 1.
Mikhail Vasilievich Lomonosov was born in 1711, in the village of Denisovka, Archangelsk Gubernia, to the family of a fisherman. A literate fellow-villager taught him to read and to write. At the age of 17 Mikhail left his native village, and made his way to Moscow. In Moscow he entered the Slav- Greek-Latin Academy. This Academy was only higher educational institution in Moscow at that time. Lomonosov' s capabilities and hard work enabled him to complete the Academy in four years. He did not finish the last grade, as he was transferred to Petersburg to study at the University of the Academy of Sciences. Less than a year Lomonosov was sent abroad to study metallurgy and mining.
After his return to Russia Lomonosov became a professor in chemistry and a full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Lomonosov is often called the founder of Russian science.
Among the numerous discoveries of Lomonosov is the Law of Conservation of Mass, Theory of atoms and molecules. He regarded heat as a form of motion, suggested the wave theory of light. Interested in the development of Russia education, Lomonosov helped to found Moscow State University in1755, and in the same year wrote a grammar. In 1760 he published the first history of Russia. Mikhail Vasilievich Lomonosov died in 1765, at the age of 54.
Exercise 1 Переведите следующие интернационализмы без словаря, затем проверьте себя по словарю:
Atmosphere, material, academy, metallurgy, professor, chemistry, mass, theory, atom, molecule, result, institution, to transfer, history, motion, grammar, conservation.
Exercise 2 Найдите в правой колонке английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:- способности и усердный труд
- он был послан
- в то время
- часто называют
- среди многочисленных открытий
- последний курс
- закон сохранения массы вещества
- горное дело
- форма движения
- заинтересован в развитии
- the Law of Conservation of Mass
- often called
- capabilities and hard work
- at that time
- was sent
- last grade
- among the numerous discoveries
- form of motion
- to make the way
- interested in the development
Exercise 3 Закончите предложения, используя слова и выражения текста:
He left his native village, and …
… as he was transferred to Petersburg.
Less than a year Lomonosov…
… enabled him to complete the Academy in four years.
Lomonosov helped to found…
He regarded heat as…
Lomonosov became a professor…
… the found of Russian science.
Exercise 4 Составьте предложения из следующих слов:
Taught, fellow-villager, a literate, to read, to write, him.
Sent, mining, abroad, to study, and, metallurgy, he, was.
Entered, Moscow, in, he, the, Slav- Greek-Latin Academy.
Heat, motion, regarded, he, as a form, of.
Lomonosov, found, Moscow State University,helped, to, 1755, in.
Was, only, institution, in Moscow, at, this, time, Academy, higher, educational, that.
Exercise 5 Ответьте на вопросы:
What family was M. Lomonosov born to?
Who taught him to read and to write?
Where did Lomonosov study?
Why didn’t Lomonosov finish the last grade of Academy?
How did Lomonosov get to Moscow?
Did he study only in Russia?
What theories and laws did Lomonosov discover and formulate?
What theories and laws did Lomonosov discover and formulate?
Exercise 6 Поставьте специальные вопросы к выделенным членам предложения:
His father was a fisherman. (Who? What?)
At the age of 17 Mikhail left his native village. (When?)
A literate fellow-villager taught him to read and to write. (Who?)
He studies at the Slav- Greek-Latin Academy. (Where?)
Lomonosov was sent abroad to study metallurgy and mining. (Why?)
After his return to Russia Lomonosov became a professor in chemistry. (When?)
Lomonosov helped to found Moscow State University. (What?)
Exercise 7 Перескажите текст «M.V. Lomonosov».
a wire – проволока(провод)
an achievement - достижение
an invention - изобретение
to belong - принадлежать
to spend - проводить
to accept - принимать
to improve - улучшать
weak - слабый
to receive – принимать(получать)
to devote – посвящать
Перед чтением текста выполните следующие упражнения
Exercise 8 Переведите следующие интернационализмы без словаря.
Значение выделенных слов посмотрите по словарю:
Radio, genius, human, demonstrate, contribution, physical, university, priority, laboratories, transmission, music, problem, electromagnetic, communication, operation, apparatus, vision, signals, meeting, period, industry, radar, telecontrol, telemetric systems, electronic microscopes.
Exercise 9 Проанализируйте состав следующих слов:
wireless (wire – проволока(провод); inventor; invention; highquality (quality – качество); broadcasting; television; network; powerful (power – власть, мощность); telecontrol.
Exercise 10 Переведите на русский язык следующие сочетания слов:
Wireless receiving set – radio; the existing conditions; research work; a research worker; electromagnetic wave; electromagnetic field; the art of radio communication; high – quality transmission; the Russian Physical and Chemical Society.
Exercise 11 Дайте исходные формы слов и определите к каким частям речи они относятся:
Biggest, best, given, flies, drying, dying, stopped, worst, men, better; feet.
Exercise 12 Определите синтаксическую функцию выделенного слова дайте его исходную форму:
The earliest man could not measure or count at all.
He used his fingers, hands and feet for measuring.
Later he started to use pieces of wood or metal of exact lengths as standards.
And now in measuring we still use such words as foot.
Exercise 13 Прочтите текст 2. Постарайтесь понять общее содержание и ответьте на вопросы, стоящие после текста.
“A. S. Popov – inventor of the radio”
The wireless receiving set or radio is one of the greatest achievements of human genius. Priority in the invention of radio belongs to the Russian scientist Popov. On the 7th of May we celebrate Radio Day because on that day in 1895 the Russian scientist Alexander Popov demonstrated his first radio set to a meeting of the Russian Physical and Chemical Society.
S. Popov was born in 1859 in the Urals. While at school he spent all his free time on physics and mathematics. He studied at St. Petersburg University and graduated from it with honors, but was not satisfied with the conditions of the laboratories of the University and accepted the post of teacher in the Mining school in Kronstadt. There he began his research in electrical engineering.
Popov worked on a sensitive receiving set which could pick up even the weakest radio waves. The year of 1895 is considered to be the date of the invention of the radio when Popov demonstrated his radio receiving set in operation. By the end of the year he improved his apparatus. It was the first radio receiving set in the world.
1. to satisfy - удовлетворять
2. the Mining school – минная школа
3. to pick up – ловить
4. is considered to be – считается
Exercise 14 Ответьте на вопросы
1. Who is the inventor of the radio?
3. When did A.S. Popov study and work?
2. When do we celebrate Radio Day?
4. What problem was he interested in ?
5. When was the radio invented?
Exercise 15 Составьте план текста 2 и перескажите его.
Exercise 16 Прочитайте тексты 3,4,5,6,7 и так же перескажите их
Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev.
Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev is a famous Russian chemist. He is best known for his development of the periodic table of the properties of the chemical elements.
This table displays that element’s properties are changed periodically when they are arranged according to atomic weight.
Mendeleyev was born in 1834 in Tobolsk, Siberia. He studied chemistry at the University of St. Petersburg, and in 1859 he was sent to study at the University of Heidelberg. Mendeleyev returner to St. Petersburg and becam Professor of Chemistry at the technical Institute in 1863. He became Professor of General Chemistry at the University of St. Petersburg in 1866. Mendeleyev was a well-known teacher , and, because there was no good textbook in chemistry.
In this book Mendeleyev tried to classify the elements according to their chemical properties. In 1869 he published his first version of his periodic table of elements. In 1871 he published an improved version of the periodic table, in which he left gars for elements that were not knows at that time. His table and theories were proved later when there predicted elements: gallium, germanium, and scandium were discovered.
Mendeleyev investigated the chemical theory of solution . He found that the best proportion of alcohol and water in vodka is 40%. He also investigated the thermal expansion of liguids and the nature of petroleum.
In 1893 he became director of the Bureau of Weights and Measures in St. Petersburg and held this position until his death in 1907.
Alfred Bernhard Nobel
Alfred Bernhard Nobel was a famous Swedish Chemist and inventor. He was born in Stockholm in 1833. After receiving an education in St. Petersburg, Russian, and then in the United States, where he studied mechanical engineering, he returned to St. Petersburg to work with his father in Russia. They were developing mines, torpedoes , and other explosives.
In a family – owned factory in Heleneborg , Sweden, he developed a safe way to handle nitroglycerine , after a factory explosion in 1864 killed his younger brother and four other people. In 1867 Nobel achieved his goal: he produced what he called dynamite. He later produced one of the first smokeless powders. At the time of his death he controlled factories for the manufacture of explosives in many parts the world. In his will he wanted that the major portion of this money left became a fund for yearly prizes is his name. The prizes were to be given for merits in physics, chemistry, medicine and physiology , literature, and world peace. A prize in economics has been awarded since 1969.
Railroads were not possible without the invention of the steam engine, which was first developer as a source of power for boats.
Richard Trevithick, an English engineer, experimented with stationary and moving steam engines. In 1804 he invented a steam locomotive that could move ten tons of iron and seventy people along ten miles of cast iron track in Wales. This marked the beginning of railways in England, a development that spread all over the world. This invention brought together the idea of iron rails and the steam engine. While rails had been around for a long time, they had only been made of wood and were used only in coalmines.
In 1814, George Stephenson, an English engineer, built a locomotive in the coal mine in which he worked. Eleven years later he came up with the engine, Locomotion. This new steam locomotive pulled the first train on a newly built line from Stockton to Darlington in the northern part of England. This train hauled coal between the towns, but passengers still rode in horse-drawn wagons because people were worried about the safety of these new machines.
All of the long experimenting in transportation during the Industrial Revolution created the basic for today’s transportation systems-fast, efficient trains, ocean liners and super highways that transport both people and goods. The industrial revolution and transportation revolution developed together.
Alexander Graham Bell.
Alexander Graham Bell never planned to be an inventor. He wanted to be a musician or a teacher of deaf people. The subjects that he studied in school included music, art, literature, Latin and Greek. They did not include German, which most scientific and technical writers used in their books, or science or math.
Alexander’s mother was a painter and a musician. His father was a well-know teacher. He developed a system that he called “Visible Speech”, which he used
Exercise1. Назовите глаголы, в которых окончание «y» меняется на «i» при образование 2-й формы глагола:
try play stay vary
occupy study dry
Exercise2. Назовите глаголы, у которых конечная согласная буква удваивается перед окончанием – ed:
hope stop help thin
step cool need open
Exercise3. Распределите глаголы, приведенные в данном списке в форме Past Simple, в три колонки в зависимости от чтения окончания – ed ([d],[t],[id] ):
Dropped, presented, occupied, turned ,developed, improved, returned, collected, devoted, agreed, impressed, stayed, answered, asked, wondered, watched, passed, solved, wanted, visited.
Exercise 4. Найдите в тексте все неправильные глаголы и дайте их основные формы.
Exercise 5. Поставьте следующие предложения в отрицательную и вопросительную формы:
Образец: «+» At the age of 17 he left his native village.
«?» Did he leave his native village?
«-» He didn't leave his native village.
Lomonosov began his studies in Moscow.
They worked together.
He lived in a poor family.
Lomonosov became a professor in chemistry.
My mother read many books.
You entered school at age of seven.
He was a founder of Russian science.
Exercise 6. Заполните пропуски соответствующей формой глагола в прошедшем простом времени:
I … late yesterday and… not time for breakfast (to get up, to have).
We… in Moscow during our last holidays. (to stay)
When… they… in Moscow (to arrive)?
The sportsmen… that they… happy to return home (to stay, to be).
My brother… school last year. (to finish)
How many days a week … you work last month (to do)?
We… our weekend in the countryside (to spend).
I… to study English two years ago (to begin).
We… this film last week (to see).
Why … you decide to enter the technical school? (to do)