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Реферат «Подростки и книги»

  • Иностранные языки

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Secondary school №9 in-depth study of English





The study "Teenagers and the book"





By

A student of class 7

Secondary school №9

Valeeva Adelya



Director:

English teacher

the first qualifying category

Secondary school №9

Tsareva Elena









Kazan, 2015

Content

Introduction

1. Theoretically the basis of the project

1.1 The problem of children's reading

1.2 Forms of impact

1.3 What is a "good book"?

1.4 What is the use of books?

1.5 Reading aloud

2. The practical part of the project

Closing

Literature



Introduction

Literature - a part of life of any young mind. The book - the source of all knowledge is inconceivable without reading our lives. People read for different reasons. We read to get new information necessary for life, for work. Reading a break from everyday worries, distracted, expand their horizons. Currently, entertaining reading given the primacy. Man for a day experiencing a lot of stress, he accumulated negative emotions. Emotional stress. A "light reading" helps to relax and relieve stress, immerse yourself in another life, country, age ... Reading enriches emotionally.



This literature helps to live more fully. Man looking at books often what it lacks in life. Or in the book is a reflection of what is happening in his soul in his life.



Reading - is education, education. When the desired material is laid on the paper, it can be re-read several times to remember. The book keeps the scientific discoveries, historical facts, all kinds of necessary information. Good literature requires the reader thinking, feelings, of the mind and the senses. With book brings the reader himself compares his actions with the actions of the characters, looking for examples and ideals. By asking questions, "How the world works? Why do I live? Who am I? ", The man plunges into them, comes to understand himself, trying to understand their feelings and actions, a better understanding of other people. And it helps the literature. Topics of some books we remember for a lifetime, and reread favorite works again. And reading the book smart, good writers person learns himself properly and speak beautifully. The time it held a book will never be lost in vain. People stop to think, when you do not read.



The love of good books, the habit of reading, it is necessary to raise a child. And it is the task of parents - to instill a love of reading, let the child into the magical world of literature. Now young people prefer to watch a movie, read a book instead. But even a very good movie will not replace read the book. The film can help to perceive the book more emotionally, mentally, but not replace it.



Nevertheless, there are still fans to check out, but not so much. So why do some teens to read, and some refuse to even books in the school curriculum? How reading affects the development of the individual.



Objective: Understand how to read is reflected in the personality.



1. Theoretically part

1.1 The problem of children's reading



The problem of children's reading is one of the most pressing and urgent problems of the modern world. Literary education objectively longer influenced by destructive external factors which have proved particularly active in the last decade due to the development of computer and other information technology happens to be one of the consequences, loss of interest in literature in general. Simply put, children are no longer read, and therefore suffer and literacy, and intellect, and emotional and moral education, and many components of the harmonious development of the child.



The personality of a teenager - a very labile structure, is easily deformed under the influence of external factors and therefore of developing a specific set algorithm. In this case, considered a literary upbringing, education and development, as one of the external factors, in varying degrees, affect the particular personality of the child component, and as a result, and on the person as a whole, the opportunities and the specifics of its further balanced and orderly development and improvement . Literature, as a source of knowledge and moral and aesthetic standards as the translator of culture and traditions of society; at all times it was considered one of the basic components in the education and formation of a full-fledged personality. Conscious reading in primary school age is a consequence of the previously grafted literary culture, but in most cases the process of reading the child should always keep the outside.



The lack of interest in reading is often the main problem of the rising generation. Especially important to make reading an integral and fundamental to the full development of the child at an early stage of his life.



The state of the children's reading worries many experts, both in our country and abroad. In particular, this problem interested psychologists and specialists, consider it an important task to trace: the possibility of exposure to literature on the individual, the dynamics of the individual under the influence of reading; determine the status of the problem to date, and to draw conclusions about the possibilities of its solutions from a professional point of view. Study of changes of certain parameters of the individual in the younger generation as a result of literary influence allows to use these data for the purpose of psychological diagnostics and therapy of children of the person that will greatly expand the range of psychological control and influence. Giving characteristic of adolescence, psychologists distinguish social needs of this age: the need for communication and isolation.



The question of how literature affects the person's behavior and psyche, what mechanisms lead to the kind of experiences and, as a consequence - a change in personality characteristics of people when reading literary works, occupied the minds of many scientists and researchers from ancient times to the present. Philosophers, psychologists, literary critics develop their own concepts and theories on the subject.



Aristotle first drew attention to the uniqueness of experience in the perception of the tragedy and called it the word "catharsis". He did not give a clear enough definition of the term, so there are many different interpretations of it. Most full text of Aristotelian poetics responsible understanding of catharsis as a purification and enlightenment feelings. If synthesis of feelings and cleansing them from all petty and accidental happens when reading any work of art, the experience of emotional uplift and enlightenment feeling arises only when reading these, in which the writer allegedly humane, progressive ideal. Man - not only mental apparatus! The perception of the tragedy, according to Aristotle, is a process of "purification of the passions." Without the involvement of the concepts of "emotion", "value", "personal meaning" and so on. Not possible to understand the mechanisms of understanding the essence of literary and artistic works. The logic of the perception of a literary text - this is the logic of a particular reality of art, and it should be studied within the framework of artistic activity, not just a linear process of information processing.



In our country a long time did not pay sufficient attention to the uniqueness of the experience of works of art. Vygotsky in his works, considering the influence of literature on personality and a catharsis involves feelings caused by the perception of a work of art. A certain uniqueness of these feelings with him a few, and some of them are opposed to each other. This understanding of the uniqueness of feelings caused by fiction (catharsis), essentially reduces its impact only to exercise in emotion, as the net effect of reading the works - is the destruction caused in the course of reading the opposite emotion. Consequently, no emotional trace in the product does not leave the reader. Non-compliance of the above definition of reader senses the experience of the reader because Vygotsky deduced from an analysis of their particular products, without referring to the study of how the actual process of perception takes place in the reader.



Analyzing the work, he considers only the relation of form and content, ignoring the essential features of the product - that it is a generalized image of reality. Under the content he understands that life material, which laid the basis for a writer works. Full analysis of the shape does not give works of Vygotsky, and considering the impact of the product on humans, primarily based on the analysis of the composition, sometimes rhythm.



In his opinion, the shape of the work is meaningful, and that it expresses, is at odds with the content of the work (by which he means the living material). Hence the contradiction between feelings caused by the shape and the feelings caused by the content of the work.



For full perception and experience of art is quite immaterial to know what kind of life the material used writer.



Instrumental in popularizing the literary education and the study of readers' interests in terms of the psychology of the works played NARubakina - renowned scientist, founder Bibliopsihologija. "Bibliopsihologija is the science of the social and psychological impact of the book" - he wrote. And their science Rubakin squeeze biology, physiology, reflexology, he tried to bring a new science reflexology and biological foundation.



The first step in the study of books, the foundation on which to build the rest of the study, should be study of the triad, "the reader - the book (text) - the author." And the books live only in the perception of the person.



Secondly, Nikolai tried to justify the reasonableness of its approach and neurophysiological (neurolinguistic) point of view.



It is interesting to compare the "three steps" of studying the text NARubakina three stages of understanding of the text by AR Luria and AN Tsvetkova. From the standpoint of neuropsychology, and absolutely necessary first step in the understanding of any text is to understand the meaning of individual words. The second step is mastering the values ​​of whole sentences, forming a saying that first of all is the ability to understand the grammatical structure of the phrase. In the third stage of understanding the transition from understanding the significance of individual proposals to the understanding of a text; from the outside to the general meaning of the text, and the "subtext" that stands behind it. The success of this phase depends on the proper passage of the previous two. So, as each phrase, part of the text includes the contents of the previous sentence, you must implement the "infusion of sense" (Vygotsky) prior to the subsequent proposals.



So, based on the experience of researchers, we can conclude that the relationship between the personal and literary (the reader's) development - a real fact.



1.2 Forms of impact



Fiction, giving knowledge of reality, expanding intellectual horizons of readers of all ages, giving an emotional experience that goes beyond what could buy the man in your life, forms the artistic taste, aesthetically pleasing, which is in modern life takes a big place and is one of his needs. But most importantly, the main function of literature - is the formation of people of deep and persistent generalized "theoretical" feelings, encourage them to think, to crystallize his world, defining this world, transforming it into an effective force, guide individual behavior.



There are three main forms of such an impact on people's literature, the predominant form - layering of emotional and volitional impulses from various books read, the sum of these pulses in the net impact of literature on people, and they themselves can’t identify how each book they influenced. Another, less common, form of the influence of literature is that the hero of a certain product, forming an ideal setting and the basic personality of a reader becomes a concrete expression of this ideal and these basic personal attitudes, condenses his experience and outlook. The impact of such a character may take a long time, sometimes for life. Books that have provided this kind of impact on people, very few. Their analysis and statements about their readers showed that the condition of such exposure are some specific books of their features. First of all, the hero of the book is to set themselves apart from the heroes of other works, he has to hit its readers unique. Only under this condition, it does not merge with the images of other heroes can survive for long in the memory of readers and work on them by yourself, personally. Next, it must have special properties for these readers, and goals in life, besides those that are lacking these readers, or they are given a hero in the highest degree. But at the same time the reader to think that the dignity of the hero could be in one way or another they bought, what it can and should do the same.



1.3 What is a "good book"?

A society without books mired in utter chaos, degradation starts. I'd like to compare the book with food: A good book - supports a healthy spirit of man, the art of thinking and the ability to express their thoughts, bad - just ruining our minds and breeds disease. We should not only read but also read good books. But what is a good book? First, the book should be an exciting and interesting, after reading the first pages should have no desire to put it on the shelf. We are talking about the books makes us think and express emotions: love, anger, laughter and maybe fear. Second, the book should be written diverse rich language. Third, it must bear a certain (deeper) sense, not to be superficial. Original and unusual ideas, creativity and a special style of presentation make the book useful, too.



I doubt that this new series of books «After» based on fanfic 25-year-old girl Anna Todd. Also, do not only addict to any one genre or kind of literature in the rejection of the rest. So, hobby only genre of fantasy can turn young inexperienced readers goblins and elves who know the way to the Avalon is much better than the way home.



Well, reading the poetry of great writers, of course, it is useful reading. In the great works written in verse, there is disappointment and joy, love and pain, tragedy and comedy. In addition to aesthetic pleasure these works enrich our speech beautiful turns of phrase. You passed through an emotion and feelings invested in them by the author.



Good books - are masterpieces of classics. Works of Emily Bronte, Charlotte Bronte, Shakespeare, Jack London, Oscar Wilde I think it's also a great modern writers John Green, JK Rowling and many talented individuals.



1.4 What is the use of books?



In general, a new picture is drawn and a new "model" (a set of new features young readers) when entering the literary culture. First of all, this picture is extremely heterogeneous: and if in some regions the situation is relatively prosperous, the other negative processes occur exclusion of children from print culture.



The ratio of reading - an important feature, and it reflects both the fact that a generally positive attitude in students to read is stored, as well as the fact that the training load, often formal, scholastic teaching of literature, combined with other factors, lead to what happens rejection of reading in high school. The older the student, the more reading on school programs are closely Dosugovoe, leaving no time to read your favorite books or simply on the opportunity to reflect on a new book, get pleasure from the process of free reading.



I think that the benefits of reading books is obvious. Useful reading (reading good books) broadens the mind of man, enriches his inner world, making more intelligent and has a positive effect on memory. It is also important to read the book because:



Reading books increases vocabulary rights, it promotes the development of a clear and clear thinking, allowing to formulate and express thoughts clearly. Ensure that everyone can own example. It is necessary to carefully read any classic. Whoever earlier and "two words could not" notice, as it became easier with the help of speech to express their own thoughts, speak and choose the right words, notice that disappear from the vocabulary word-parasites.

Read serious works, it makes us constantly think about what the author wanted to express the idea, but it makes our Smart move faster.

More useful than reading books, by the fact that it develops logical thinking. Do not believe me? Have you read anything from classic detective genre, such as "The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes" - not unknown work of Arthur Conan Doyle. After reading in any situation people will think faster, the mind becomes sharper, improved observation.



Analyzing read, we wonder why this or that character is entered in a certain way, think about how to be in its place, we did what we felt, it seems as though this situation did some of our friends. We try on characters in the type described in the life of people, someone will know. Thus, we learn from the examples to learn psychology.



The useful reading books, people who are depressed? If you visit the gloomy thoughts, or you have something troubling, the book will help to cheer up and to overcome the sadness, the sorrow. Works by authors who have wit and subtle humor can help you, even for a moment, to forget about everything that worries you. Take, for example, some of the stories of O. Henry, who are renowned for humor and unexpected ending.



Another useful to read the book because they have a significant influence on our moral compass and our spiritual development. After reading of a classical work sometimes people start to change for the better.



For the benefit of reading can also argue the scientists who found that reading helps the human body to stay young longer. Ursula Lenz of the Federal association of organizations working with the elderly (BAGSO) asserts - "For older people, reading books is useful for several reasons. Firstly, the ability to translate words into mental images and forms a positive effect on cognitive function. Second, reading helps concentrate. Therefore, reading a book can be considered a universal way, to keep alive the mind, even in old age. "



Also read:



Develops thinking

One of the important benefits of reading books - is the positive effect that it has on our thinking. In reading, we think more, to understand this or that idea works.



Reduces Stress

In today's world, getting rid of stress - the main concern of many people. The richness of the language and the rhythm tends to calm the mind and relieves the body of stress. This feature helps read any fiction before bedtime.



It gives confidence

Reading books makes us more confident. When in a conversation, we demonstrate a deep knowledge of a particular subject, then unwittingly behave more confident and collected. A recognition of your knowledge surrounding a positive effect on self-esteem.



It makes us more creative

Creative people can generate several different ideas. Where you can take them? From books. Reading the work, you can draw out lots of ideas that would later realize.



Improves brain activity

In reading we usually many details: the characters, their clothes, the surrounding objects. It is also necessary to remember a lot of things that are needed for understanding the product. That is why reading the trains memory and logic.



Improves concentration

When reading is necessary to concentrate on the content of the product, without being distracted by extraneous objects. This skill is very useful in any other activity. Also reading books develops objectivity and ability to make informed decisions.



It protects against Alzheimer's disease

According to recent studies, reading really protects against diseases of the brain. When you read, the brain activity increases, which has a beneficial effect on his condition.



Improves sleep

If you'll read regularly before bedtime, the body will soon get used to it and then reading will become a signal telling the imminent bedtime. So you not only improve your sleep, but in the morning will feel more energetic.



Reading helps to communicate with people

Through reading increases not only literacy, but your language skills - the ability to clearly, clearly and beautifully articulate their thoughts. After reading a few classic works in you increase the talent of the narrator. You will become more interesting to talk to, especially making a big impression on the people who do not read at all.



As for the media, there is no doubt, it is best to read the paper of publishing - books, newspapers and magazines. The human eye sees better information printed on paper than the one that shines on a computer monitor, laptop or mobile device. Speed ​​reading a paper carrier greater eyes and not tire as quickly. Despite such strong physiological reasons, there are many factors that point to the benefits of reading publications.



1.5 Reading aloud



Reading aloud - one of the best exercises for the development of speech. Why aloud, and not about yourself? Because reading aloud - a speech practice, reading as myself - a silent absorption of information. Similarly, to learn to dance, to dance, and not just watch as others dance.



Reading aloud allows you to learn how to easily and accurately express thoughts, it helps to increase vocabulary, improve diction, intonation, emotional color, brightness, correct speech and its other elements. Reading aloud allows you to get rid of Tongues, hesitation, reservation, word-parasites and other speech deficiencies.



Usually written text, as opposed to spoken speeches, better structure, concise and contain no errors and small mistakes, which abound sounding speech, as the authors, unlike the speakers had more time to edit and improve the texts. Therefore, regular reading aloud lets learn to speak smoothly, as if by writing.



How to read aloud?



  • Firstly, slowly, in the optimal conversational pace, about 120 words per minute (read about ourselves we are accustomed to much faster, since it is not limited to the rate of speech).

  • In - the second, clearly pronouncing words.

  • Third, expressive and with an arrangement (with accents and pauses).

  • Fourth, the artistic voicing direct speech of characters, giving them a certain character. It is also important to say the tone of the text is not read as well as if you set out for your own thoughts - reading aloud, you do not "read" and "speak".

  • What to read? You can still row (poems, novels, articles, stories, manuals, legal contracts, fairy tales for children, etc.), but rather those works that are in your view beautifully presented, contain rich vocabulary and useful information.



How to read? The bigger, the better. Optimally - half an hour a day - then just a month you will see visible results - rough it will be more smooth, and you will easily choose the right words to express their brilliant ideas.



It is also helpful to write readable text on tape. Follow it helps by listening to note some of the nuances of speech - both advantages and disadvantages that people usually do not notice while reading. This feedback allows correcting it, to improve it.



Reading aloud - a great way to fill your free time instead of stupidly kill him. Cultivate the habit of reading aloud useful - and your speech always be in great shape, and continuous improvement.



In reading, I find only some advantages, but it is important to replace your reading is not real life. Everything is good in moderation.



2. The practical part of the project

I spent a small survey among schoolchildren. 7th grade students. And what answers they gave to questions.



















The results of the survey made it clear that students understand the benefits of reading. Many people like to read and give enough time literature, but some don’t read.



Closing



In conclusion, I would like to say that reading is part of our life. World of books - is a world in which everyone can yourself imagine what he would have wanted to be: a valiant knight, a beautiful lady, ordinary teenager. Reading adds color to life.



Literature



  1. http://www.rg.ru/2014/01/09/chtenie-site-anons.html

  2. http://inosmi.ru/usa/20120915/199230530.html

  3. https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A7%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B5

  4. http://www.adme.ru/tvorchestvo-pisateli/pochemu-nashe-buduschee-zavisit-ot-chteniya-579605/



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Дата добавления 01.11.2015
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
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Номер материала ДВ-113282
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