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Реферат на тему "Параолимпийские игры для всех?"

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School 21

Exam Paper







«Are The Paralympics Games

For Everybody? »







Student Matveeva Y.

Teacher Fokina M.A.

Kovrov

2013

Contents

  1. Introduction………………………………………3

  2. History of the Olympics Games……4

  3. The Paralympics Games………………….5

  • Name and symbols…………………………………..6

  • Summer and Winter sports…………………..7

  • The Deaflympics……………………………………..9

  • The Special Olympics…………………………….10

  • Portrait Gallery…………………………………..11-12

  • Famous Paralympians…………………………13-18

  • Test yourself………………………………………20-21

  • Vocabulary……………………………………………23-25

  • Literature……………………………………………..26











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Last year we spoke much about sports in our life and in the life of people from different countries. We knew that to keep fit most people do sports. Some of them do it for pleasure or to be healthy? Other do it professionally. To be a good sportsman everybody must work hard. The dream of every sportsman is to win a competition, isn’t it? To get medals and to take part in the Olympic Games. There are also people with physical disabilities in our world. And there are Deaflympics, Paralympics, Special Olympics games for them to take part in. They must not compete for money, but for glory and for the honour of their country. The Olympics help to bring peace in the whole world. A lot of disabled people are good sportsmen.

The aim of my work was to learn more about the History of the Paralympics, Deaflympics, Special Olympics and to understand the Olympic spirit which Coubertin described in the following words «The important thing is not winning but taking part». I also tryied to draw people’s attention on today’s problems of disabled people. The greates wish for all the sportsmen is to win a medal, or simply to take part in the Olympic Games.

The problem of my paper is the purpose of creating Paralympics, Deaflympics and Special Olympics Games. This problem is urgent, because nowadays very few people know about such sport events and the less watch them or grieve for them. Nobody takes care about disabled people if they are not a part of your life, job o family.

The aim of creating Paralympics Games was to give a chance to live fully life all disabled people and to feel themselves strong enough. And our aim is to give them a moral support. In other words not to forget about them. This is the principle of the Olympics Movement «The most Important things in the Olympics Games is not to win but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph but the strunggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well».

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The Olympic Games are an important international event featuring summer and winter sports. The Games are held every four years, with Summer and Winter Olympic Games taking turns. Originally, the ancient Olympic Games were held in Olympia, Greece, from the 8th century BC to the 5th century AD. The first «modern» Olympics happened in 1896 in Athens, Greece. People choose to play in the Olympia to represent the place they are from.

Over time the Olympia have became bigger. The Winter Games were created for ice and snow sports. The Paralympics Games were created for athletes with physical disabilities. The Olympics became bigger with addition of the Youth Olympic Games for teenage athletes. The decision-making body, the IOC (International Olympic Committee) is responsible for choosing the host city for each Olympic Games. The IOC is also responsible for choosing what sports are in the games.

The celebration of the Games includes many rituals and symbols, such as Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. The first, second, and third place finishers in each event receive gold, silver, and bronze medals.



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The Paralympics Games are a major international sports event. Athletes with physical disabilities compete in these games and are called Paralympians. This includes athletes with mobility disabilities, amputations, blindness, and Cerebral Palsy. There are winter and Summer Paralympics Games. They are held just after the Olympic Games. All Paralympics Games are governed by the International Paralympics Committee (IPC).

The Paralympics have grown from a small gathering of British World War II veterans in 1948 to become one of the largest international sports events by the early 21st century. Paralympians work for equal treatment with able-bodied Olympic athletes. Olympic athletes receive much more financial support than Paralympics athletes. Some Paralympians also participated in the Olympic Games.

The Paralympics Games are run in parallel with the Olympic Games. The IOC also recognized Special Olympics World Games include athletes with intellectual disabilities. The Deaflympics is only for deaf athletes.

Paralympics athletes have many different kinds of disabilities, so there are several categories in which the athletes compete. The disabilities are in six broad categories: amputee, Cerebral Palsy, intellectual disability, wheelchair, visually impaired, and Les Autres (This means «The Others in French.) These categories are further broken down which vary from sport to sport.



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The present formal explanation for the name is that it derives from the Greek preposition παρά, pará ("beside" or "alongside") and thus refers to a competition held in parallel with the Olympic Games. The Summer Games of 1988 held in Seoul was the first time the term "Paralympics" came into official use.

Spirit in Motion” is the motto for the Paralympics movement. The symbol for the Paralympics contains three colors, red, blue, and green, which are the colors most widely represented in the flags of nations. The colors are each in the shape of an Agito (which is Latin for "I move"). The three Agitos circle a central point, which is a symbol for the athletes congregating from all points of the globe. The motto and symbol of the IPC were changed in 2003 to their current versions. The change was intended to convey the idea that Paralympians have a spirit of competition and that the IPC as an organization realizes it’s potential and is moving forward to achieve it. The vision of the IPC is, "To enable Paralympics athletes to achieve sporting excellence and to inspire and excite the world." The Paralympics anthem is "Hymn de l’Avenir" or "Anthem of the Future". It was composed by Thierry Darnis and adopted as the official anthem in March 1996.





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Summer sports

Rowing (sport) Wheelchair basketball, Bocce, Cycling, Dressage, Goal ball, Canoe racing, Paralympics Judo, Athletics (sport), Table tennis, Sailing (sport), Swimming (sport), Shooting sport, Sitting volleyball, Target archery, Olympic weightlifting, Wheelchair fencing, Football 5-a-side at the Summer Paralympics, Football 7-a-side at the Summer Paralympics


Winter sports

Alpine skiing, Wheelchair curling, Cross-country skiing, Paralympics biathlon

Excluded from the program

Basketball, Darts, Races, Field bowling, Snooker, Struggle

























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The Deaflympics (previously called World Games for the Deaf and International Games for the Deaf) are an International Olympic Committee (IOC)-sanctioned event at which deaf athletes compete at an elite level. However, unlike the athletes in other IOC-sanctioned events (i.e., the Olympics, the Paralympics, and the Special Olympics), the Deaflympians cannot be guided by sounds (i.e., the starter’s guns, bullhorn commands or referee whistles). The games have been organized by CISS, «The International Games the Deaflympics are held every 4 years, and is the longest running multi-sport event excluding the Olympics themselves. The first games, held in Paris in 1924, were also the first ever international sporting event for athletes with a disability. The event has been held every four years since, apart from a break for World War II. The games began as a small gathering of 148 athletes from nine European nations, now; they have grown into a global movement.

Officially, the games were originally called the «International Games for the Deaf». From 2000, the games have been known by their current name «Deaflympics» (often mistakenly called the «Deaf Olympics»)







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Shello_html_m534a3ebb.jpgpecial Olympics are the world’s largest sports organization for children and adults with disabilities, providing year-round training and competitions to more than 4 million athletes in 170 countries. Special Olympics competitions are held every day, all around the world-including local, national and regional competitions, adding up to more than 53,000 events a year. These competitions include the Special Olympics World Games, which alternate between summer and winter games. Special Olympics World Games are held every two years. The Special Olympics World Games are often the largest sporting event to take place in the world during that year.

The first international Special Olympics Summer Games were held at Soldier Field in Chicago in 1968. Anne McGlone Burke; a physical education teacher, began with the idea for a one-time Olympic-style athletic competition for people with special needs. Burke then approached Eunice Kennedy Shiver, head of the Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation, to fund the event. Shiver encouraged Burke to expand on the idea and the JPK Foundation provided a grant of $25,000. More than 1,000 athletes from across the United States and Canada participated.

At the July 1968 games, Shiver announced the formation of the Special Olympics. Shivers sister Rosemary Kennedy, underwent a lobotomy in an effort by her father to care her mental illness. The brain damage inflicted by the operation caused her to be permanently incapacitated. This disability is often credited as Shivers inspiration to form the Special Olympics, but Shiver told The New York Times in 1995 that was not the case.

In 1971, The U.S. Olympic Committee gave the Special Olympics official approval to use the name «Olympics». In 1988, The Special Olympics was officially recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). On October 30, 2004, President George W. Bush signed into law the «Special Olympics Sports and Empowerment Act”.



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Evangelis Zappas was a Greek patriot, Philanthropist and businessman



John Hulley was an English gymnastics and athletics entrepreneur who encouraged public participation in physical education to improve health



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Charles Melly was born in Tuebrook, Liverpool on 25th May 1829



William Penny Brookes was an educationalist especially known for inspiring the modern open international Olympic Games

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Pierre de Coubertin was founder of the International Olympic Committee

Eunice Kennedy Shriver was the founder in 1962 of Camp Shriver which started on her Maryland farm known as Timberlawn

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Anne McGlone Burke is a founder of the Special Olympics











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Tanni was born on 26 July 1969 in Cardiff, Wales. Her full name was Carys Davina Grey. Her sister Sian gave her the name Tanni. Sian was 2 when she first saw baby Carys. Sian called the baby 'tanni', meaning 'tiny'. And Tanni she stayed.

Tanni Grey-Thompson is a famous 'Paralympian'. She was born with a medical condition that stopped her from walking and running. Being in a wheelchair did not stop Tanni becoming a champion in athletics. Tanni was born with spinal bifida. Spinal bifida affects babies before they are born. Having it meant Tanni could not walk easily. She wore braces on her legs. When she was 7, she started to use a wheelchair. Tanni Grey-Thompson took part in four Paralympics Games. She won 11 gold medals. She won the London Marathon six times. After she retired from racing, she went on helping disabled sportspeople. Her story inspires many people to take part in sport.

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Jessica Long (born February 29, 1992) is a Russian-born United States Paralympic swimmer from Baltimore, Maryland. She is the current world record holder in 13 Paralympics events

Long was born in Siberia and adopted at the age of 13 months. Because of fibular hemimelia, her lower legs were amputated when she was 18 months old. She learned to walk with prostheses. Long has been involved in many sports including gymnastics, cheerleading, ice skating, biking, trampoline, and rock climbing. She began swimming in her grandparents' pool before joining her first competitive team in 2002. The next year, Long was selected as Maryland Swimming's 2003 Female Swimmer of the Year with a Disability.

Jessica was born "Tatiana Kirillova" in the city of Bratsk. At the time she was born, her biological parents were unwed, 17 and 18 years old. They later married and had three more children, one of whom is also disabled. Long's adoptive brother, Joshua, was adopted at the same time from the same Siberian orphanage.



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Oscar Leonard Carl Pistorius (born 22 November 1986) is a South African sprint runner. Although both of Pistorius' legs were amputated below the knee when he was 11 months old, he competes in events for single below-knee amputees and for able-bodied athletes.

At the 2011 World Championships in Athletics, Pistorius became the first amputee to win an able-bodied world track medal. At the 2012 Summer Olympics, Pistorius became the first double leg amputee to participate in the Olympics when he entered the men's 400 metres and 4 × 400 metres relay races. At the 2012 Summer Paralympics, Pistorius won gold medals in the men's 400 metre race and in the 4 × 100 metres relay, setting world records in both events. He also took silver in the 200 metres race, having set a world record in the semifinal.

On 14 February 2013, Pistorius was charged with the murder of his girlfriend Reeva Steenkamp, whom he had fatally shot at his home in the early hours of that morning. He was granted bail eight days later and must appear before court in June 2013.

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Alessandro "Alex" Zanardi (Italian pronunciation: [ˈaleks dzaˈnardi]; born 23 October 1966) is an Italian racing driver and paracyclist.

He won two CART championship titles in North America during the late 1990s. He also had a less successful career as a Formula One driver. More recently, he has attracted widespread praise for his return to competition in the aftermath of a crash in 2001 that resulted in the amputation of his legs. He returned to racing less than two years after the accident, competing in the FIA World Touring Car Championship for BMW Team Italy-Spain between 2003 and 2009.

Switching sports, Zanardi took up competition in handbiking, a form of paralympic cycling, with the stated goal of representing Italy at the 2012 Summer Paralympics. In September 2011, Zanardi won his first senior international handbiking medal, the silver medal in the H4 (handbike) category time trial at the UCI World Road Para-Cycling Championships.  In September 2012 he won gold medals at the London Paralympics in the individual H4 time trial and the individual H4 road race, followed by a silver medal in the mixed H1-4 team relay.

On 11 September 2012 he was included by International Paralympic Committee into the London 2012: Top 12 performances list.





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Olesya Vladykina (born in Moscow on 14 February 1988) is a paralympic swimmer from Russia competing mainly in category SB8 events.

Olesya competed in the 2008 Summer Paralympics in Beijing winning a gold medal. She finished fourth in the 200m individual medley, and set a new world record in the 100m breastroke on her way to winning the gold medal. 

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Trischa Zorn (born June 1, 1964 in Orange, California) is a United States swimmer. Blind from birth, she competes in Paralympics swimming (S12, SB12 and SM12 disability categories). She is the most successful athlete in the history of the Paralympics Games, having won 55 medals (41 gold, 9 silver and 5 bronze). She took the Paralympics Oath for athletes at the 1996 Summer Paralympics in Atlanta.

She competed in the 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000 and 2004 Paralympics Games. In the 1996 Games in Atlanta, she won more medals than any other athlete: two gold, three silver and three bronze. She had also topped the individual medal table at the 1992 Games in Barcelona, with ten gold medals and two silver. She had won seven gold medals during her first Games in 1980.

Following the Athens Games in 2004, she had won 52 medals at the Paralympics Games, more than any other athlete, of any nationality. Of those, 37 were gold medals, 10 were silver and 5 were bronze. After the Sydney Games in 2000, she also held eight world records in her disability category (50 m backstroke, 100 m backstroke, 200 m backstroke, 200 m individual medley, 400 m individual medley, 200 m breaststroke, 4×50 m medley relay, 4×50 m free relay).



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  1. The Deaflympics is only for deaf athletes

  1. True

  2. False

2. What is the motto of the Paralympies movement?

  1. Spirit in Motion

  2. In total in our hands even if they aren`t present

  3. Noday without medals

3. Who can take part in Deaflympics?

  1. Deaf people

  2. Ordinary people

  3. Children and adults with disabilities

4. What is the most popular sport at Paralympians?

  1. Table tennis

  2. Cycling

  3. Sitting volleyball

5. The first Paralympics games held in Paris in 1924

  1. True

  2. False

6. What are the colors of the Paralympics Games symbol?

  1. White, red, yellow

  2. Red, green, blue

  3. Green, black, orange

7. When were the first Paralympics Games?

  1. 1960

  2. 1888

  3. 1948

8. Where were held the first International Special Olympics Summer games?

  1. In Athens

  2. In Paris

  3. In Chicago

9. What was Shiver`s contribution in the Special Olympics Games?

  1. she made an idea for a one-time Olympic-style athletic competition for people with special needs

  2. she financed this event

  3. she created an annual Grand Olympic Festival

10. Choose the correct statement

  1. The Deaflympics is only for deaf athletes

  2. children and adults with disabilities compete in Paralympics Games

  3. Pierre de Coubertin was a founder of the Special Olympics









hello_html_65cd7c1c.gifhello_html_b58c549.gifClassification of games



Olympic Games Paralympics Games

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Deaflympics Paralympics

Special Olympics





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Alpine skiing – Горные лыжи (особая разновидность лыж, используемая для спуска с горных склонов и в горнолыжном спорте)

Athletics (sports) – Легкая атлетика (совокупность видов спорта, включающая бег, ходьбу, прыжки и метания)

Basketball – Баскетбол (спортивная командная игра с мячом)

Bocce – Бочче (спортивная игра на точность, принадлежащая к семье игр с мячом, близкая к боулингу, петанку и боулзу)

Canoe racing – Каноэ (универсальное название для безуключинных маломерных гребных судов (лодок) разных народов)

Cross-country skiing – Лыжные гонки (гонки на лыжах на определённую дистанцию по специально подготовленной трассе среди лиц определённой категории)

Cycling – Велоспорт (это перемещение по земле с использованием транспортных средств (велосипедов), движимых мускульной силой человека)

Darts – Дартс (ряд связанных игр, в которых игроки метают дротики в круглую мишень, повешенную на стену)

Deaflympics Games – Сурдлимпийские Игры (спортивные соревнования людей с нарушениями слуха)

Dressage – Выездка (вид спорта, в котором всадник должен продемонстрировать: способность лошади к правильным и производительным движениям на всех аллюрах в различном темпе)

Field bowling – Боулинг (спортивная игра в шары, цель которой сбить как можно больше шаров за один бросок)

Football 5-a-side – Футбол 5х5 (это адаптированная версия мини-футбола, в который играют плоховидящие и слепые спортсмены)

Football 7-a-side – Футбол 7х7 (игра для спортсменов с ДЦП и другими неврологическими заболеваниями, включая инсульт и последствия травмы мозга)

Goal Ball – Голбол (спортивная игра, в которой команда из трех человек должна забросить мяч со встроенным колокольчиком в ворота соперника)

Olympic Games – Олимпийские Игры (крупнейшие международные комплексные спортивные соревнования, которые проводятся каждые четыре года)

Olympic weightlifting – Тяжелая атлетика (скоростно-силовой вид спорта, в основе которого лежит выполнение упражнений по подниманию штанги над головой)

Paralympics biathlon – Паралимпийский биатлон (разновидность биатлона для инвалидов)

Paralympics games – Паралимпийские Игры (международные спортивные соревнования для инвалидов (кроме инвалидов по слуху))

Paralympics judo – Паралимпийские игры по дзюдо (адаптация японского боевого искусства дзюдо для слепых и слабовидящих спортсменов)

Races – Гонки (соревнование, подразумевающее одновременный старт группы нескольких (двух или более) участников и фиксацию порядка финиша каждого из участников)

Rowing Wheelchair basketball – Баскетбол на колясках (игра, интереснее обычного баскетбола скоростью, столкновениями и падениями, техникой ведения мяча)

Shooting sport – Стрелковый спорт (вид спорта, в котором участники соревнуются в стрельбе из огнестрельного и пневматического оружия)

Sitting volleyball – Волейбол сидя (разновидность волейбола для спортсменов с поражениями опорно-двигательного аппарата, паралимпийский вид спорта)

Snooker – Снукер (разновидность бильярдной лузной игры)

Special Olympic Games – Специальные Олимпийские Игры (международная организация, занимающаяся вопросами организации спортивных мероприятий для лиц с умственными отклонениями)

Struggle – Борьба (единоборство двух невооружённых спортсменов с использованием определённых приёмов)

Swimming – Плавание (вид спорта или спортивная дисциплина, заключающаяся в преодолении вплавь за наименьшее время различных дистанций)

Table tennis sailing – настольный теннис (вид спорта, спортивная игра, основанная на перекидывании специального мяча ракетками через игровой стол с сеткой по определённым правилам)

Target archery – Стрельба из лука (вид спорта, в котором производится стрельба из лука стрелами на точность или дальность)

Wheelchair curling – Керлинг на колясках (адаптация кёрлинга для людей на колясках)

Wheelchair fencing – Фехтование (система приёмов владения ручным холодным оружием в рукопашном бою, нанесения и отражения ударов)











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  • Kurilenko L.I. «400 topics in English»

  • Zhurina T.Y. «55 topics in English»

  • Gurvich P.B., Maksimova O.A., Redkina I.P. «Reader»

  • The Internet, Wikipedia.ru

  • Kostyuk E.B. «Read up»











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