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МБОУ «Гимназия №1 им. Н.М. Пржевальского»
«Великие женщины Великобритании»
2. Mary I…………………………………………………………………………...6
3. Ann Boleyn……………………………………………………………………...8
4. Elizabeth I……………………………………………………………………..10
5. Mary Queen of Scoots………………………………………………………...12
7. Elizabeth II…………………………………………………………………….17
List of References……………………………………………………………..…22
Great Britain is a kingdom that has a great history. During its formation and development there were a lot of events that can strike everybody’s mind. A lot of people took part in these events, tried to solve them, to protect their motherland and to be independent and free.
We got accustomed to believe that all great occurrences in history are connected with wars, rebellions and conflicts that were solved by men. They were leaders, kings, rulers, thinkers and renovators of justice and piece. From one hand, it’s really so, because politics and reigning used to be connected with men. But very often we forget that women played and play a great role in the life of different countries.
We decided to find out and to learn more information about such women of Great Britain, women who were very influential and whose names have found their places in history forever.
Topicality of our research work can be explained by the growing interest of pupils in the history of the English-speaking countries, especially of Great Britain. Nowadays the situation in the world is very unpredictable and people of politics show themselves from different sides, not only men but also women. We are interested in them but decided to start with the past and with British great women of the past.
The aim of our research work is to find more information about life and deeds of the great women of Britain, talking about them in the chronological order and describing their life and events, they are famous for
There are several tasks of our work:
to survey the scientific literature, connected with our topic;
to single out great people of the past and nowadays;
to analyze the derived information and to make a conclusion.
The main part of our research work is divided into three parts:
Boudica also known as Boadicea was queen of the British Iceni tribe who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire.
Boudicca is one of Britain’s greatest heroines, a freedom fighter who rebelled against the Roman government. Her rebellion was the only viable challenge to the supremacy of the Romans who, until the fifth century, exercised a distinct influence over Britain and its heritage.
Despite the fact that it took place almost 2000 years ago evidence of this mighty rebellion can still be found; from the remains of an Iceni settlement on the outskirts of Thetford to the Snettisham Hoard on show at Norwich Castle Museum.
Great British Queen of ancient Britain, married to Prasutagus and with him she ruled over the Iceni - the tribe occupying East Anglia - but under Roman authority. Like many other rulers in Britain at this time, Boudicca witnessed the suffering caused to her people by the heavy taxes, conscription and other indignities generated by the Roman Emperor Nero. The final outrage came when her husband Prasutagus died, and the Romans plundered her chief tribesmen and brutally annexed her dominions. This was too much for the Queen and she determined to take on Nero and his Legions. In this she was not alone, for tradition tells that all of south east Britain came to her side, ready to die for the Queen who was fierce enough to take on the Roman Empire. It's noteworthy that tribes which remained loyal to the Romans, (like the Catuvellauni) were not spared Boudicca's wrath.
Boudicca's opportunity came when the Roman Governor General Seutonius Paulinus and his troops were stationed in Anglesey and North Wales. By the time Paulinus got back, the Roman municipalities of St Albans and Colchester had been burned to the ground by the Britons. Boudicca's warriors were more than a little intimidating. They virtually routed the Ninth Legion that had been marching from Lincoln to help Paulinus, and without additional support from Rome there was little he could do against the determination of these people.
Eventually they marched on London and it was here at last that Paulinus faced Boudicca and her army of Britons in the field. We don't know where, (possibly the Midlands) but we do know that a desperate battle was fought, and although the Romans were the victors, they regained the province at great price.
Many thousands of Britons fell in battle and those who lived were hunted down by Roman soldiers. But it would seem that Boudicca's actions had shocked the Roman world into adopting policies that were a little kinder. Some historians believe that the relative lack of Romano-British remains in Norfolk is testimony to the severity with which the Roman Empire crushed Boudicca and the Iceni peoples.
Finally, faced with defeat, the proud warrior Queen took her own life, by drinking from a poisoned chalice. This much is well known; the challenge is to separate fact from the many legends. For instance, is she really buried under Platform 10 at London's King's Cross Station? We'll probably never know, because for centuries people have been claiming their own local sites as her final resting place.
2. Mary I
Mary I is also referred to as Mary Tudor or "Bloody Mary". Mary's father was Henry VIII and her mother was Catherine of Aragon, Henry's first wife. She was crowned only after the attempt to put Lady Jane Grey on the throne.
Mary I was queen from 1553 to 1558. When she was crowned queen, she was very popular with the people of England. It was this popularity that helped to quickly overturn the attempt to put Lady Jane Grey onto the throne of England. However this popularity quickly turned sour because of her religious changes and her marriage.
The Catholic Mass was restored and Holy Communion was banned. All priests had to be Catholic; the basic furniture in the Protestant churches was replaced with the colourful furniture and paintings of the Catholic Church. Services were held in Latin and Cranmer’s English prayer book was banned. The pope was made head of the church again.
The majority of the people of England accepted these changes - the Tudor royal family was still respected throughout the country. However, some did not. Some refused to change and they were burned at the stake for heresy. Nearly 300 people died in this way. One was Archbishop Cranmer who had written the banned English prayer book. The treatment of these heretics, and many were ordinary people, did much to make Mary unpopular - hence her nickname "Bloody Mary".
English people, at this time, feared the power of Spain. To bring the two countries closer together, Mary accepted a marriage proposal from the king of Spain - Philip II. He was also a very strong Catholic. Mary’s advisors and friends warned her not to marry Philip but she went against their advice and married him in 1554. The people of England greatly feared that Philip would control England and this lead to Mary becoming very unpopular with her people.
The marriage was a disaster. Philip spent much of his time in Spain and the two rarely saw one another. They had no children.
When Mary died in 1558, she was a very unhappy person. Her marriage, on which she had placed so much hope, failed and the people of England resented her.
Her half-sister Elizabeth became queen on Mary’s death.
3. Ann Boleyn
Anne was born in 1500 or 1501. She was considered beautiful with dark eyes, long dark hair and a lively personality. At the age of 13 she worked in the French court. Here she worked for Mary, Henry VIII’s sister, who had married the king of France. When the king, Louis, died, Mary returned to England. Anne stayed in France as maid-in-honour to the new queen.
Such an upbringing for a young girl from a noble English family was not unusual. It was felt that young girls would have the perfect education in France on how to become a ‘proper’ lady, which would, in turn, lead to her finding the ‘right’ man for marriage.
In 1522, aged 21 or 22, Anne returned to England and worked for Catherine of Aragon’s household. Anne fell for a young man who worked at the court called Henry Percy. She became secretly engaged to Percy – who was already engaged to someone else. The engagement was ended after an intervention by both Henry and Cardinal Wolsey, England's most important government minister. Anne never forgave Wolsey for his involvement in the break-up nor for calling her a "foolish girl". Percy was forbidden from ever seeing Anne again. Anne was banned from the Royal Court until 1524/25. However, she had already caught the eye of Henry who openly wanted her to be his mistress – something she refused to do.
Henry embarked on his plan to divorce Catherine and marry Anne. This proved to be successful when they married in the winter of 1533.
Anne was crowned queen in June 1533. She gave birth to the future Queen Elizabeth and also to a stillborn boy. Henry and Anne swiftly fell out. He believed that she had been cursed and his ‘proof’ was the second thumb Anne had growing out of her main one. There were even rumours that she had a third breast. Anne, now in her early 30’s, had a sharp tongue on her and had made enemies at court. Henry had already befriended one of her maids of honour – Jane Seymour.
In May 1536, Anne was arrested and charged with treason. Anne was held in the Tower of London. The Constable of the Tower was William Kingston. He had four ladies stay with Anne at all times and they had to report directly to him anything said by the queen. Kingston's diary does tell us that Anne was hysterical when she arrived at the Tower through Traitor's Gate and had to be half-carried to her quarters.
Her actual ‘crime’ was that she had affairs with 5 men including her brother George. There was no proof of this but all six were found guilty of treason and sentenced to death. In fact, Anne was unaware of what charges she faced until she actually arrived in the hall at the Tower of London where her trial was to take place. Her uncle, the Duke of Norfolk, had to read out the court's finding: guilty of adultery and plotting to kill Henry. The court sentenced her to be burned at the stake or decapitated - the choice lay with Henry.
Anne was executed on May 19th 1536. As a final gesture, Henry gave his permission for Anne to be beheaded by a sword. She was terrified of the axe. Two specialists were brought over from France as no one existed in England who had the necessary skill to carry out the execution cleanly. Her execution was swift and her body was laid to rest in the Chapel of St Peter ad Vincula at the Tower of London.
Henry married his third wife, Jane Seymour, on May 30th, 1536, just eleven days after the execution of Anne.
4. Elithabeth I
Elizabeth I of England (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was the Queen of England, Ireland, and nominal claimant to Queen of France. She reigned from 17 November 1558 until she died in 1603. She was the daughter of King Henry VIII of England and Anne Boleyn, his second wife. Elizabeth was the last of the Tudor monarchs. When Boleyn was disgraced at court and executed, Elizabeth's life became one of tribulations, including imprisonment in the Tower of London.
Despite her tribulations, Elizabeth reigned with intelligence and diligence. Her reign was distinguished with great achievements in the arts, trade, and exploration. She ably defended her country through the days of the Spanish Armada. She never married, but had several favourites. At her death in 1603, King James IV of Scotland was named her successor.
When she was thirteen and a half years old, on 28th January, 1547 King Henry died. Elizabeth's younger half-brother, Edward, became King Edward VI of England. He died age 15. Mary succeeded him in 1553, and after Queen Mary's death in 1558, Elizabeth became Queen.
Mary I had re-established the Roman Catholic religion in England. Elizabeth returned the nation to the Protestant faith established by her father. She did however retain some of the Catholic traditions. She wanted her subjects to exhibit at least an outward show of conformity to the Protestant faith.The years of Elizabeth's reign were marked with many artistic achievements. William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, Edmund Spenser, and other writers created enduring drama and poetry. Composers Thomas Tallis and William Byrd worked at Elizabeth's court. During her reign, many men sought adventure abroad. Sir Francis Drake, Sir Walter Raleigh, Humphrey Gilbert, and other "sea dogs" looted Spanish ships. They also sailed to the Americas. In 1580, Drake became the first Englishman to sail around the world. The expeditions of these men prepared England for an age of colonisation and trade expansion. In 1600, Elizabeth herself established a trading company known as the East India Company.
England and Spain had long quarreled. Elizabeth encouraged Protestants in the Spanish-held Netherlands to rebel against Spain. She also encouraged her "sea dogs" to raid Spanish ships. In 1588, King Philip II of Spain sent an armada (a large fleet of ships) to invade England.
Elizabeth met her troops at Tilbury telling them: "I know I have the body of a weak, feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king - and of a King of England too."
The armada was met by England's smaller, more maneuverable ships on 29 July 1588. The armada was defeated not only by English troops and their smaller ships, but by bad weather over Scotland and Ireland as the remaining Spanish ships sailed for Spain.
Elizabeth never married, and she had no children. However, she was fond of several noblemen in her court. Prominent among these noblemen was Robert Dudley, the 1st Earl of Leicester. Later, she turned to Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex. He wanted to overthrow the government of the Queen. He was defeated and executed.
Elizabeth I was the last Tudor monarch, and reigned for 45 years. Her accession date was a national holiday for two hundred years.
5. Mary Queen of Scoots
Mary, Queen of Scots, was born in 1542 and was executed on 1587. It is generally believed that Mary's execution - ordered by Elizabeth I - was the final reason Philip II needed to launch the Spanish Armada. There are few other figures in Tudor England who had such an eventful life, though for Mary, Queen of Scots, it was to end in tragedy.
Mary was Elizabeth I's cousin. Mary had been brought up as a strict Catholic which put her at odds with the Protestant Elizabeth. Mary's father, James V of Scotland, died when she was one. At such a young age, the Scottish lords found it difficult to respect her and by 1548, Mary was sent to France for her own safety.
As a young girl, Mary lived in France where she had married the king of France - Francis II. She was fifteen and he was fourteen.
While in France, Mary lived in luxury travelling from one palace to another. She developed a love of animals - especially dogs - and spent a lot of time learning. She could speak French, Latin, Spanish and some Ancient Greek. She developed very strong views on religion.
Her husband, Francis had always been a sickly youth and his death aged sixteen in 1560 surprised no-one but it left Mary a widow at the age of seventeen.
She returned to Scotland as Queen of the Scots aged eighteen in 1561.
In 1565, she married her cousin, Lord Darnley, when she was 22. He was very unpopular with the people of Scotland as he was a violent, bad-tempered drunkard. During their marriage, Mary's secretary was an Italian called David Rizzio. Darnley got it into his head that they were spending too much time together and in 1566, while Mary was entertaining some of her friends in her private rooms, Rizzio, who was a guest at Mary's supper party, was attacked by a gang including Darnley and stabbed over 50 times. Mary was horrified.
However, in June 1566, Mary gave birth to a baby boy called James. He was to become the king of England when Elizabeth died in 1603. Mary's marriage with Darnley remained full of stress and she became more and more attracted to the Earl of Bothwell.
On February 9th 1567, Mary and Darnley was at a house called Kirk O'Field. Late in the evening she remembered that she had to see some friends and rode off. Scotland was a very dangerous country in the Sixteenth Century and it would have needed a very brave person to venture out at night without being fully guarded. That night, Kirk O'Field was blown up. Darnley's body was found in the garden of the house. The explosion had not killed him - he had been strangled. Just three months later, Mary married Bothwell. He was as disliked as Darnley by the Scots lords and they rose up against Mary. Bothwell escaped to Europe where he died an alcoholic and all but insane. Mary was arrested and held prisoner at Lochleven Castle.
She was made to give up the throne for James, her son. Mary later escaped from her prison and she fled to England where she hoped her cousin, Elizabeth, would look after her. Mary's logic was twofold. First, Mary was a queen and so was Elizabeth. Mary expected a queen to help a queen. Secondly, Mary assumed that their family ties would prove strong. She could not have been more wrong. At the age of 25, the former queen of Scotland started a lengthy spell in a number of manor houses or castles that were her prison.
Then there was a trial. Elizabeth hesitated about signing Mary's death warrant. Eventually she did and Mary was executed at Fortheringhay Castle, 70 miles north of London, on February 8th, 1587. Mary was not allowed to have her chaplain present at her execution.
Mary's execution was a curious affair. She dressed in scarlet, the colour of martyrdom. She had to be helped onto the scaffold as she was so frail. She spoke her last words in Latin and then putting her head onto the block said "Into your hands, O Lord" three times, again in Latin. It took two goes with the axe to remove her head. When the executioner lifted up her head, he found that he had a wig in his hand and the actual head was still on the scaffold. No-one had known that she had lost her hair. Then her body moved. Underneath her skirt, a small dog, a Skye terrier, was seen. Mary had brought her dog to her own execution..........
In 1612, her son and the now king of England, James, brought his mother's body to Westminster Abbey where she was buried in a magnificent tomb.
All in all Mary led a very active life and loved horse riding and dancing. She would dress up as a stable boy and escape at night into the streets of Edinburgh incognito.
Also Mary Stuart was very fond of white and she was the first woman, who woke up a white dress for wedding. Since that time it became a tradition.
The Queen Victory was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death, Empress of India from 1 May 1876. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. In 1840 Victoria married Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Marriages their nine children with the royal and noble families to strengthen ties between the dynasties of Europe and brought Victoria nickname "Grandma Europe." When in 1861 Albert died, Victoria went into mourning and stopped appearing in public. As a result, gained strength republicanism, but later regained popularity queen. Gold and Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria celebrated throughout the empire. Victoria stayed on the throne, 63 and seven months - more than any other British monarch. The Victorian era was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military development of the UK and the time of greatest prosperity of the British Empire.
When Victoria ascended to the throne as a teenager in the late 1830s, most observers probably did not expect much from her reign. And no one could have anticipated that she would rule Britain throughout the rest of the 19th century.
She also enjoyed writing, and wrote daily entries in a diary. Her daily journals eventually spanned more than 120 volumes.
Victoria also wrote two books about travels in the Scottish Highlands. Benjamin Disraeli, who had been a novelist before becoming prime minister, would at times flatter the queen by making references to them both being authors.
Victoria's husband, Prince Albert, was a German prince with a great interest in science and technology. In the early 1840s, when train travel was in its infancy, Victoria expressed interest in taking a trip by rail. The palace contacted the Great Western Railway, and on June 13, 1842, she became the first British monarch to travel by train. The train ride was 25 minutes.
For the rest of her life, nearly 50 years, Victoria dressed in black. And she was determined not to show any emotion in public appearances.
Yet in her earlier life Victoria was known as a vivacious girl, and as a young queen she was extremely sociable. She also loved being entertained. For instance, when General Tom Thumb and Phineas T. Barnum visited London, they paid a visit to entertain Queen Victoria, who was reported to have laughed enthusiastically.
In her later life, Victoria, despite her stern public demeanor, was said to enjoy rustic entertainments such as Scottish music and dancing during her periodic visits to the Highlands. And there were rumors that she was very affectionate to her Scottish servant, John Brown.
It is probably impossible to overestimate Victoria’s importance to the history of the 1800s. Indeed, the age itself has become known as the Victorian era, both for the supremacy of the British Empire during her reign, and because of her personal reputation.
“The sun never sets on the British Empire” became a popular saying during the reign of Victoria.
7. Elisabeth II
Elizabeth was born on 21 April 1926 in London, the first child of Albert, Duke of York, and his wife, formerly Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon. She initially had little prospect of succeeding to the throne until her uncle, Edward VIII, abdicated in December 1936. Her father then became George VI and she became heir.
Elizabeth and her younger sister Margaret were educated at home. Her father - the king George VI was engaged in Elizabeth's training personally. Her youth was troubled by the Second World War. At the age of 15 Elizabeth had been appointed Colonel-in-Chief. In 1945, Elizabeth joined the war effort, training as a driver in the Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service (WATS) In November 1947, she married a distant cousin, Philip Mountbatten (formerly Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark), who was created duke of Edinburgh. The couple have four children.
Elizabeth became the monarch of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan and Ceylon upon the death of her father – George VI, on February the 6th, 1952. The Queen’s Coronation took place on June 2, 1953 at Westminster Abbey. She chose to retain the name of the House of Windsor rather than bearing her husband’s name. As the British Monarch, the Queen is also the The Supreme Governor of The Church of England. She is also Head of the Commonwealth and regularly visits Commonwealth countries. Some of The Queen’s daily duties include official meetings, attending investitures, reading State papers and documents and letters sent to her by the public. As patron of some 600 charities, she is also kept very busy. At the moment she is one of the longest reigning British monarchs.
The working day of the queen is painted on minutes. At 10:00 she starts the responsibilities and finishes work around 23:00. Since morning first of all she looks through daily British newspapers and the magazine about jumps of The Racing Post.
The Queen is an animal lover and she has a keen interest in horses, being herself an owner and breeder of thoroughbreds. She attends the Derby at Epsom and her attendance at the Summer Race Meeting at Ascot continues a royal tradition that began in 1911. The Queen also loves walking in the countryside and her love of her Pembroke Welsh Corgis is also well known. Once interest that is perhaps not so well-known is her interest in Scottish country dancing. During her annual stays at Balmoral Castle the Queen holds dances known as Gillies’ Balls for Balmoral estate and Castle staff, her neighbours and the local community.
Queen Elizabeth is also keen on gardens and regularly attends the annual Chelsea Flower Show.
The Queen’s eye-catching outfits are mostly tailored by British designers. Her team of designers includes her Personal Assistant and Senior Dresser.
Elizabeth II has a number of secret signs. For example, if during official actions she puts a handbag on a table, it becomes clear for her attendants that the queen wishes to leave a meeting in 5 minutes. When she starts twisting a ring on a finger or to shift a bag from one hand in another, it means that communication with the interlocutor bored her.
8. Princess Diana
Diana Spencer was born on the first of July 1961 in Sandringham in England. She had two older sisters and a younger brother. Her parents divorced when she was eight. At the age of 16 Diana left for Switzerland and finished school there. Having returned to London, she earned her living working as a cook or nanny and then as a teacher in a kindergarten.
Diana became princess, when Prince Charles, the Queen’s son, asked her to be his wife and they got married at St. Paul’s Cathedral on July 29, 1981. They seemed to be a happy couple at first. However, after the honeymoon their relations started getting worse. Diana and Charles had two sons: Prince William in 1982 and Prince Henry in 1984.The Royal family hoped that with their births peace would reign again in the family. However, it didn’t happen. The official divorce of Diana and Charles was held in August, 1996.
Diana was (and is) popularly called "Princess Diana" but this is not her proper title. Before marriage, and after her father became Earl, she was Lady Diana. After marriage, she was Diana, Princess of Wales. She was permitted to keep that title (though not "Her Royal Highness") after her divorce from Prince Charles.
Diana was the most famous, the most beautiful, and the most photographed woman in the world. She won the hearts of millions and millions of people in many countries. Thousands of people talked about Diana’s kindnesses. As the Princess of Wales, Diana saw the opportunity to do good throughout her life when others in her position might have been satisfied with a comfortable lifestyle and two healthy sons. As she grew in confidence, Diana realized that she could use her fame and her influence to make people’s lives better. Princess Diana’s main interests were with the very old, the very young, and those in hospitals or hospices. She visited hospitals for people with AIDS and for lepers and wasn’t afraid to touch them, talk to them, listen to them. She was patron of Turning Point, an organization that helps people recovering from drug or alcohol addiction. She did much work for the homeless. Drug abuse was of Diana’s concerns and she wanted to be involved in the fight against it. She also showed great concern for the deaf and became proficient in sign language so she would be able to communicate with them.
It wasn’t only money that she wanted to give people. She wanted to give them a part of her soul. She had lots of friends among stars but even more among ordinary people.
On 31 August 1997 Diana was involved in a car accident in the Pont de l'Alma road tunnel in Paris, along with her romantic companion Dodi Fayed, their driver Henri Paul, and Fayed's bodyguard Trevor Rees-Jones.
Late in the evening of Saturday 30 August, Diana and Fayed departed the Hôtel Ritz in Place Vendome, Paris, and drove along the north bank of the Seine. Shortly after midnight on 31 August, their Mercedes-Benz S 280 entered the underpass below the Place de l'Alma, pursued in various vehicles by nine French photographers and a motorcycle courier.
At the entrance to the tunnel, their car struck a glancing blow to the right-hand wall. It swerved to the left of the two-lane carriageway and collided head-on with the thirteenth pillar supporting the roof, then spun to a stop.
As the casualties lay seriously injured in their wrecked car, the photographers continued to take pictures.
She died; doctors in the hospital could do nothing with those injuries she had got in the accident. It was a real tragedy for the whole world. However, Princess Diana is still alive in the hearts of people.
Diana's tragic death has been compared to that of Marilyn Monroe and that of Princess Grace of Monaco. Diana attended Princess Grace's funeral as her first official state visit abroad. Elton John adapted his tribute to Marilyn Monroe, "Candle in the Wind," for Diana funeral, and recorded the new version to raise money for causes Diana had supported.
$150 million in donations were received in the week following the creation of the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund right after her death.
We think that we can’t understand mentality and peculiarities of the country, not knowing its history. We must understand the succession of the events, their results and influence on life and people. That’s why we decided to be more attentive to the important people of Great Britain, people, whose policy, behaviour, deeds and personal traits influenced not only the people, but also the course of the history itself. And it turned out that especially women played a great role in the history of Great Britain. It’s practically one of the few countries with such a role of the female. Even now the head of the UK is the queen.
We didn’t mention such great women as sisters Bronte, Jane Saymour, Agatha Cristie, Margaret Thatcher and others but we know their names and why they are known all over the world.
British history is a real example of women’s courage, glory, intellect, force and power. We hope that the new member of the Windsors, Kate Middleton, will also become such a great personality as other women, mentioned here. We’ll be glad to find some more influential and worthy people in the history of the United Kingdom.
List of Reference
Остапенко Г.В. Британская монархия от королевы Виктории до Елизаветы II: концепция управления и личность суверена. М.: Наука, 2006
Рассел Дж. Британская империя. М.: книга по требованию, 2012
Скляренко В. А., Рудычева И.В., Сядро В.А. Монархи-долгожители. М.: Фолио, 2011
Филипс Ч. Короли и королевы Британии. М.: Ниола-пресс, 2009
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