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СЕГОДНЯ (15 ДЕКАБРЯ) ПОСЛЕДНИЙ ДЕНЬ ПРИЁМА ЗАЯВОК!
Конкурс "Я люблю природу"
Реферат "Память о прошлом храня" ("Keeping the memory of the past") 9 класс
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The subjects of our research are our relatives (great-grandmothers and great-grandfathers), and the object is the Great Patriotic War. The hypothesis of the project is that each person who participated in the Great Patriotic War, made an enormous contribution to its final result.
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Pyshma’s secondary school
"Keeping the memory
of the past "
Authors: Maria Panarina, 9A class
Alexander Ponomarev, 9B class
Teacher: Ponomareva N.V.
Introduction.......................................................................................................... . 3
Chapter 1. The village of Ustyanka during the Great Patriotic War...................... 4
Chapter 2. The Khudyakovs – Shpilyovs families during the war
2.1. On the line of fire........................................................................................... 6 Shpilyov Alexander Kirillovich............................................................................. 6
Khudyakov Fedosey Vasilyevich……….............................................................. . 7
Khudyakov Dmitry Vasilyevich............................................................................ 8
2.2. The rear to the front....................................................................................... . 10
Khudyakova Anna Mikhailovna............................................................................ 11
Ivachyova Tamara Vasilyevna............................................................... ……….. 11
Appendix………………… ................................................................................... 15
The Great Patriotic War is going farther and farther away from us and also the memory of those people who put their lives for the salvation of their country, their people from the invasion of the invaders. What do we, "grandsons of the Victory", know about them? Several generations have grown up after the Great Patriotic War, a victory in which cost too much to our nation. There are fewer and fewer people who fought on the fronts, worked in the rear.
"There is no Russian family without its own memorable hero" - is sung in a song from the famous Soviet film. And it is true. In those years the war touched everyone, broke into every family. So it didn’t passed by the village of Ustyanka in Pyshma’s district, where our great-grandmothers and great-grandfathers lived and worked. Unfortunately, it wasn’t told and wasn’t written about them, worthy of respect and admiration. In this we see the relevance of our work.
The purpose of our work: to research and to describe the life and military career of our relatives from the Khudyakovs – Shpilyovs families.
- to find information about our relatives who participated in the Great Patriotic War and to know what they were doing in those years,
- to create a project and to present the results of our work
The subjects of our research are our relatives (great-grandmothers and great-grandfathers), and the object is the Great Patriotic War.
The hypothesis of the project is that each person who participated in the Great Patriotic War, made an enormous contribution to its final result.
1) analysis of archival materials, including our family heirlooms,
2) the method of local history search
3) interviewing our relatives from the Khudyakovs – Shpilyovs families.
Chapter 1. The village of Ustyanka during the Great Patriotic War
Our families often talk about our family members, who are not alive, but the memory of them alive. And we feel that they are near, and we know them well. It is said that people live as long as they are remembered. The pictures and letters remember about our great-grandparents but they have become yellow with time.
Starting to collect information about our relatives, we have learned that they lived in the village of Ustyanka in Pyshma’s district. During the first months of the war almost all the men went from the village, left the women, the elderly people, teenagers and children. The entire burden of the village life fell on their shoulders. It was necessary to cultivate the land, to grow crops, to prepare feed for animals - cows, horses, bulls - the main traction forces in the village.
Each farm had an annual plan of submission of agricultural products to the state - grain, potatoes, meat, milk, wool... It was carried out under the strict supervision of the Commissioner of the district. They gave bread completely; to accomplish the plan even seeds were taken.
The village was abandoned, toned down. In families, especially in large, left without men, there was not enough bread. It was necessary to cultivate the land, to gather harvest... Working around the house and in the kitchen garden was carried out at leisure time from the collective work. The main horticultural crop was potato, which saved many people from starvation.
Along with nutrition there were problems with feeding livestock and especially horses. It was necessary to procure food for the winter. In the second half of the war it was not less important and problematic than harvest. The village and the cattle survived during the winter became alive with the arrival of spring. People ate all that they could take from the earth, starting with the potatoes, which were left unselected in the fall. Starch had a nutritional value; it was laundered, defended and dried, and then used in different incredible dishes of unwritten cooking. Pestles appeared on fallow fields – these were delicious edible shoots of horsetail, which were eaten by children and adults. Then strawberries and raspberries appeared. Boys and girls caught carps in the river Urmach by baskets and sieves.
In 1941 - 1942 school year classes in schools began everywhere from the 1st of October. Before classes teachers and students worked in the fields harvesting.
In 1942 evacuated people from Leningrad and other cities came to the village. They were settled in different places and worked on the farm or at school. The village and Leningrad’s children became friends and participated in all events together, aimed to help the front. Also they sewed pouches, knitted socks, and mittens for the soldiers.
Immeasurable hardships befell the people. There was almost no one home, wherever people received news of the death of their husband, son, father or brother. 92 people were mobilized from the village of Ustyanka to the front and 52 people never returned from the battlefields.
Now the population of Ustyanka is 67 people. In 2011, on the initiative of Slyozkin Alexander Alekseevich an obelisk was erected to those countrymen, who participated in the Great Patriotic War. Among their names are names and our relatives. (See Appendix 1)
Chapter 2. The Khudyakovs – Shpilyovs families during the war.
2.1. On the line of fire.
Like our friends, we do not know the war years, do not know the roar of cannon and the night wailing sirens of air raid, don't know what 125 grams of the siege Leningrad’s bread is, do not know the enemy captivity, do not know the sound of postman’s boots that brought the funeral... So the memory of the war is sacred as the memory of those who brought us the Great Victory. And we are proud that among these heroes are the names of our ancestors - Shpilyov Alexander Kirillovich, Khudyakov Fedosey Vasilyevich and
Khudyakov Dmitry Vasilyevich. They were born in the village of Ustyanka in Pyshma’s district in peasants’ families that lived not far from each other. They were simple people, but when the Great Patriotic War began and it was a severe test for our country they stood up for its protection. They fought on different fronts, away from each other, but the memory of their families and native village helped them.
Shpilyov Alexander Kirillovich
Alexander was only 20 years old when the war started. Its bloody horror treacherously broke into his young soul, heart, still dreaming of romance. Memories of that tragic time were so difficult for great-grandfather that he always told about them with great emotion.
Unfortunately, Alexander Kirillovich died many years ago, but there are some of his memories of the war, written by our relatives. That's what he talked about his military career:
"I was drafted into the army on October 16, 1941. First we were brought in Perm on "training". We were there from October 16 to December 20, and then we were sent to the front. First we arrived in Rybinsk of Yaroslavl region. Here we were issued uniforms, rifle and hence and we were taken on the train to the front line under Volkhov of Leningrad region to help infantry regiment, limiting the onslaught of the Germans at Leningrad. Our platoon, consisting of 36 people had to join the second company. From the station we went to the front on foot. I could hear fighting around. We moved carefully so as not to stumble on the Germans. Bypassing a small village our platoon was broken. I was wounded in the chest, and when I woke up, no one was around. I began to wade in search of our troops. I haven't slept in a few days; I was hungry and had no more effort, so I fell asleep on the snow. Waking up, I felt that my hands were gripped by the frost, they did not move. I got up and walked on. Then I saw a trail of wide skis and I headed for it. I actually went to the people, they were Russian soldiers. They picked me up and together with other wounded we were sent to the hospital by a horse. It was on 26 January 1942. In addition to injuries, I had a 4th degree frostbite of my toe. Then I was sent to hospital in Ivanovo, where I spent 6 months. After the hospital we made a convalescent, scored the team for training as medical instructors. We were taught for 2 months and then we were again brought to the front, now to the defense of Moscow, in Smolensk region. On this front we kept the defense. At first I was a medical instructor, and then I fought in the reconnaissance company. Once, when we went for the "language", we were caught in the crossfire, and then I got a hit in the head. I was back in the hospital in the city of Ivanovo and spent there 7 months. I had three operations. The wound healed, but I began to have epileptic seizures. With this I was demobilized. In 1944, accompanied by a nurse I arrived home. I was treated, the attacks stopped, but the head is still aching. The war has crippled me". (See Appendix 2)
Khudyakov Fedosey Vasilyevich
Khudyakov Fedosey Vasilyevich, born in 1910, served as a sailor on a cargo ship of the Pacific fleet. He raided between the USSR and the USA. The constant threats of enemy attack and frequent natural disasters have taken a lot of strength and health of seafarers. Only fearless, powerful, intelligent people were able to live in these terrible conditions. Such a man was Fedosey Vasilyevich. But the war took his heroic virtue, took many years of his life. He died at the age of fifty years, but the memory of him alive in our family. (See Appendix 2)
There are some stories about the military way of Fedosey Vasilyevich, but one of the stories has penetrated deeply into our souls. This story was told by his wife, Khudyakova Anna Mikhailovna to their grandchildren. During one of the sailings the ship of our great-grandfather was sunk by the enemy. Many hours the crew was in the water, sailors didn’t feel their bodies. Feeling the breath of death, they said goodbye to each other. Fedosey Vasilyevich remembered his home, wife, children, and his heart was pierced by the pain of knowing that he will never see them.
But the crew was saved by the Americans and they were brought to America. The life in the U.S.A seemed to the great-grandfather as a paradise. There was peace and tranquility; the local dwellers showed a very warm attitude to the Russian sailors. All sailors were admired by their hospitality.
Khudyakov Dmitry Vasilyevich.
Dmitry Vasilyevich Khudyakov was a partisan. He was born September 8, 1914, in a peasant family in the village of Ustyanka in Pyshma’s district. In 1922 he went to the first class of the rural 5-years school. In 1925 Dmitry Khudyakov joined the pioneers. In 1930 he graduated from Pyshma’s school of a peasant-based youth. In 1928 Dmitry became a Komsomol member. In 1930 he was elected the Secretary of the Komsomol cell. In 1935 Dmitry Vasilyevich began to work in a reading house. In February 1936 he was drafted into the Red Army. After a military service, he was sent to military school of infantry, and graduated from it as a excellent student of military and political study in honor of the closing of the 18th Party Congress. In March 1939, he was sent to Kamyshlov’s regiment and became the commander of a platoon of the regimental school. And in December he was sent to war with Finns as a platoon commander of the volunteer ski battalion. Here at the Finnish war, Dmitry Vasilyevich received the baptism of fire, gained experience that was useful in the battles against the fascist invaders during the Great Patriotic War.
The great-grandfather met the Great Patriotic War in Latvia as a commander of the infantry company of 524 infantry regiment, a part of the 51st rifle corps of 22nd Ural Army of the Western front. After the battle on the highway Opochka - Sebezh, not caught up to the other parts of the Red Army, Khudyakov’s company was deep behind enemy lines. Approximately 16 July 1941 they met with a group of the Red Army’s soldiers and commanders as they detached from their units. So, in a forest thicket near the town of Nevel of Pskov region a partisan detachment named after Chkalov was created. Soon it grew to 200 people. The famous Pioneer-hero Lenya Golikov was in their partisan detachment. In this detachment Khudyakov was the commander of the intelligence. He had managed to establish strong links with the local dwellers. It was the first partisan detachment on the Soviet-German front, operating in the deep rear of the enemy.
In November Chkalov’s detachment joined the 2nd special partisan brigade, in which Dmitry Vasilyevich became the deputy head of the intelligence section. In July 1942 on the shores of Lake Sig, south of the town of Ostashkov of Kalinin region, the 2nd special partisan brigade was transformed into the 3rd Leningrad partisan brigade. Six months later, Dmitry Vasilyevich became the commander of the regiment. The commander of the 3rd Leningrad partisan brigade was the legendary Alexander German. Their motto was: "To seek, to stalk, to destroy!"
The 3rd Leningrad brigade was the terror of the Nazis. Therefore, in September 1943, the Germans launched the largest punitive expedition against Leningrad partisans, involving 14 thousands of German soldiers with artillery, tanks and airplanes. The battle at the village Zhitnitsa in Novorzhev’s district on the 6th of September in 1943 was the hardest. In this battle, fighting off the Nazis, surrounded the command post, the great-grandfather received several wounds. The wounds were dangerous, so a gangrene of the left hand began. On 8 September 1943, on the birthday of Dmitry Vasilyevich, a partisan surgeon Vikenty Ivanovich Gilev in an incredibly difficult field conditions without anesthesia sawed my great-grandfather’s left arm off above the elbow with the hacksaw.
That was the end of a military Odyssey of Dmitry Vasilyevich. For his courage, heroism, bravery Dmitry Vasilyevich was awarded the order of Alexander Nevsky," the Red Banner, the Red Star, the medal "Partisan of the Patriotic War I degree", "For valour", "For defense of Leningrad", "For Victory over Germany" and other awards. (See Appendix 3)
After healing his wounds Dmitry Vasilyevich worked as the head of the Department of agitation and propaganda of the Communist party in Krasnaya Polyana of Leningrad region, then he worked in Dno of Pskov region. In the early fifties he came to Kamyshlov of Sverdlovsk region, where he lived until the end of his days.
In 2003, there was erected a monument to Dmitry Vasilyevich Khudyakov, and his grave is under patronage of the cadet school. (See Appendix 4)
About Dmitry Vasilevich Khudyakov, his military career, partisans exploits, courage and heroism there was written in the books "Not broken by the storm" by M.L. Voskresensky, "Leningrad in my heart", "Unusual raid" by N.V.Masolov, "Front without rear" by D. Afanasyev, "The Memory of stormy years» by F. I. Burilov, N.V. Masolov and others. (See Appendix 5)
There were published articles about him in the newspapers "Leningradskaya Pravda", "Pskovskaya Pravda" of Kalinin and Novgorod regions. Dmitry Vasilyevich Khudyakov was honored pioneer of many schools. The name of the great-grandfather is listed in "The List command and the political composition of the partisan formations and the most famous partisan". In Kamyshlov’s Museum they collected a lot of information about the partisan way of Dmitry Vasilevich Khudyakov and his activities in the postwar period. (See Appendix 6)
2.2. The rear to the front.
The second front, labor, remained the rear. No matter what situation there was on the war fronts, what mount did not compress the hearts of the people, it was necessary to sow bread, to gather harvest, to chop wood, to collect the parcels to the front, to give their scarce labor savings on the construction of war machines, to do a lot of other things, to write letters and wait with anxiety and hope. The war had a serious impact on the way of life in the rear, dramatically complicating it. Material - technical base of farms has dwindled. For the needs of army the best crawler tractors, trucks and farm horses were taken. People worked on cows. The mobilization of human resources to the front caused a sharp reduction of the working rural population. Instead people gone to the front they began to train new machine operators, field workers, foremen, mostly from women. Teenagers had to do the adult’s work. And those of the men, who did not get into the army after conclusion of the medical commission, were conscripted into the labor army for construction of productive areas for the evacuated factories and execution of military orders.
All people worked to win. Any common cause was required as personal.
The regional newspaper "Forward to Communism" №8, 1943 wrote: "In the collective farm named after Khalturin most men went to the front. Only elderly people, women, teenagers left. They took the entire burden of collective work. But they are as real fighters of the rear front courageously carry out all problems. Egor Egorovich Epanchintsev is seventh decade. It is high time for him to relax. But no, the old man does not know a rest. He says, "My son beats the damn German. So surely can I sit comfortably at home? I will help my son to defeat the enemy faster and then rest."
Even the children tried to keep up with the elders. They weeded the fields, digging potatoes, picked up the ears, sledding carry firewood from the forest in winter, sawed and chopped it.
Workers of the district actively participated in the nationwide movement to aid the front, collecting warm clothes for the soldiers of the Red Army and money in the Defense Fund, gave their earned savings on a tank column "Sverdlovsk Komsomolets", on squadron "Ural Ranger", on a tank column "State-farm work of the Urals» and on the construction of other military vehicles. They managed to collect 1 million 400 thousand rubles and to introduce them to the construction of squadron "Sverdlovsk farmer". In addition, all families participated in the annual subscription state loans, but lived hungry. Bread was not enough even for children. Quinoa, nettle, clover and other herbs were added into food. The words "All for the front, everything for victory" were not just a slogan; they reflect the thoughts and actions of each person affected by the war.
A victory was won by a high price. For those who fortunately returned home alive, the war never ended, continuing to remind by old wounds, severe diseases, early graying. How to measure how many strength and health were lost by our women, working weekends and holidays on heavy, not women's work? How to measure mothers’ sadness and tears of widows who lost their sons and husbands?
Khudyakova Anna Mikhailovna
Khudyakova Anna Mikhailovna, a wife of Fedosey Vasilyevich, stayed at home with three small children, but throughout the war she worked as a combiner. All men's work lay on the weak women's shoulders, but great-grandmother pulled this hard burden.
For her hard work she received workdays. On the farm there was not the salary. After obligations of the state farms distributed their income among farmers, proportionally to developed workdays to supply agricultural products. Moreover, the cash component of the income of the farmers on workdays was insignificant.
But, despite working in the field almost from morning till evening, Anna Mikhailovna had to do chores: washing, cooking, cleaning the house, keeping the garden in order just to feed her family. (See Appendix 2)
Ivachyova Tamara Vasilyevna
Ivachyova Tamara Vasilyevna was born November 6, 1927 in the village of Ustyanka in Pyshma’s district of Sverdlovsk region, where she lived most of her life.
She met the Great Patriotic War when she was a 13 years-old girl. Three elder brothers of Tamara Vasilyevna went to the front, so the whole heavy rural labor fell to her share. First she helped the adults to work in the field, on the farm, caring for the animals.
In winter, each farm had a plan to send people on logging. Therefore, when great-grandmother was 15 years old, she was sent on logging on the North of the region, where teenagers chopped wood doing heavy men’s work. Without warm clothing, with axes and crosscut saws knee-deep or waist-deep in snow, women, and often young girls, poured wood, fighting for the title of frontline teams.
Then, when Tamara Vasilievna was about 16 years old, she was sent to Sverdlovsk plant named after Kalinin, evacuated from the Western borders of the country. Life was heavy there. They worked under the open sky, frozen, starved, and were happy to have even frozen potatoes. People were dying, standing at the machine. But living people went «forth and up», «forth and up», and Tamara Vasilyevna was with them. At the factory she worked until the end of the war.
Tamara Vasilyevna bravely endured everything: hunger, cold and separation from brothers, who fought on the front, and mother, remained in the village. Our great-grandmother told us how in the first year of the war they received a death notices on brother Dmitry, and they mourned him with village dwellers. But six months later they suddenly got a letter from him! It turned out that he was contoured after a strong explosion and was covered with earth. Only one his boot was stuck out of the ground. Passing soldiers first decided that he was dead, but then «a boot moved». Dmitry Vasilyevich was dug up and taken to the hospital, after treatment he returned to the front.
After the war, Tamara Vasilyevna returned to her native village, was a foreman on a cattle farm. For her work great-grandma was awarded numerous diplomas and medals such as "Shock worker of the five-year plan", "Veteran of labor", "For valiant labor", "50 years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War", "60 years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War". (See Appendix 7)
Remembering those terrible war years, great-grandmother always told with tears in her eyes, "God forbid you to relive those things that we had to go through!"
The ninth of May is a special day. This is the day when we bow to the heroism of the soldiers and commanders of the Great Patriotic War, give glory to millions of known and unknown heroes who defended our country. This date is in the heart of everyone who knows the price of peace, who puts honor and freedom of our Motherland above all. This day is too costly to every Russian man, because there is no family in our country, which is not affected by the tragic events of the Great Patriotic War.
In the year of the seventieth anniversary of the end of the Great Patriotic War we wanted one more time to remember our relatives who lived in a difficult time. In our difficult routine all of us should find the time to refresh our memory of what happened to our family in those years. There are a lot of ways to remember the weekdays of the Great Patriotic War: stories of the living participants of the war, films, memoirs and works of art. But we have learned about it from the stories of our grandfathers and great-grandfathers, grandmothers and great-grandmothers.
In our work we tried to describe the life of only one family from a small Urals village during the war and its contribution to the Victory. But how many families were there in Pyshma’s district or in the whole Russia? From such family stories, a history of a great nation, our Motherland – Russia, is made up.
Of course, those who were born after the war do not understand many things, and they cannot feel what people endured during the war years. But it is in our power to keep the eternal memory of our relatives who gave us life, gave this free country, this pure heaven and pride for our Russian soldier. We must love our history, because without knowing of the past we have no future.
1. Tomatkin V. S., Cherdantsev I. K. Our Pyshma’s area. Pyshma, 1994.
2. The Book of Memory of victims of the Great Patriotic War.
3. "Memory. Letters about the war and the blockade. Leningrad: Lenizdat, 1985.
4. http://podvignaroda.mil.ru. Electronic Bank of documents "Feat of the people in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945."
5. Documents from the family archives of the Khudyakovs – Shpilyovs families.
A memorial cross in Ustyanka
A monument in Ustyanka
Shpilyov Alexander Kirillovich with his family. 1960-s.
Fedosey Vasilyevich and Anna Mikhailovna with their daughter Nina. 1956
Khudyakov D. V., a commander of the 3rd partisan regiment, acting on the occupied territory of the Leningrad region.
Shooting date: 1943 Location: Russia, Leningrad region
D. V. Khudyakov before leaving Granddaddy is 46 years. 1960.
for the Finnish war. 1939.
Dmitry Vasilyevich with his mother, sister
Tamara and his wife Anna. 1973. The opening of the monument. Kamyshlov.
August, 20 2003.
Books about the 3rd Leningrad partisan brigade
In Kamyshlov’s local Museum.
With my great-grandmother. 2006.
Awards of Ivachyova Tamara Vasilyevna
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