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Made by: Anastasiia Gepolova and Daria Bogomazova. 7V class

Modernism — the direction in art of the end of XIX — the beginnings of the XX century, characterized by a gap with the previous historical experience of art creativity, aspiration to approve the new, nonconventional beginnings in art, continuous updating of art forms, and also convention (a schematization, an abstractness) of style.

In literature the modernism succeeded the classical novel. Instead of the biography began to offer the reader literary interpretations of various philosophical, psychological and historical concepts, characterized deep penetration into an inner world of heroes.

Friedrich Nietzsche, Henri Bergson, William James, and others were the philosophers who affected writers of modernists. The modernism did away with old style in the first three decades of the 20th eyelid and considerably reconsidered possible literary forms.

Joseph Conrad (Józef Theodor Conrad Kozhenyovsky's pseudonym) — the English writer. The Pole by origin, he gained recognition as the classic of English literature.

Iosif Korzhenevsky was born in the village of Terekhovo in a family of the Polish nobleman, poet Apollon Corgenevsqui. In 1861 Apollon Corgenevsqui was banished to Vologda for participation in the Polish liberation movement. His wife, Evelina Korzhenevskaya (Bobrovskaya), went with the four-year-old son after the husband.

After moving the same year Iosif's mother died of a consumption. The father with the son moved at first to Lviv, then to Krakow where in 1869 Apollon Corgenevsqui died, having left 11-year-old Iosif the orphan. The boy was accepted in Faddei Bobrovsky's family, uncles from a mother's side.

At the beginning of the 1880th years Conrad got over to England. In different courts he was the sailor, the second assistant, in 1884 passed examination for a rank of the first assistant, and in 1886 received the certificate of the captain. The same year I obtained the British citizenship, having officially changed a name on Joseph Conrad, and I wrote the first story "Black Navigator".

In January, 1894 Conrad returned to London, having decided to finish sea service. The literary debut of Conrad took place in 1895 when the novel "Olmeyer's Whim" was published. It was followed by novels "Exile" (1896), "The Black from "Narcissus"" (1897), "Lord Jim" (1900), the story "Heart of Darkness" (1902), the novel "Nostromo" (1904) and other works. Under the influence of Dostoyevsky "The secret agent", "The secret accomplice" (1907) and "West Eyes" wrote some political novels, among them (1911).

Conrad's popularity grew. In 1914 by the invitation of the Polish writer Józef Retinger he arrived to Poland, from where it was necessary to get out hardly after the beginning of World War I. Being going to write the novel about Napoleone "Expectation", in 1921 Conrad visited Corsica, and in 1923 visited the USA. In 1924 Conrad refused the knightly rank offered him.

Conrad was married to Jesse George, they gave birth to sons Boris and John. All life Conrad continued the friendship with Galsworthy which began onboard "Torrance". Besides, he entered into the friendly relations with the critic Edward Garnet, writers Ford Medoks Ford, Henry James, Herbert Wells, the philosopher Bertrán Russell.

Joseph Conrad died on August 3, 1924 of heart attack in the house in Bishopsborna. The novel "Expectation" remained incomplete.

Thomas Stearns Eliot — the American-English poet, playwrights the literary critic, the representative of a modernism in poetry.

I was born in a rich family. His grandfather was the priest who constructed church and founded university college. The father was the president of the industrial company, mother was fond of literary activity. Since early years I showed uncommon abilities, in 14 years under the influence of Omar Khayyam's poetry I started writing verses. In 1906 after the termination of private school I entered the Harvard university which ended in three years instead of four. A year more worked as the assistant at university. I started publishing the verses in the Harvard Lawyer magazine in which began to work as the editor.

Being the poet avant-gardist, I treated the modern world rebellious. Crisis of spirit became the central theme of his creativity. Ideas popular at that time about loss by the person of data had noticeable impact to it on Eliot's formation by God of cultural wealth and a self-devastation as a fight consequence for a survival and pursuits of material values.

Eliot was also prominent critic. Its articles were published in various periodicals. In 1920 there was a collection of its esthetic works "The sacred wood". Eliot reminded contemporaries of half-forgotten John Donne and about other "metaphysical poets" among whom he especially highly appreciated Andrew Marvell of Webster's idzhon. Eliot generally rejected poetry of classicism and romanticism as embodying "dissociation of sensibility", that is a divergence of mind and feeling. Eliot sharply opposed reason and feelings, considering that the poetry shouldn't address to them directly.

I died in London at the age of 76 years and it is buried in Westminster abbey.

Virginia Vulf — the British writer, the literary critic. Leading figure of modernist literature of the first half of the XX century.

Virginia Vulf was born in London in a family of the famous literary critic sir Lesley Stephen and Julia Dakuort. Virginia was Lesley and Julia's third child. When Virginia was 13 years old, her mother died, and it became the reason of the first nervous breakdown of the writer.

Vulf got an education of the house, her parents became her teachers. After death of mother elder sister Stella, but soon was engaged in affairs in the house and she dies. Virginia after her death has one more nervous breakdown. But at this time she nevertheless finds forces to study, studying Greek, Latin, German and history in college for girls in London. At this time elder sister, Vanessa does household chores. At the father during this period character is corrupted and he becomes the house despot. In 1904 the father of Virginia died, and it provoked still a bigger attack. After death of the father the family got over in Blumsberi where their house is visited by many famous young people. Since 1909 Virginia starts publishing the critiques in magazines, continuing business of the father. There is a work on the first novel.

In 1912 she marries Leonard Vulf, the writer, the journalist. Marriage became the union of the people respecting each other. In 1917 spouses found Hogarth Press publishing house (English), all works of the writer from where were published. Virginia itself gathered, edited texts. The publishing house which first wasn't making profit became a reliable source of the income of a family Vulf. Leonard created ideal conditions for work to both of them, it in every possible way supported Virginia.

Headaches, voices, visions didn't leave Virginia, it tried to kill herself several times. The writer was very exacting to herself and to the works, copied novels of ten times. She stopped keeping the diary only during diseases, diaries appeared the separate edition in 4 volumes, also there were 5 volumes of letters of Virginia which she wrote friends, the sister, Leonard and Vitya Sekvill-Uest, her girlfriend with whom they got acquainted in 1922. Love from Virginia together with the offense caused by Vita's treason became a basis of the novel "Orlando" in which the main character turns into the woman.

On March 28, 1941 I put on a coat, I filled pockets with stones and it was drowned in the river Ouz, near their house in Sussex. The body was found by children in two weeks after the tragedy, on April 18, 1941. The husband of the writer buried her the cremated remains under an elm in a house garden in Sussex.

Romana Virginia were published not only in England, but also in America, are translated into 50 languages, including the translations of such writers, as Jorge Luís Borges and Margarit Yursenar. She is considered one of the best novelists of the XX century and the advanced modernist writer. Vulf consider the main innovator of English. In the works she experimented a stream of consciousness and allocated not only a psychological, but also emotional component in behavior of the main characters. Its popularity decreased after World War II, but interest in its works returned after feminist movements in the 1970th. Its novels carry a big share of experimentalism: the narration often doesn't take an accurate plot and place of events.

Sir Clive Steyplz — the English and Irish writer, the scientist and the theologian. It is known for the works on medieval literature and Christian apologetics, and also works of art in zhanrefentez. One of prominent representatives of the Oxford literary group "Inklingov".

I was born on November 29, 1898 in Belfast, in Northern Ireland, in a family of the solicitor, but I lived the most part of life in England. Lewis's grandfather arrived to Ireland in the middle of the XIX century from Wales.

I got an initial education at home, then in 1908 I was admitted to school in Watford. After closing of school it was trained in several colleges, at this particular time I lost belief in God.

After leaving school in 1917 comes to Yuniversiti-college of Oxford, but soon gives up occupations and it is called up for the British military service by the junior officer. After wound in World War I in 1918 will get demobilize and comes back to university where finishes training.

In 1919 under a pseudonym Clive Hamilton publishes the collection of verses "Oppressed spirit"

From 1933 to 1949 round Lewis the circle of friends which became a basis of literary and debatable group "Inklingi" which participants were John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, Warren Lewis, Hugo Dayson, Charles Williams, doctor Robert Havard, Owen Barfild, Uevill Kogkhill, etc. gathers.

In 1950 — 1956 the cycle "Chronicles of Narnia" which brought to Lewis an international recognition is published. For the book "Last Fight" from this series Lewis got Carnegie's award

In 1954 moves to Cambridge where teaches English and literature in college of Magdalena, and in 1955 becomes the member of the British academy.

In 1963 Clive Lewis stops teaching activity because of heart troubles and an illness of kidneys.

I died on November 22 the same year, without having lived week up to the 65 anniversary. To death it remained at the position in Cambridge and was elected the honorary member of college of Magdalena. Kuerri, Oxford is buried in the yard of Holy Trinity Church to Hedington.

Joanne Rowling — the British writer, the most known as the author of a series of novels about Harry Potter. Books about Potter received some awards and were sold in number of more than 400 million copies. They became the most sold series of books in the history and a basis for the series of movies which became the most cash series of movies in the history [5]. Rowling herself approved scenarios of movies and completely controlled creative process, being the producer of the last part.

Rowling worked as the research associate and the secretary and translator of "The international amnesty" when during a trip by train from Manchester to London in 1990 it had an idea of the novel about Harry Potter. In the next seven years mother Rowling died, she got divorced from the first husband and lived in poverty, didn't publish the first novel in a series, "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" (1997) yet. Subsequently she wrote 6 sequels — the last was "Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows" (2007) — and also 3 additions to this series. After that Rowling left the agency and started writing for adult readers, having published the tragicomedy "Casual Vacancy" (2012) and — under the pseudonym "Robert Gelbreyt" — criminal novels "Call of the Cuckoo" (2013) and "Silkworm" (2014).

In five years Rowling passed a way from life on a social benefit to the status of the multimillionaire. It the most on sale author in Great Britain, with sales volume more than 238 million pounds sterling. In 2008 Sunday Times Rich List estimated Rowling's fortune in 560 million pounds, having put her on the 12th place in the list of the richest women of Great Britain. Forbes in 2007 estimated Rowling as a celebrity, the 48th on a consequence, and the Time magazine in 2007 made for it the second room in the nomination "Person of Year", having noted social, moral and political inspiration which it gave to the admirers. In October, 2010 Rowling was called editors of the leading magazines "the most influential woman in Britain".

В это же время он начал писать цикл мифов и легенд Средиземья (англ. Middle-Earth), который позже станет «Сильмариллионом». В его семье было четверо детей, для них он впервые сочинил, рассказал, а потом записал «Хоббита», который был позже опубликован в 1937 году сэром Стэнли Ануином. «Хоббит» пользовался успехом, и Ануин предложил Толкину написать продолжение; однако работа над трилогией заняла длительное время и книга была закончена только в 1954 году, когда Толкин уже собирался на пенсию.

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien — the English writer, the poet, the philologist, professor of the Oxford university. It is most known as the author of classical works of "a high fantasy": "Hobbit, or There and back", "Lord of the Rings" and "Silmarillion".

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on January 3, 1892 in Bloemfontein, the Orange Free state (the Free state, the Republic of South Africa now). His parents, Arthur Reuel Tolkien (1857 — 1895), the managing director of English bank, and Mabel Tolkien (nee Saffild) (1870 — 1904), arrived to South Africa shortly before the son's birth in connection with Artur's advance on service. On February 17, 1894 at Artur and Mabel the second son, Hilary Arthur Reuel was born.

In Tolkien's childhood the tarantula bit. The doctor by the name of Thornton Kuimbi cared of the sick boy, and as assume, it served as Gandalf the Grey's prototype.

In 1914 Tolkien registered in the Case of military preparation to delay an appeal on military service and to manage to receive a stepenbakalavr. In 1915 Tolkien with honors graduated from the university and went to serve as the lieutenant in a regiment of Lancashire shooters; soon John was called on the front and participated in World War I.

John endured bloody fight on Somme where was lost two his best friends from ChK ("tea club") then began to hate wars, got sick with a typhus and after long-term treatment was sent home with disability. The next years he devoted to scientific career: at first teaches at University of Leeds, in 1922 I received a position of professor of Anglo-Saxon language and literature at the Oxford university where became one of the youngest professors (in 30 years) and I earned reputation of one of the best philologists in the world soon.

The trilogy was published and made enormous success that surprised the author and the publisher much. Anuin expected that will lose considerable money, but the book personally very much was pleasant to him, and he very much wanted to publish work of the friend. For convenience of the edition the book was divided into three parts that after the publication and sale of the first part it became clear, whether it is worth printing the others.

In 1948 Tolkien finished work on the novel "Lord of the Rings" — nearly a decade later after the first sketch. He offered the book to Allen & Unwin publishing house. On Tolkien's plan, along with "Lord of the Rings" it was necessary to publish "Silmarillion", but the publishing house didn't go to it. Then in 1950 годуТолкин offered the work to Collins publishing house, but the employee of publishing house Milton Uoldmen (Milton Waldman) declared that the novel "is in great need in reduction". In 1952 Tolkien again wrote to Allen & Unwin: "I with pleasure will consider possibility of the publication of any part of the text". The publishing house agreed to publish the novel entirely, without reductions.

In the early sixties "Lord of the Rings" was released in the USA with the permission of Tolkien by Ballantine Books publishing house and made the stunning commercial success. The novel got on a fertile field: the youth of the 1960th which is carried away by the movement "hippie" and ideas of the world and freedom saw an embodiment of many dreams in the book. In the mid-sixties "Lord of the Rings" endures real "boom". The author recognized that the success flatters him, but over time was tired of popularity. It even had to change phone number because admirers bothered it with calls.

Agatha Mary Clarissa Mallouen better known by last name the first husband as Agatha Christie — the English writer.

Agatha Miller was born on September 15, 1890 in the city of Torquay, the Counties of Devon.

Her parents were wealthy immigrants from the United States. She was the younger daughter in a family Millerov. In a family Millerov was two more children: Margaret Freri (1879 — 1950) and son Luís Montan of "Monti" (1880 — 1929). Agate I got a good house education, in particular, musical, and only the fear of a scene prevented it to become the musician.

During World War I Agata worked as the nurse in hospital; it liked this profession and she spoke of it, as of "one of the most useful professions in which the person can be engaged". It also worked as the druggist in a drugstore that postponed a print for her creativity subsequently: 83 crimes in its works were committed by means of poisoning.

In the interview of the British TV company in 1955 Agatha Christie told that spent evenings behind knitting in the company of friends or a family, and at this time in the head of it there was a work on considering of the new subject line, by the time of when she sat down to write the novel, the plot was ready from beginning to end. By its own recognition, the idea of the new novel could come anywhere. Ideas were brought in the special notebook full of various marks about poisons, newspaper notes about crimes. The same happened and to characters. One of the characters created by Agatha had really living prototype — the Major Ernst Belcher (English Major Ernest Belcher) who was the chief of the first husband of Agatha Christie, Archibald Christie in due time. It became Pedler's prototype in romane1924 years "The person in a brown suit" about the colonel Reys.

Agatha Christie wasn't afraid to mention a social perspective in the works. For example, at least in two novels of Christie ("Five pigs" and "Test innocence") described cases of the miscarriages of justice connected with the death penalty. In general in many books of Christie various negative sides of English justice of that time are described.

The writer never made a subject of the novels of a crime of sexual character. Unlike today's detectives, in its works practically there are no violence scenes, pools of blood and roughness.

The best work Agatha Christie considered the novel "Ten Little Niggers".

Realism — the direction in literature and art setting as the purpose truthful reproduction of reality in its typical lines.

This terminology borrowed from philosophy brings sometimes in an assessment of a work of art the moments extra esthetic: realism absolutely incorrectly reproach with absence of moral idealism.

These are usual lines of the settled school whatever it was. Nearly each school expresses claims on the new word in the field of truthful reproduction of life — and everyone on the is right, and everyone is denied and replaced by the subsequent for the same principle of the truth. It is especially characteristic is shown in the history of development of the French literature which reflects a number of gains of true realism. The aspiration to the art truth was the cornerstone of the same movements which, having fossilated in tradition and a canon, became later symbols of unreal art.

George Orwell — the British writer and the publicist. It is most known as the author of the cult anti-utopian novel "1984" and story "Farmyard". I entered the term cold war which received further the broad use into political language.

Eric Arthur Blair was born on June 25, 1903 in Motikhari (India) in a family of the employee of Opium department of the British colonial administration of India. It was trained at St. Kiprian's school, in 1917 I got a nominal grant and till 1921 Eaton Kolledzh visited. From 1922 to 1927 I served in colonial police in Burma, then long I lived in Great Britain and Europe, living casual earnings, then I started writing art prose and journalism. Already it arrived to Paris with firm intention to become the writer. Since 1935 it was published under the pseudonym "George Orwell".

In 1936 I married, and in six months together with the wife I went to the Aragonsky front of civil war in Spain. Battling in the ranks of the militia created by POUM party I faced manifestations of fractional fight in the environment of the left. I spent nearly half a year in the war, it wasn't wounded in a throat by the fascist sniper in Uesk yet.

During civil war in Spain was at war on the party of republicans in the ranks of parts of POUM. About these events he wrote the documentary story "Memories of Catalonia" and a sketch "Remembering war in Spain" (1943, it is completely published in 1953).

(1945) showed regeneration of the revolutionary principles and programs in the story "Farmyard": "Farmyard" — a parable, allegory on revolution of 1917 and the subsequent events in Russia.

The novel anti-Utopia "1984" (1949) became ideological continuation of "Farmyard" in which Orwell represented possible future world society as the totalitarian hierarchical system based on sophisticated physical and spiritual enslavement, penetrated by general fear, hatred and informing.

During World War II kept the anti-fascist program on the BBC.

I died in London of tuberculosis on January 21, 1950.

Aldous Leonard Huxley — the English writer. Author of the known novel anti-Utopia "Brave New World".

Both on fatherly, and on maternal I belonged to Huxley's lines to the British cultural elite which gave a number of outstanding scientists, writers, artists. His father — the writer Leonard Huxley, the grandfather on the fatherly line — the biologist Thomas Henry Huxley; on the maternal line of Huxley it is necessary the great-grandson to the historian and the teacher Thomas Arnold and the grandnephew to the writer Mathew Arnold. The brother Huxley Julian and the half brother Andrew were the well-known biologists.

Huxley's mother died when Aldous was thirteen years old. Three years later he got sick with an eye inflammation, and subsequently his sight considerably worsened. In this regard it was exempted from military service during World War I. Own experience of correction of sight later it described in the brochure "Art to see".

The first novel which wasn't published, Huxley wrote at the age of seventeen years. He studied literature in Balliolsky college in Oxford. In twenty years Huxley decides to choose literary activity as a profession.

In its novels it is about humanity loss by society in the course of technological progress (the anti-Utopia "Brave New World", is still the book "Return to the Wonderful New World" written in twenty seven years after the first, in it Huxley describes a state opposite to the first book and develops thought that actually everything will be much worse and more terrible, than in the first). Also he touched upon pacifistic subjects.

The saved-up knowledge are looked through in its subsequent works: "Eternal philosophy", it is the most accurate in "In many years, and also in the work Time must have a stop.

In 1953 he agrees to participation in the experiment made by Humphrey Osmond. Research of influence of a mescaline on human consciousness was the purpose of this experiment.

Subsequently in correspondence with Osmond the word "psychedelia" for the description of influence of a mescaline was used for the first time.

Essays "Perception Doors" and "Paradise and Hell" describe supervision and the course of experiment which up to the death the author repeated about ten times. I became "A perception door" the cult text for many radical intellectuals of the 1960th years and I gave the name to the well-known rock group of The Doors.

The effect from effect of psychotropic substances affects not only his creativity. So, in the last novel "Island" it described a utopia which was opposite its anti-Utopias "Brave New World".

Huxley died in 1963 in Los Angeles of throat cancer. Before death he asked to make to him an intramuscular injection of an acid — 100 mkg. Despite cautions of doctors, the wife satisfied its request that allowed it to die quietly, having avoided spasms and asthma. In it she admitted interview which gave in 1986 to the British TV company of the BBC within the documentary project. Shortly before his death in the fire in own house of Huxley almost all his manuscripts burned down.

Sir William Gerald Golding — the English writer, the Nobel Prize laureate on literature of 1983. For almost forty years' literary career Golding published 12 novels; the world popularity to it was provided by the first of them, "Lord of the Flies" who is considered by one of outstanding works of the world literature of the XX century.

William Gerald Golding was born on September 19, 1911 in the village Saint-Kolamb Maynor (County of Cornwall) in Alec Golding's family, the school teacher and the author of several textbooks. About the preschool childhood William kept a few memoirs: acquaintances and it had no friends, the circle of contacts was limited to family members and the nurse Lily.

In 1930, having paid special attention to Latin, William Golding came to Breyznouz-college of the Oxford university where, following will of parents, decided to go in for natural sciences. It needed two years to understand an inaccuracy of a choice and in 1932, having changed the program of training, to concentrate on studying of English and literature. Thus Golding not only kept, but also developed in himself interest in antiquity; in particular to history of primitive communities. This interest caused an ideological basis of its first serious works. In June, 1934 he left college with the diploma of the second degree.

Being the student of Oxford, Golding started writing verses; first this hobby served as some kind of psychological counterbalance of need to plunge into the exact sciences. However poems of the 23-year-old poet began to be considered by critics as quite "mature and original subsequently"; besides, it was noted that they brightly characterize a range of interests of the author the central place in which take the subject of society and the critic of rationalism.

Having demobilized in September, 1945, William Golding returned to teaching at Uordsvort's school to Salisbury; in the same days he started serious studying of Ancient Greek literature. Then Golding returned to pre-war hobby: literary activity; first — to writing of reviews and articles for magazines. Any of four early novels of the writer wasn't published, all manuscripts were lost subsequently. Later Golding said that these attempts were in advance doomed to a failure because in them he tried to satisfy requirements — not own, but publishing. From the writer who passed war waited for something, based on military experience — memoirs or the novel.

In 1952 Golding got to work on the novel entitled "The strangers who were from within"; in January of the next year I began to dispatch manuscripts to publishers, over and over again being refused. In 1953 the novel within seven months was read and rejected by publishers; the reviewer of Faber & Faber considered work "absurd, uninteresting, empty and boring". In total twenty one publishers returned the manuscript to the author. And then Charles Monteyt), in the recent past — the lawyer accepted by publishing house to the editor's position a month before it almost in a literal sense took out the novel from a recycle bin. He also persuaded Faber & Faber to buy work — for the ridiculous sum of 60 pounds sterling.

Golding all the life considered the most well-known novel "boring and crude", and its language — "scholastic" (English O-level stuff). To that fact that "Lord of the Flies" is considered modern classics, he belonged not too seriously, and the money earned on it considered as something, equivalent to "a prize in Monopoly". The writer sincerely didn't understand how could leave this novel in a shadow its stronger books: "Successors", "Spike" and "Pincher Martin". At the end of life Golding couldn't force even to re-read the manuscript in its initial, unedited option, being afraid that will be upset to such an extent, "that something will be able to create with itself awful".

In 1983 William Golding was awarded the Nobel Prize on literature — "for novels which with clarity of realistic narrative art in combination with variety and universality of the myth help to comprehend living conditions of the person in the modern world".

William Golding suddenly died from an extensive heart attack at home in Perranauortole on June 19, 1993. He was buried on a church cemetery in Bauerchoke, and memorial service was served in a solsberiysky cathedral under that spike which inspired the writer on one of his most known works.

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